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Revised Diabetes Knowledge Test

Michigan Diabetes Research Center: Tools For Health Professionals

Michigan Diabetes Research Center: Tools For Health Professionals

The Michigan Diabetes Research Center (MDRC) has developed several survey instruments for diabetes patients and health professionals. By downloading the forms you are agreeing to acknowledge the MDRC as the source of the items in the survey instruments in any written instruments, reports, or publications resulting from their use or reproduction. Please select the instruments you would like to download from the list below . These instruments are all available in both Word format and PDF format. (Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print PDF files. If you don't already have Adobe Acrobat Reader, you can download it for free now.) Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes (RPS-DD) The Michigan Survey Instruments have already been translated into multiple international languages. Please find further information on the existing translations on Mapi Research Trust website at: . The DCP is a self-administered questionnaire that assesses the social and psychological factors related to diabetes and its treatment. The instrument contains 234 items and sixteen scales. These scales assess the patients' diabetes attitudes, diabetes beliefs, self-reported diabetes self-care, and difficulties with diabetes self-care. The DCP also contains questions concerning demographic information and self-care practices. Respondents can complete the questionnaire in approximately 30 to 40 minutes. Diabetes Care Profile (DCP) [ Word or PDF ] Diabetes Care Profile Scale Formulae [ Word or PDF ] List of articles concerning or using the DCP [ Word or PDF ] The Diabetes History form is used by the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center (MDRC) to collect basic clinical diabetes information from community-based patients involved in a variety of MDRC projects. The Diabetes History wa Continue reading >>

Revised Diabetes Knowledge Test Fast, Affordable Approach For Testing Knowledge, Self-care

Revised Diabetes Knowledge Test Fast, Affordable Approach For Testing Knowledge, Self-care

Revised Diabetes Knowledge Test fast, affordable approach for testing knowledge, self-care Fitzgerald JT, et al. Diabetes Educ. 2016;doi:10.1177/0145721715624968. The revised Diabetes Knowledge Test offers a fast and inexpensive means of evaluating patients general knowledge of diabetes and diabetes self-care, according to recent findings. However, the validity and reliability of the test may vary based on demographic characteristics of tested populations, the researchers wrote. James T. Fitzgerald, PhD, of the department of learning health sciences at the University of Michigan, and colleagues evaluated the reliability and validity of the revised Diabetes Knowledge Test in two separate patient samples. The updated test consists of a 14-item general test and a nine-item insulin use subscale. One patient sample was recruited by Qualtrics LLC, an online survey company (n =110) and the other from the University of Michigans division of metabolism, endocrinology and diabetes registry (MEND; n = 89). Researchers evaluated various demographic characteristics of the two samples to ascertain any potential differences. Validity was tested through four separate analyses, and scores were calculated by diabetes type, treatment type, education level and diabetes duration . Researchers found demographic disparities between the two samples with differences observed in all characteristics except age. Ethnic diversity and type 2 diabetes were more prevalent among the Qualtrics cohort (91%) while treatment with insulin alone (54%), receipt of diabetes education (100%) and more formal education (71%) were more common in the MEND participants. A combination of the samples revealed a more balanced distribution for diabetes type, treatment type and education levels. In the Qualtrics cohort, Continue reading >>

Validation Of The Revised Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (dkt2). | Pubfacts

Validation Of The Revised Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (dkt2). | Pubfacts

Validation of the Revised Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT2). Diabetes Educ 2016 04 14;42(2):178-87. Epub 2016 Jan 14. Department of Learning Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (Mrs Funnell, Dr Anderson, Ms Nwankwo, Dr Stansfield, Dr Piatt). Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability and validity of the revised Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT2). The original test was updated to reflect current diabetes care and education guidelines. The test has 2 components: a 14-item general test and a 9-item insulin use subscale. Methods: Two samples were used to evaluate the DKT2. The first came from an online survey company (Qualtrics, LCC) (n = 101) and the second from University of Michigan's (UofM) Diabetes Registry (n = 89). Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used to calculate reliability. To examine validity, comparisons by type of diabetes, insulin use and oral medication use, and educational level were completed. Correlations between diabetes duration and both the general test and insulin subscale were calculated for the UofM sample. Results: The two samples differed demographically. While the reliabilities between the samples were disparate, when combined, the coefficient alphas demonstrated reliability for both the general test (.77) and the insulin use subscale (.84). The validation comparisons proved to be similar; different results occurred between samples but when combined demonstrated validity. Conclusions: The reliability and validity tests were inconsistent by sample. The different results can, in part, be attributed to the demographic differences between the 2 samples. With the exception of age, the samples differed in every other measured variable. However, when the samples were combined, the analyses supported the rel Continue reading >>

Assessment Of Knowledge Of Saudi Female Teenagers & Their Mothers Regarding Management Of Type I Diabetes In The City Of Abha | Beshi | Journal Of Nursing Education And Practice

Assessment Of Knowledge Of Saudi Female Teenagers & Their Mothers Regarding Management Of Type I Diabetes In The City Of Abha | Beshi | Journal Of Nursing Education And Practice

Journal of Nursing Education and Practice International Peer-reviewed and Open Access Journal for the Nursing Specialists Assessment of knowledge of Saudi female teenagers & their mothers regarding management of type I diabetes in the City of Abha Salwa Ibrahim Beshi, Salma Moawad, Sahar M. Yakout Background: Diabetes is predicted to become the seventh leading cause of death in the world by the year 2030. In adolescence self-image is being constructed and diabetes self-care becomes an integral part of daily life. Diabetes management is better when parents remain involved in diabetes care through parental monitoring, a construct frequently measured as parents overall knowledge of their adolescents illness management. The main aim of this study was to assess the Knowledge of Saudi Female Teenagers and Their Mothers Regarding Management of type I Diabetes in the Abha. Methods: The study was carried out in Abha diabetic center. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. A non-probability, convenience sample of diabetic Saudi female teenagers (150) and their mothers (150) was required. The researcher prepared a two-sheet questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed from a modified Simplified Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT) derived from the Revised Diabetes Knowledge Scale, developed by Lloyd (2011) and Fitzgerald (1998), diabetes self-management and the day care diabetes education questionnaire. Results: More the two third of mothers 30 years old and more, and 46% their level of education secondary school and more but more than two third were home wife. On the other hand, more than two third of diabetic teenage were their age 16-19 years, and 50% intermediate school age. The teenager girls and their mothers (72%, 63%) respectively not participate at any classes related Continue reading >>

Psychometric Evaluation Of The Revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (v.2016) In Arabic: Translation And Validation

Psychometric Evaluation Of The Revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (v.2016) In Arabic: Translation And Validation

Psychometric Evaluation of the Revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (V.2016) in Arabic: Translation and Validation 1School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora West Campus, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia 2Nursing Education Department, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 3Specialized Diabetes and Endocrine Centre, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 4School of Science, RMIT University, Bundoora West Campus, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia Received 26 August 2016; Accepted 25 October 2016 Copyright 2016 Ali Hassan Alhaiti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Objective. To translate the revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test into the Arabic language and examine its psychometric properties. Setting. Of the 139 participants recruited through King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 34 agreed to the second-round sample for retesting purposes. Methods. The translation process followed the World Health Organizations guidelines for the translation and adaptation of instruments. All translations were examined for their validity and reliability. Results. The translation process revealed excellent results throughout all stages. The Arabic version received 0.75 for internal consistency via Cronbachs alpha test and excellent outcomes in terms of the test-retest reliability of the instrument with a mean of 0.90 infraclass correlation coefficient. It also received positive content validity index scores. The item-level content validity index for all instrument scales fell between 0.83 and 1 with a mean scale-level index of 0.96. Conclusion. The Arab Continue reading >>

Development Of New Questionnaires - Cathy.e.lloyd

Development Of New Questionnaires - Cathy.e.lloyd

In recent years we have become concerned that the questionnaires used to measure aspects of diabetes care, including diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy for self-care and mental health status, were compromised when the individuals completing the forms were not as proficient in English as other people. In our research in people with Type 2 diabetes from South Asian backgrounds many individuals speak a language that is only spoken and not written and rely on friends or relatives to support them in their clinic appointments. It is therefore no surprise that, despite a willingness to participate in research, there are challenges when it comes to obtaining written informed consent to participate and obtaining written responses to questionnaires. Thanks to funding from Diabetes UK, we have now developed several new questionnaires designed for self-complete audio completion in both English and 2 South Asian languages - Sylheti and Mirpuri. In collaboration with service-users from the local Bangladeshi and Pakistani communities, the Brasshouse Translation Unit in Birmingham and Professor Tom Fitzgerald at the Michigan Diabetes Research Centre, we have developed the following audio questionnaires: - Diabetes Knowledge Scale (multiple choice) - Diabetes Knowledge Scale (True/False version) - adapted PHQ-9 (translated into Sylheti, Bengali, Mirpuri and Urdu) - adapted WHO-5 (translated into Sylheti, Bengali, Mirpuri, Urdu). Full details of the development of these questionnaires can be found in the following publications: Lloyd CE, Sturt J, Johnson MRD, Mughal S, Collins G and Barnett AH. Development of alternative modes of data collection in South Asians with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 2008;25(4):455462. Lloyd CE, Johnson MRD, Mughal S, Sturt JA, Collins GS, Roy T, Bibi R, Continue reading >>

Diabetes Knowledge In Nursing Homes And Home-based Care Services: A Validation Study Of The Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test Adapted For Use Among Nursing Personnel

Diabetes Knowledge In Nursing Homes And Home-based Care Services: A Validation Study Of The Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test Adapted For Use Among Nursing Personnel

Diabetes knowledge in nursing homes and home-based care services: a validation study of the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test adapted for use among nursing personnel BMC NursingBMC series open, inclusive and trusted2016 Providing high-quality diabetes care in nursing homes and home-based care facilities requires suitable instruments to evaluate the level of diabetes knowledge among the health-care providers. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test adapted for use among nursing personnel. The study included 127 nursing personnel (32 registered nurses, 69 nursing aides and 26 nursing assistants) at three nursing homes and one home-based care facility in Norway. We examined the reliability and content and construct validity of the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test. The items in both the general diabetes subscale and the insulin-use subscale were considered relevant and appropriate. The instrument showed satisfactory properties for distinguishing between groups. Item response theory-based measurements and item information curves indicate maximum information at average or lower knowledge scores. Internal consistency and the item-total correlations were quite weak, indicating that the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test measures a set of items related to various relevant knowledge topics but not necessarily related to each other. The Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test measures a broad range of topics relevant to diabetes care. It is an appropriate instrument for identifying individual and distinct needs for diabetes education among nursing personnel. The knowledge gaps identified by the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test could also provide useful input for the content of educational activities. However, some revis Continue reading >>

Jd-new-onset Diabetes Educator To Educate Children And Their Caregivers About Diabetes At The Time Of Diagnosis: Usability Study | Bernier | Jmir Diabetes

Jd-new-onset Diabetes Educator To Educate Children And Their Caregivers About Diabetes At The Time Of Diagnosis: Usability Study | Bernier | Jmir Diabetes

In this study, we have demonstrated the usability of NODE in a university diabetes practice setting. Though there were no statistical differences between the intervention and the control group in terms of diabetes knowledge acquisition, the intervention group exhibited significant improvements in their DKT2 scores indicating non-inferiority of treatment and a lack of negative interference with the DSMES provided by the CDE. The diabetes educators did not communicate concerns regarding the use of NODE interfering with scheduling of their time with the patient and on a few occasions reflected that their educational interaction with the patient was improved by having an initial exposure to NODE. This benefit is important as NODE is meant to be used in conjunction with standard of care DSMES when a child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, rather than as a standalone iPad-based education platform. NODE was deemed highly usable by the study participants. This provides preliminary evidence that the NODE web application is a feasible intervention to enhance diabetes education for child-caregiver dyads at the time of diagnosis. Finally, NODE can easily be used at home after being discharged from hospital, and therefore has the potential to greatly increase diabetes knowledge retention, and potentially, long-term clinical outcomes for patients with type 1 diabetes. In both groups, the parents completed the survey and knowledge test but often there was a group effort or discussion in replying to the questions which involved the child. The DKT2 is not designed to assess initial diabetes knowledge and has limited capacity to test the specific material information in NODE or in any new-onset education curriculum. A pediatric-specific scale should be used in future assessments to det Continue reading >>

Validation Of The Revised Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (dkt2) (english)

Validation Of The Revised Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (dkt2) (english)

Characteristics of the Spanish- and English-Language Self-Efficacy to Manage Diabetes Scales Ritter, Philip L. / Lorig, Kate / Laurent, Diana D. | 2016 Validation of the Revised Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT2) Fitzgerald, James T. / Funnell, Martha M. / Anderson, Robert M. / Nwankwo, Robin / Stansfield, R. Brent / Piatt, Grecthen A. | 2016 Psychometric Evaluation of a Korean Version of the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS) in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Kim, Chun-Ja / Park, Eunyoung / Schlenk, Elizabeth A. / Kim, Moonsun / Kim, Dae Jung | 2016 Relationship Between Health Literacy and Unintentional and Intentional Medication Nonadherence in Medically Underserved Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Fan, Jessica H. / Lyons, Sarah A. / Goodman, Melody S. / Blanchard, Melvin S. / Kaphingst, Kimberly A. | 2016 Meaning of Illness and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Lynch, Cheryl P. / Williams, Joni Strom / Voronca, Delia / Walker, Rebekah J. / Egede, Leonard E. | 2016 Adherence to the 2013 Blood Cholesterol Guidelines in Patients With Diabetes at a PCMH: Comparison of Physician Only and Combination Physician/Pharmacist Visits Hinds, April / Lopez, Debra / Rascati, Karen / Jokerst, Jason / Srinivasa, Maaya | 2016 A Comparison of the Use and Quality of Antidiabetic Medication Regimens Between Non-Hispanic Black and White Adults With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes in the US: NHANES 2003-2012 Perez, Alexandra / Elrod, Shara / Sanchez, Jesus | 2016 Continue reading >>

Factors Associated With Knowledge Of Diabetes In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Using The Diabetes Knowledge Test Validated With Rasch Analysis

Factors Associated With Knowledge Of Diabetes In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Using The Diabetes Knowledge Test Validated With Rasch Analysis

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Factors Associated with Knowledge of Diabetes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Diabetes Knowledge Test Validated with Rasch Analysis Affiliation Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne Victoria, Austrailia Affiliation Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne Victoria, Austrailia Affiliation Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne Victoria, Austrailia Affiliations Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne Victoria, Austrailia, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore Continue reading >>

Modification And Validation Of The Revised Diabetes Knowledge Scale

Modification And Validation Of The Revised Diabetes Knowledge Scale

Modification and validation of the Revised Diabetes Knowledge Scale Collins, G. S.; Mughal, S.; Barnett, A. H. ; Fitzgerald, J. and Lloyd, C. E. (2010). Modification and validation of the Revised Diabetes Knowledge Scale. Objectives: To develop a simplified true/false response format of the Revised Diabetes Knowledge Scale (RDKS) and assess scaling assumptions, reliability and validity of the binary response format and compare with a multiple choice version. Methods: A total of 99 respondents attending an outpatient clinic completed the multiple choice version of the RDKS and the simplified version of the RDKS. The response patterns and psychometric properties of both questionnaires were assessed in order to test the construct validity of the simplified version. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 57 years (range 21 to 83) and 64% were men. Respondents attained an average score of 65% on the SDKS, compared to 62% on the RDKS. Item 9, on reducing high blood pressure, became noticeably easier to endorse, with only 33% of the sample getting the answer correct on the RDKS compared to 89% on the simplified SDKS. Conclusions: The SDKS provides the respondent with a simplified diabetes knowledge questionnaire with favourable psychometric properties. This simplified version will now undergo translation and validation for use among minority ethnic groups resident in the United Kingdom. Continue reading >>

Gauging Knowledge Of Diabetes And Self-care

Gauging Knowledge Of Diabetes And Self-care

Gauging Knowledge of Diabetes and Self-Care This test does it quickly and inexpensively The Diabetes Knowledge Test 2 (DKT2) is a quick, inexpensive way to gauge general knowledge of diabetes and diabetes self-care, according to an assessment involving 190 individuals. Investigators used 2 groups of participants, one from an online survey (n=101) and another from University of Michigans diabetes registry (n=89). Comparisons by type of diabetes, insulin use and oral medication use, and educational level were used to examine validity. Additionally, correlations between diabetes duration and both the general test and insulin subscale were calculated for the second sample. Although different results occurred in the 2 samples, when combined they demonstrated reliability for both the general test and the insulin use subscale. The validation comparisons were similar. Investigators noted that dissimilar results in the 2 samples might be due in part to demographic differences, as the samples differed in every variable except age. Citation: Fitzgerald J, Funnell M, Anderson R, Nwankwo R, Stansfield R, Piatt G. Validation of the revised brief diabetes knowledge test (DKT2). [Published online ahead of print January 14, 2016]. Diabetes Educ. doi:10.1177/0145721715624968. Continue reading >>

Knowledge, Attitudes, And Quality Of Life Of Type 2 Diabetes Patients In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Al-aboudi Is, Hassali Ma, Shafie Aa - J Pharm Bioall Sci

Knowledge, Attitudes, And Quality Of Life Of Type 2 Diabetes Patients In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Al-aboudi Is, Hassali Ma, Shafie Aa - J Pharm Bioall Sci

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The EuroQoL-five-dimensional (EQ-5D) scale was used to assess HRQoL. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. The brief diabetic knowledge test in questionnaire format developed by the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center and the attitude toward self-care questionnaire based on the diabetic care profile were used. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 8.4 years of a history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were in the age group of 4555 years with a mean age of 54 9.2 years. A moderate level of HRQoL (0.71 0.22) was recorded in the study cohort. The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 0.23 vs. 0.74 0.20). The mean score of Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test was 8.96 2.1 and the median score was 9.00. Of 75 diabetic patients, 14.7% had poor knowledge; 72% had moderate knowledge, and only 13.3% had good knowledge. The average attitude score of all respondents was 6.38 2.11. There was a significant positive association between attitude and EQ-5D score. Conclusion: HRQoL and knowledge scores were moderate in type 2 diabetic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patient attitude toward the disease was positive, and this was positively associated with HRQoL; most respondents believed they are responsible for their care. It is likely that a high Continue reading >>

Dkt - Diabetes Knowledge Test

Dkt - Diabetes Knowledge Test

Fitzgerald JT; Nwankwo R; Stansfield RB; Piatt GA; Funnell MM; Anderson RM Fitzgerald JT; Nwankwo R; Stansfield RB; Piatt GA; Funnell MM; Anderson RM To obtain a general assessment of a patient's knowledge about diabetes and its care Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire Fitzgerald JT, Funnell MM, Anderson RM, Nwankwo R, Stansfield RB, Piatt GA. Validation of the Revised Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT2). The Diabetes Educator. 2016;42(2):178-187 ( PubMed Abstract ) Fitzgerald JT, Funnell MM, Hess GE, Barr PA, Anderson RM, Hiss RG, Davis WK. The reliability and validity of a brief diabetes knowledge test. Diabetes Care1998; 21: 706-10( PubMed Abstract ) Fitzgerald JT; Nwankwo R; Stansfield RB; Piatt GA; Funnell MM; Anderson RM Existing translations can be obtained from Mapi Research Trust Click the 'Online distribution' tab in the left menu bar and follow the instructions Submit your request (Tutorials are available on our FAQs ) In order to accelerate the process, you may attach the Request for Translations (even if not finalized) to your online request. Click the link below for the Request for Translations template. Our PROVIDE team will get back to you with the needed information in a timely manner Commercial users: Industry, CRO, any for-profit companies Funded Academic research: Projects receiving funding from commerce, government, EU or registered charity. Funded academic research sponsored by industry fits the commercial users category. Not funded academic users, individual medical practice: Projects are not explicitly funded, but funding comes from overall departmental funds or from the University or individual funds Examination copies can only be used for the limited purpose of examining the suitability of the Questionnaire for subsequent Continue reading >>

Diabetes Knowledge Test: Topics By Science.gov

Diabetes Knowledge Test: Topics By Science.gov

Zowgar, Asim M; Siddiqui, Muhammad I; Alattas, Khalid M To determine the level of diabetes knowledge and to identify the main knowledge gaps among patients with diabetes (both types 1 and 2) as there is a high prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Makkah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and included governmental primary healthcare centers and hospitals from November 2016 until February 2017. A self-administrated Diabetes Knowledge Test 2 (DKT2) was used to determine the level of diabetes knowledge. It consisted of two parts: general knowledge and insulin use with a global score out of 23. A total of 942 patients with diabetes were enrolled in this study. Male to female ratio was 55.1:44.9, with mean global DKT2 score of 13.33.2 (57.8%13.3%). The majority of patients (66.1%) had average diabetes knowledge while 29.2% had low knowledge, and 4.7% had high knowledge. Better knowledge and significant associations were found with younger ages, high educational levels, longer duration of diabetes, and positive family history of diabetes. Patients' knowledge regarding diabetes was found poor in this study. Hence healthcare providers should pay more attention to diabetes education, especially with respect to dietary concepts. We are strongly advising researchers and physicians in Saudi Arabia to do similar research to determine the level of diabetes knowledge in their fields to get a more comprehensive picture of their patients' knowledge of diabetes. Knowledge of diabetes among patients with the disease in the United Arab Emirates is essential for effective self-management. We assessed the level of diabetes-related knowledge among patients and compared it with that found in previous studies in the same city. A cross-sectional study, usin Continue reading >>

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