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Rheumatoid Arthritis And Diabetes Type 1

Disease-specific And Common Hla And Non-hla Genetic Markers In Susceptibility To Rheumatoid Arthritis, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Multiple Sclerosis

Disease-specific And Common Hla And Non-hla Genetic Markers In Susceptibility To Rheumatoid Arthritis, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Multiple Sclerosis

No. Abbreviated gene name Full gene name Function of the protein Associated diseases 1. PTPN22 Protein tyrosine phosphate An inhibitor of T-cell activation, contributes to signaling cascades (TLR, TCR, BCR pathways) initiated in immune cells, including B cells and cells of the innate immune system. RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), T1DM, Hashimoto disease (HD), Graves’disease (GD), vitiligo [53] 2. STAT 4 Signal transducer and activators of transcription 4 Part of the JAK-STAT signalling pathway, expressed only spermatozoa, myeloid cells, and T lymphocytes. STAT 4 is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation in response to interleukin-12 (IL-12) treatment of T cells, involved in T helper cell function. RA, SLE, Sjögren’s syndrome, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), GD, myasthenia gravis [54,55] 3. CTLA-4 Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 Cell surface molecule involved in the regulation of signaling pathways affecting T-cell responses. Activation results in decreased T-lymphocyte activity and regulates the immune response. RA, SLE, T1DM, Addison’s disease (AD), Vitiligo, MS, HD[56,57] 4. TRAF1/C5 Tumor necrosis factor-receptor associated factor 1/complement component 5 locus The TNF receptor associated factor 1 (TRAF1) is an adaptor protein, it TNF family members, to downstream signaling networks. TRAF1 is implicated in cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, bone turnover, cytokine activation. RA [58] 5. PADI4 Peptidyl-arginine- deiminase type IV The PADI4 enzyme is expressed in T and B cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes. It mediates the citrullination of histones(conversion of arginine residues to citrulline). Target for autoantibodies in RA. RA [58,59] 6. MIF Macrophage migration inhibitory factor A T cell derived cytokine, inhibits the random migrati Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Juvenile Arthritis In Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Prevalence Of Juvenile Arthritis In Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Large epidemiological studies of autoimmune diseases in children are lacking due to the rarity of these diseases early in life as well as their clinical heterogeneity. Now a new study of a very large group of children in Germany and Austria reports that there’s a clear increased prevalence of JIA in youth with type 1 diabetes compared with the general pediatric population.1 The study estimates that arthritis occurs in 193 out of 100,000 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, a pediatric prevalence rate that exceeds those reported in previous German studies (15 to 20 out of 100,000) or compared with the European average (28 out of 100,000).2-4 The study doesn’t address the mechanisms involved, but multiple genetic and environmental factors likely interact with each other to confer susceptibility to these disorders. “Both type 1 diabetes and juvenile idiopathic arthritis are considered to be autoimmune diseases, thus the observation that arthritis occurs more commonly in patients with diabetes is not too surprising,” says Mara L. Becker, MD, MSCE, who wasn’t involved with the study. Dr Becker is an associate professor of pediatrics and the division director of rheumatology at Children’s Mercy, Kansas City, Mo. “However, one has to be cautious of the generalizability of these findings since this population was restricted to 2 European countries. Thus, the findings may not be applicable to other geographic areas with different environmental and genetic factors at play.” The study included 54,911 children under 16 years of age who had type 1 diabetes, recorded from 1995 up to September 2013.1 Investigators compared the patients with and without JIA in terms of body mass index (BMI), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin dose, hypertension and d Continue reading >>

Recommended Diet For Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Recommended Diet For Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Adapting a healthy diet is the first strategy that should be implemented by rheumatoid arthritis patients, or anyone who wants to avoid this disease. It’s crucial that you nourish your body with a wide variety of high-quality, organic, and locally-grown whole vegetables. Apart from being rich in vitamins and minerals, vegetables are effective anti-inflammatories — perfect for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Adapting a healthy diet is the first strategy that should be implemented by rheumatoid arthritis patients, or anyone who wants to avoid this disease. Unfortunately, the majority of people today consume diets loaded with processed foods, grains, and sugars like fructose. Studies have shown links between constant consumption of sugar to disease like obesity, and chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and heart disease. This is because sugar feeds pathogenic microbes and weakens the immune system. In fact, excessive sugar intake is linked to 76 negative effects to your health, such as increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and autoimmune diseases (like RA), loss of tissue elasticity and function, and brittle tendons. These Are Essentials for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients It's crucial that you nourish your body with a wide variety of high-quality, organic, and locally-grown whole vegetables. Apart from being rich in vitamins and minerals, vegetables are effective anti-inflammatories — perfect for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Some of the best choices include: • Sprouts: these vegetables, which have just sprung from the seeds, are more nutritious compared to their matured counterparts. Sprouts contain high amounts of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and enzymes, and protect your body from free radicals and toxic pollutants. Plus, you can choo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Or Rheumatoid Arthritis - Conditions Put You At Greater Risk Of This Disease

Diabetes Or Rheumatoid Arthritis - Conditions Put You At Greater Risk Of This Disease

Cardiovascular disease describes a set of conditions which affect the heart or blood vessels - which includes life-threatening problems such as heart attacks and stroke. Rheumatoid arthritis is a long-term condition that causes pain, swelling and stiffness in the joints and mainly affects the hands feet and wrists. The National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society (NRAS) - has set out to help people with rheumatoid arthritis to understand why they are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease - and the impact the condition can have on the heart. Dr Holly John, consultant rheumatologist, said: “The increased risk of CVD for RA sufferers has the same level of severity as those who suffer with type 2 diabetes. “It’s astonishing how many people with RA don't know that their condition could be detrimental to their heart.” The NRAS has launched a programme Love Your Heart, developed in partnership with Dr Holly John. The organisation is making the programme widely available to everyone with this serious autoimmune condition so that they have the opportunity to lower their CVD risk. Dr John said: “Once aware, it’s very easy to manage risk factors from home with a healthier lifestyle, so Love Your Heart will be able to significantly raise awareness of this and help to address this major co-morbidity which can shorten the lives of those with RA.” It’s astonishing how many people with rheumatoid arthritis don't know that their condition could be detrimental to their heart While experts said it is not clear exactly why people with rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk, experts suggest people can reduce their risk of the condition by making sure arthritis is well controlled and even stopping smoking, eating more healthily and exercising regularly. People with diabete Continue reading >>

Original Article Lack Of Association Of Il-6 Polymorphism With Rheumatoid Arthritis/type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis

Original Article Lack Of Association Of Il-6 Polymorphism With Rheumatoid Arthritis/type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether the interleukin (IL)-6 –174 single nucleotide polymorphism confers susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) in multiple ethnic populations. A meta-analysis was conducted on the association between the IL-6 –174 polymorphism and RA/T1D susceptibility, using fixed and random effects models. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis: RA: seven studies, including six European and one Asian population; T1D: six studies, including five European and one South American population. There was no significant association both in allele and genotype comparisons between the IL-6 –174 polymorphism and RA/T1D in all study subjects. Moreover, meta-analysis stratified by ethnicity indicated no significant association between the gene and RA/T1D. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the IL-6 –174 polymorphism might not confer susceptibility to RA/T1D. Continue reading >>

15 Surprising Facts About Rheumatoid Arthritis

15 Surprising Facts About Rheumatoid Arthritis

Learning more about RA About 1.3 million people in the U.S., or 1% of adults, have rheumatoid arthritis. RA is different from osteoarthritis; it's caused by an abnormal immune reaction that attacks the lining of the joints and damages other parts of the body. More research is needed to shed light on RA's exact causes, which are thought to be a combination of genes and environmental factors. However, here are some surprising facts about what is known about RA's history, triggers, and risk factors. RA used to be a "wasting disease" In the past, people with RA were often rail-thin; exercise was thought to do further damage to the joints, so their muscles atrophied, says David Pisetsky, MD, professor of medicine and immunology at the Duke University Medical Center, in Durham, N.C. In addition, the chronic inflammation associated with RA causes weight loss and loss of appetite, he says. Today, medicines curb inflammation, and exercise is part of treatment—so RA doesn't have to mean wasting away. While exercise can be difficult (if not impossible) during a flare-up, activity is generally thought to help, not hurt, people with RA. Smoking may trigger RA Smoking is the most well-understood environmental trigger and may play a role in one-third of severe cases of RA, including more than 50% of RA diagnoses among people who are genetically susceptible to the disease. "Smokers who have a genetic variant known as shared epitope have a tenfold increased risk for developing RA," Dr. Pisetsky says. "We know smoking causes heart disease and certain cancers and many other diseases, but there is surprise about its link to RA." RA risk varies with geography The further you get from the equator, the higher your risk of RA. What's more, living at a higher latitude earlier in life—at age Continue reading >>

Deep Dive: Diabetes And Rheumatoid Arthritis

Deep Dive: Diabetes And Rheumatoid Arthritis

Welcome to our brand new series, DiabetesMine Deep Dive! In this monthly feature, we'll dig deep into a particular topic of interest related to living with diabetes -- with the aim of filling in knowledge gaps and demystifying some of the complexities. Our good friend and esteemed weekly columnist Wil Dubois, who lives with type 1 himself and works as a clinical diabetes specialist in New Mexico, kicks off this new series today with a dive into the issue of dual diagnoses with diabetes and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) -- and what that means for the folks affected. Deep Dive: Diabetes and Rheumatoid Arthritis “When I was diagnosed with diabetes at 17, I thought it would be the worst thing that would ever happen to me. I was wrong. The worst thing was when I started having RA symptoms," says Rick Phillips, a longtime type 1 who lives with RA and is founder of the advocacy blog RADiabetes. RA of course is short for rheumatoid arthritis. Wait a second, you say, how could having arthritis trump the emotional and physical toll of diabetes? Isn’t arthritis just stiff joints in old people? Not hardly, and not by a long shot. There are more than 100 types of arthritis, which broadly defined, is any sort of “joint disease.” (You can read up on the 62 primary forms here.) In the USA alone more than 50 million adults and 300,000 kiddos have some type of arthritis, making the arthritis population nearly double the size of the diabetes population. Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in the USA. About 2.5% of those 50 million folks have the flavor of arthritis called rheumatoid, or RA. Still, even at that low percentage, it’s the third most common of the 100 flavors of arthritis. (At the top of the leader board is osteoarthritis, and in second place is gout.) Interesti Continue reading >>

Molly’s Story: Struggles With Ra & Type 1 Diabetes

Molly’s Story: Struggles With Ra & Type 1 Diabetes

Molly Schreiber- raised in Fairfax, Virginia but has been in Baltimore, Maryland since 1997. She was diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes at the age of 9, in the summer of 1988. Molly’s father, grand-father, and cousin all have diabetes as well, so she grew up knowing what a challenging and frustrating disease diabetes can be. For years she managed the disease with test strips and multiple daily injections. In 2000 she got her first insulin pump and hasn’t looked back since. She is currently rocking a purple pancreas which is both an insulin pump and continuous glucose monitor. In case Type 1 Diabetes wasn’t a fun enough addition to her life, Molly’s immune system decided to throw in Rheumatoid Arthritis in the fall of 2011. This was a game changer for her and still is. You can find Molly on Twitter: @mollyschreiber, Facebook: Facebook.com/atjax, Instagram: @mollyschreiber and on her blog: www.atjax.net Daily Struggles with Rheumatoid Arthritis & Type 1 Diabetes When most people hear “Rheumatoid Arthritis” they think of someone much older than my 36 year old self. They believe the disease is from doing too much. The true definition of Rheumatoid Arthritis couldn’t be further from the truth. Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic, progressive, autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in my joints and can eventually result in immobility and/or deformity. At the time of my diagnosis, 4 years ago, I couldn’t walk down the stairs in my home because my foot joints were so stiff. I couldn’t wash my face with my left hand because my elbow was locked in a straightened position. I also couldn’t even stay awake for a haircut because of the intense fatigue. I’d like to say that, 4 years later, I’m doing remarkably well, but that would be a lie. In my four short year Continue reading >>

The Connection Between Rheumatoid Arthritis And Diabetes

The Connection Between Rheumatoid Arthritis And Diabetes

Recent research has revealed certain connections between rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. Both are autoimmune diseases that require diagnoses and ongoing treatment to give the patient relief. Find out more about the connection between rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes and what you can do about it. In rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system attacks the thin membrane that lines the joints. This causes inflammation, pain, swelling, heat, redness and can lead to joint destruction if the condition is not treated. Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce or use the hormone insulin, which carries sugar to the cells to convert into energy. Without insulin blood sugar levels rise and cells do not get essential energy. This leads to fatigue, inflammation, and nerve damage and could result in problems such as eye damage, kidney damage, heart disease and stroke. While rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes are not directly related, often the diseases overlap. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than half of people with diabetes also have rheumatoid arthritis. Research has also revealed genetic connections between rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes type 1. Inflammation is associated with both conditions. Levels of inflammatory markers such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are often high in those with rheumatoid arthritis and people with diabetes. A gene called PTPN22 has been linked with the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes type 1 as well as other autoimmune diseases. While genetics are beyond our control, early diagnosis helps. If your family has a history of autoimmune diseases including arthritis and/or diabetes, talk to your doctor about testing and preventative treatments. Rheumatoid arthritis does not caus Continue reading >>

Unstable Diabetes In A Patient Receiving Anti-tnf-α For Rheumatoid Arthritis

Unstable Diabetes In A Patient Receiving Anti-tnf-α For Rheumatoid Arthritis

S ir , Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cytokine well-recognized as having a significant role in the inflammatory process. Recent advances have led to the production of drugs that inhibit the action of TNF-α, producing significant improvement in the control of rheumatic diseases [ 1 ]. TNF-α may also play a role in other physiological processes. Prolonged administration of anti-TNF-α drugs is increasingly common in the treatment of rheumatic disease and also inflammatory bowel disease. Here we report on a case of an individual whose diabetes became unstable following the administration of anti-TNF drugs. Our case is a 55-yr-old female who has had type 1 diabetes since the age of 30. Aged 33, she developed rheumatoid arthritis. Having failed a number of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), she was commenced on etanercept (25 mg twice weekly) in April 2003 (DAS = 7.06). This led to significant improvement in her joints immediately. Having previously had stable diabetes, within 3 weeks of commencing the drug, she noticed that her blood sugars were erratic. She had a severe hypoglycaemic attack without warning, followed further by one more a few days later. After urgent clinical review, the etanercept was stopped and her glycaemic control stabilized. Despite commencing subcutaneous methotrexate, her joints remained markedly active, which ultimately led to her admission in October 2004. Her Disease Activity Score (DAS) score was 6.8, and after much consideration the patient was commenced on adalimumab. Within 12 h of administration, she developed severe hypoglycaemia, which recurred again 24 h later. The adalimumab was subsequently stopped. The patient has continued with severe active joint disease. She has had severe side effects with a number of DMARD Continue reading >>

Rheumatoid Arthritis And Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Rheumatoid Arthritis And Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (172K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References. These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article. Articles from Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group Continue reading >>

Identifying And Treating Diabetes Joint Pain

Identifying And Treating Diabetes Joint Pain

Diabetes and joint pain are considered to be independent conditions. Joint pain may be a response to an illness, injury, or arthritis. It can be chronic (long-term) or acute (short-term). Diabetes is caused by the body not using the hormone insulin correctly, or insufficient production of it, which affects blood sugar levels. What would a hormone and blood sugar-related condition have to do with joint health? Diabetes is associated with widespread symptoms and complications. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 47 percent of people with arthritis also have diabetes. There is an undeniably strong link between the two conditions. Diabetes can damage joints, a condition called diabetic arthropathy. Unlike pain caused by immediate trauma, the pain of arthropathy happens over time. Other symptoms include: thick skin changes in the feet painful shoulders carpal tunnel syndrome A joint is the place where two bones come together. Once a joint wears down, the protection it provides is lost. Joint pain from diabetic arthropathy comes in different forms. Charcot’s joint occurs when diabetic nerve damage causes a joint to break down. Also called neuropathic arthropathy, this condition is seen in the feet and ankles in people with diabetes. Nerve damage in the feet is common in diabetes, which may lead to Charcot’s joint. A loss of nerve function leads to numbness. People who walk on numb feet are more likely to twist and injure ligaments without knowing it. This places pressure on the joints, which can eventually cause them to wear down. Severe damage leads to deformities in the foot and other affected joints. Bone deformities in Charcot’s joint may be prevented through early intervention. Signs of the condition include: painful joints swelling or redn Continue reading >>

Inflammatory Arthritis And Diabetes: Managing Both

Inflammatory Arthritis And Diabetes: Managing Both

Inflammation is one link between arthritis and diabetes, but there are other factors involved. Almost half (47%) of adults with arthritis also have another chronic condition. Of the 52.5 million US adults with arthritis, 16% (7.3 million) have type 2 diabetes, and 47% of adults with diabetes have arthritis. Is there a connection? Does having one condition lead to the other? Inflammatory Arthritis Inflammatory arthritis is a general term used for a group of autoimmune diseases in which the immune system attacks a person’s own tissues – the joints but also other organs throughout the body. The resulting joint symptoms include inflammation, pain, stiffness and swelling. The most common forms of inflammatory arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) – affecting approximately 4 million people in the US. Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is also an autoimmune condition that causes the body to not produce, use, or metabolize the hormone insulin sufficiently. In a healthy person, insulin is produced in the pancreas and helps the body convert sugars to energy. A person with type 1 diabetes does not produce insulin because their immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas; although the reason why this occurs is unknown, genes and possibly viral infections are thought to be responsible. It is usually diagnosed in children and young adults. Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance, in which the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin. Technically considered a metabolic disorder, this type of diabetes is associated with older age, obesity, family history and other factors. In adults, nearly all diagnosed cases are type 2 diabetes. The Relationship Betw Continue reading >>

Analysis Of A Functional Btnl2 Polymorphism In Type 1 Diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis, And Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Analysis Of A Functional Btnl2 Polymorphism In Type 1 Diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis, And Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Abstract The aim of this study was to test whether the functional variant rs2076530 of the BTNL2 gene confers susceptibility to the autoimmune diseases type 1 diabetes (T1D), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our study populations consisted of 326 patients with T1D and 351 healthy subjects, 808 patients with RA and 1137 healthy controls, and 372 patients with SLE and 280 healthy controls. Genotyping of the BTNL2 gene rs2076530 polymorphism was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction technology, using the TaqMan 5′-allele discrimination assay. We observed statistically significant differences in the distribution of BTNL2rs2076530 alleles between patients with T1D, RA, and SLE and healthy controls (p = 0.0035, 0.000003, and 0.00002, respectively), but in two divergent ways: the G allele was associated with T1D and RA, and the A allele was associated with SLE. However, the polymorphism exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium with HLA DQB1–DRB1 haplotypes previously identified as predisposing to the diseases. When the BTNL2 polymorphism was tested conditional on HLA DQB1–DRB1haplotypes, the BTNL2 effect was no longer significant in all three study populations. The BTNL2 rs2076530 polymorphism is associated with T1D, RA, and SLE because of its strong linkage disequalibrium with predisposing HLA DQB1–DRB1 haplotypes in Caucasian populations. Continue reading >>

Rheumatoid Vs. Osteoarthritis And Diabetes

Rheumatoid Vs. Osteoarthritis And Diabetes

Though they both share connections with diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are related to the disease in different ways. Let's look at a few of the connections: Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, as is rheumatoid arthritis. In people who have type 1 diabetes, the body attacks the pancreas, the organ where insulin is made, just as RA attacks the synovial tissue lining the joints. Inflammation is the common culprit. Levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which often are high in people with rheumatoid arthritis, also are increased in those with type 1 diabetes. A study of people who had type 1 diabetes for longer than five years shows an increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), another inflammatory marker often elevated in people with inflammatory forms of arthritis. Inhibiting TNF-α with drugs such as adalimumab (Humira), etanercept (Enbrel) and infliximab (Remicade) is the goal of treating arthritis and related conditions. As scientists learn more about the roots of inflammation, some treatments for inflammatory arthritis may wind up helping to control other inflammation-related conditions. Researchers already are testing the possibilities. Reducing inflammation with Remicade improved insulin sensitivity in people who had inflammatory diseases and were insulin resistant, according to a small study published in the journal Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. And in a study of 70 people who had type 2 diabetes, the arthritis drug anakinra (Kineret) brought down the glucose level, improved function of the pancreas and decreased levels of CRP and IL-6. Osteoarthritis and Type 2 Diabetes Go above your ideal weight, and your lower-body joints feel the bu Continue reading >>

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