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Review Figure 5.2. How Do The Structures Of Glucose And Galactose Differ?

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates have the general molecular formula CH2O, and thus were once thought to represent "hydrated carbon". However, the arrangement of atoms in carbohydrates has little to do with water molecules. Starch and cellulose are two common carbohydrates. Both are macromolecules with molecular weights in the hundreds of thousands. Both are polymers (hence "polysaccharides"); that is, each is built from repeating units, monomers, much as a chain is built from its links. The monomers of both starch and cellulose are the same: units of the sugar glucose. Sugars Monosaccharides Three common sugars share the same molecular formula: CHO. Because of their six carbon atoms, each is a hexose. They are: glucose, "blood sugar", the immediate source of energy for cellular respiration galactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt), and fructose, a sugar found in honey. Although all three share the same molecular formula (C6H12O6), the arrangement of atoms differs in each case. Substances such as these three, which have identical molecular formulas but different structural formulas, are known as structural isomers. Glucose, galactose, and fructose are "single" sugars or monosaccharides. Two monosaccharides can be linked together to form a "double" sugar or disaccharide. Disaccharides Three common disaccharides: sucrose — common table sugar = glucose + fructose lactose — major sugar in milk = glucose + galactose maltose — product of starch digestion = glucose + glucose Although the process of linking the two monomers is rather complex, the end result in each case is the loss of a hydrogen atom (H) from one of the monosaccharides and a hydroxyl group (OH) from the other. The resulting linkage between the sugars is called a glycosidic bond. The molecular formula of each of these disacchar Continue reading >>

Lactose Intolerance

Lactose Intolerance

Not to be confused with Milk allergy. Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk products.[1] Those affected vary in the amount of lactose they can tolerate before symptoms develop.[1] Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas, and nausea.[1] These symptoms typically start between half and two hours after drinking milk or eating milk products.[1] Severity depends on the amount a person eats or drinks.[1] It does not cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract.[2] Lactose intolerance is due to the lack of enzyme lactase in the small intestines to break lactose down into glucose and galactose.[3] There are four types: primary, secondary, developmental, and congenital.[1] Primary lactose intolerance is when the amount of lactase declines as people age.[1] Secondary lactose intolerance is due to injury to the small intestine such as from infection, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or other diseases.[1][4] Developmental lactose intolerance may occur in premature babies and usually improves over a short period of time.[1] Congenital lactose intolerance is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which little or no lactase is made from birth.[1] Diagnosis may be confirmed if symptoms resolve following eliminating lactose from the diet.[1] Other supporting tests include a hydrogen breath test and a stool acidity test.[1] Other conditions that may produce similar symptoms include irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease.[1] Lactose intolerance is different from a milk allergy.[1] Management is typically by decreasing the amount of lactose in the diet, taking lactase supplements, or treating the underlying disease.[1][5] People are Continue reading >>

Vi Describe Two Key Differences In The Structure Of Polysaccharides That

Vi Describe Two Key Differences In The Structure Of Polysaccharides That

vi Describe two key differences in the structure of polysaccharides that Vi describe two key differences in the structure of 100% (3) 3 out of 3 people found this document helpful This preview shows page 2 - 5 out of 30 pages. vi.Describe two key differences in the structure of polysaccharides that function in energy storage vs structural support2.FIGURE 5.2A.Sugars may vary in the configuration of their hydroxyl groupB.Glucose vs. Galactosei.Glucose and Galactose only differ by the positioning of their hydroxyl groupii.Glucose: hydroxyl group is attached to the 4thcarbon facing upwardiii.Galactose: hydroxyl group is attached to the 4thcarbon facing downward3.FIGURE 5.3A.Sugars exist in linear and ring formB.The linear form of glucose is rareC.Almost all glucose molecules react to form one or two ring structures called the and forms of glucose. The two forms exist in equilibrium, but the form is more common because it is more stable4.FIGURE 5.4A.Monosaccharides polymerize thru formation of GL B.A GL occurs when hydroxyl groups on two monosaccharides undergo a condensation rxn to form a bond. Maltose & lactose are disaccharidesC.Formation of glycosidic linkagesi.H2O connects via Carbon 1 and 4ii.Properly arranged glucose ringD.Formation of glycosidic linkagesi.H2O connects via Carbon 1 and 4ii.1 glucose ring is in the upright position while the other glucose is flipped5.TABLE 5.1PolysaccharideChemical Structure3D Structure2 Starch-used for energy storage in plant cellsGlycogen-used for energy storage in animal cellsCellulose-used for structural support in cell walls of plants & many algaeChitin-used for structural support in the cell walls of fungi and the external skeletonsof insectsPeptidoglycan-used for structural support in bacterial cell walls6.FIGURE 5.5A.Carbohyd Continue reading >>

Sugars In The Gas Phase. Spectroscopy, Conformation, Hydration, Co-operativity And Selectivity

Sugars In The Gas Phase. Spectroscopy, Conformation, Hydration, Co-operativity And Selectivity

International Reviews in Physical Chemistry Sugars in the gas phase. Spectroscopy, conformation, hydration, co-operativity and selectivity Get access/doi/full/10.1080/01442350500415107?needAccess=true The functional importance of carbohydrates in biological processes, particularly those involving specific molecular recognition, is immense. Characterizing the three-dimensional structures of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates and their interactions with other molecules, particularly the ubiquitous solvent, water, are key starting points on the road towards the understanding of these processes. The review introduces a new strategy, combining electronic and vibrational spectroscopy of mass-selected carbohydrate molecules and their hydrated (and also protonated) complexes, conducted under molecular beam conditions, with ab initio computation. Its early successes have revealed a uniquely powerful means of characterizing carbohydrate conformations and hydrated structures, the hydrogen-bonded networks they support (or which support them) and the specificity of their interactions with other molecules. The new information, obtained in the gas phase, complements that provided by more traditional condensed phase methods such as NMR, X-ray diffraction, molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics calculations. The review concludes with a vision of the challenges and opportunities offered by applications of molecular beam spectroscopy and their relevance in a biological context. Sugars in the gas phase. Spectroscopy, conformation, hydration, co-operativity and selectivity 2. Sweetness and light: Sugars in the gas phase 3. Experimental and computational strategies 4. The conformational landscapes of some key monosaccharides: glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose and xylose 5. Probing the Continue reading >>

Ap Biology Flashcards | Quizlet

Ap Biology Flashcards | Quizlet

Looking at the properties at the molecular level and then zooming out ex: photosynthesis can occur at intact level of plant, but not a test tube of chloroplast molecules the entire portion of Earth inhabited by life, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact, one or more communities and the physical environment around them all the organisms that inhabit a particular area a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed producing fertile offspring organs carry out a particular function and are organized into organ systems that cooperate for a larger function; made of tissues a group of cells that work together, performing a specialized function life's fundamental unit of structure and function the various functional components present in cells a chemical structure consisting of two or more units called atoms a type of cell with a membrane- enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles a type of cell lacking a membrane- enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles a nucleic acid molecule, usually a double stranded helix, in which polynucleotide strand consists of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine: capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins a discrete unit of hereditary info consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA the genetic material of an organism or virus, the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along w its noncoding nucleic acid sequence a form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process, a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts Continue reading >>

Monosaccharides - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Monosaccharides - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Larry R. Engelking, in Textbook of Veterinary Physiological Chemistry (Third Edition) , 2015 Monosaccharides (largely hexoses and pentoses) require no intestinal digestion prior to absorption; however, oligosaccharides must be hydrolyzed to monosaccharides before they can be absorbed. Since mammals lack the enzyme cellulase, they are incapable of carrying out the constitutive digestion of cellulose (which contains -1,4 glycosidic linkages). However, they can digest (i.e., hydrolyze) dietary starch and glycogen (which contain -1,4 and -1,6 glycosidic linkages). Sites for starch and glycogen digestion are in the mouth and upper small intestine. Most monosaccharide absorption occurs in the duodenum and jejunum. Elaine M Aldred BSc (Hons), DC, Lic Ac, Dip Herb Med, Dip CHM, ... Kenneth Vall, in Pharmacology , 2009 Monosaccharides can join together by condensation (see Figure 4.7B, p. 26). When sugars are linked together the links can be one of two sorts: either at the fourth carbon (14 bond) or the sixth carbon (16 bond). The bonds created between individual sugars can vary between the 1, 4 or 6 carbon atoms on each monosaccharide. This will lead to combinations that result in different chemical and physical properties (as shown in Figure 9.7). Simple carbohydrates: one to three units of sugar linked together. Oligosaccharides: carbohydrates made up of two to ten monosaccharides. Laurence Cole, Peter R. Kramer, in Human Physiology, Biochemistry and Basic Medicine , 2016 Monosaccharides occur with carbon chains from 3 to 7 in length (Table 5.1.3). Monosaccharides with aldehyde functionality are termed aldoses and those with ketone functionality are termed ketoses. For example, a 5-carbon aldehyde-type monosaccharide, an aldopentose, is both an aldose and a pentose. Glucose Continue reading >>

Ch105: Chapter 5 - Introduction To Organic Chemistry - Chemistry

Ch105: Chapter 5 - Introduction To Organic Chemistry - Chemistry

5.1 Pain, pleasure, and organic chemistry Habanero peppers (credit: ) Its a hot August evening at a park in the middle of North Hudson, Wisconsin, a village of just under 4000 people on the St. Croix river in the western edge of the state. A line of people are seated at tables set up inside a canvas tent. In front of a cheering crowd of friends, family, and neighbors, these brave souls are about to do battle . . .with a fruit plate. Unfortunately for the contestants, the fruit in question is the habanero, one of the hotter varieties of chili pepper commonly found in markets in North America. In this particular event, teams of five people will race to be the first to eat a full pound of peppers. As the eating begins, all seems well at first. Within thirty seconds, though, what begins to happen is completely predictable and understandable to anyone who has ever mistakenly poured a little too much hot sauce on the dinner plate. Faces turn red, sweat and tears begin to flow, and a copious amount of cold water is gulped down . Although technically the contestants are competing against each other, the real opponent in this contest the cause of all the pain and suffering is the chemical compound capsaicin, the source of the heat in hot chili peppers. Composed of the four elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, capsaicin is produced by the pepper plant for the purpose of warding off hungry mammals. The molecule binds to and activates a mammalian receptor protein called TrpV1, which in normal circumstances has the job of detecting high temperatures and sending a signal to the brain its hot, stay away! This strategy works quite well on all mammalian species except one: we humans (some of us, at least) appear to be alone in our tendency to actually seek out the burn of th Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates Flashcards | Quizlet

Carbohydrates Flashcards | Quizlet

What is the empirical formula of monosaccharides? What is the term for sugars with a carbonyl group at the end of the carbon skeleton? What is the term for sugars with a carbonyl group within the carbon skeleton? What is the term for monosaccharides with three carbon? What is the molecular formula for triose monosaccharides? What are some examples of triose sugars? (Hint: produced during glycolysis) What is the term for monosaccharides with five carbon? What is the molecular formula for pentose monosaccharides? What are some examples of pentose sugars? ribose (component of RNA) and ribulose (intermediate in photosynthesis) What is the term for monosaccharides with six carbon? What is the molecular formula of hexose monosaccharides? Are glucose and galactose aldoses or ketoses? What are some of the functional groups present in carbohydrates? When do five or six carbon sugars such as glucose go into ring form? What is the most important function of carbohydrates? What is the name of the bond which holds two monosaccharides together? What is a glycosidic linkage and how is it formed? a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration synthesis reaction Where is maltose found and what is it used for? found in grains and used in the production of beer molecules with the same chemical formula but with a different arrangement of atoms What are some examples of carbohydrate isomers? When in the dry state which form do five and six carbon sugars posses? How is alpha glucose different from beta glucose? In alpha glucose the hydroxyl group at carbon one is below the plane of the ring. In beta glucose the hydroxyl group at carbon one is above the plane of the ring. What is the structure of alpha glucose? (draw it) What is the structure of beta glucose? (draw it) W Continue reading >>

Bioknowledgy 2.3 Carbohydrates And Lipids

Bioknowledgy 2.3 Carbohydrates And Lipids

1. 2.3 Carbohydrates and lipids Essential idea: Compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are used to supply and store energy. When you are building and drawing molecules it is essential to remember that it's the bonds between the atoms where energy is stored. Organic molecules are often complex and hence contain many bonds. The background image is a molecular model that shows a small part of a cellulose molecule. By Chris Paine 2. Understandings, Applications and Skills Statement Guidance 2.3.U1 Monosaccharide monomers are linked together by condensation reactions to form disaccharides and polysaccharide polymers. Sucrose, lactose and maltose should be included as examples of disaccharides produced by combining monosaccharides. The structure of starch should include amylose and amylopectin. 2.3.U2 Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Named examples of fatty acids are not required. 2.3.U3 Unsaturated fatty acids can be cis or trans isomers. 2.3.U4 Triglycerides are formed by condensation from three fatty acids and one glycerol. 2.3.A1 Structure and function of cellulose and starch in plants and glycogen in humans. 2.3.A2 Scientific evidence for health risks of trans fats and saturated fatty acids. 2.3.A3 Lipids are more suitable for long-term energy storage in humans than carbohydrates. 2.3.A4 Evaluation of evidence and the methods used to obtain the evidence for health claims made about lipids. 2.3.S1 Use of molecular visualization software to compare cellulose, starch and glycogen. 2.3.S2 Determination of body mass index by calculation or use of a nomogram. 3. Glucose has the formula C6H12O6 It forms a hexagonal ring (hexose) 5 of the carbons form corners on the ring with the 6th corner taken by oxygen Glucose is the form of sugar that fuel Continue reading >>

Monosaccharide - Definition, Function, Structure And Examples | Biology Dictionary

Monosaccharide - Definition, Function, Structure And Examples | Biology Dictionary

A monosaccharide is the most basic form of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides can by combined through glycosidic bonds to form larger carbohydrates, known as oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. An oligosaccharide with only two monosaccharides is known as a disaccharide. When more than 20 monosaccharides are combined with glycosidic bonds, a oligosaccharide becomes a polysaccharide . Some polysaccharides, like cellulose, contain thousands of monosaccharides. A monosaccharide is a type of monomer, or molecule that can combine with like molecules to create a larger polymer. Monosaccharides have many functions within cells. First and foremost, monosaccharides are used to produce and store energy. Most organisms create energy by breaking down the monosaccharide glucose, and harvesting the energy released from the bonds. Other monosaccharides are used to form long fibers, which can be used as a form of cellular structure. Plants create cellulose to serve this function, while some bacteria can produce a similar cell wall from slightly different polysaccharides. Even animal cells surround themselves with a complex matrix of polysaccharides, all made from smaller monosaccharides. All monosaccharides have the same general formula of (CH2O)n, which designates a central carbon molecule bonded to two hydrogens and one oxygen. The oxygen will also bond to a hydrogen, creating a hydroxyl group . Because carbon can form 4 bonds, several of these carbon molecules can bond together. One of the carbons in the chain will form a double bond with an oxygen, which is called a carbonyl group . If this carbonyl occurs at the end of the chain, the monosaccharide is in the aldose family. If the carboxyl group is in the middle of the chain, the monosaccharide is in the ketose family. Above is a pict Continue reading >>

3.2 Carbohydrates | Texas Gateway

3.2 Carbohydrates | Texas Gateway

This section may include links to websites that contain links to articles on unrelated topics. See the preface for more information. In this section, you will explore the following questions: What is the role of carbohydrates in cells and in the extracellular materials of animals and plants? What are the different classifications of carbohydrates? How are monosaccharide building blocks assembled into disaccharides and complex polysaccharides? Carbohydrates provide energy for the cell and structural support to plants, fungi, and arthropods such as insects, spiders, and crustaceans. Consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio CH2O or carbon hydrated with water, carbohydrates are classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides depending on the number of monomers in the macromolecule. Monosaccharides are linked by glycosidic bonds that form as a result of dehydration synthesis. Glucose, galactose, and fructose are common isomeric monosaccharides, whereas sucrose or table sugar is a disaccharide. Examples of polysaccharides include cellulose and starch in plants and glycogen in animals. Although storing glucose in the form of polymers like starch or glycogen makes it less accessible for metabolism, this prevents it from leaking out of cells or creating a high osmotic pressure that could cause excessive water uptake by the cell. Insects have a hard outer skeleton made of chitin, a unique nitrogen-containing polysaccharide. Information presented and the examples highlighted in the section support concepts and Learning Objectives outlined in Big Idea 4 of the AP Biology Curriculum Framework. The Learning Objectives listed in the Curriculum Framework provide a transparent foundation for the AP Biology course, an inquiry-based laboratory experience, Continue reading >>

Haworth Projection - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Haworth Projection - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

John W. Pelley PhD, in Elsevier's Integrated Biochemistry , 2007 Carbohydrates (sugars) can be described as polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. The general molecular formula for carbohydrates is Cx(H2O)x where x = 6 for a hexose. The hydroxyl, aldehyde, and ketone groups are all potential sites for reaction and modification that produce carbohydrate derivatives. Carbohydrate length is denoted according to the number of monomers (Table 2-3). If the carbonyl is an aldehyde, the sugar is an aldose, and if the carbonyl is a ketone, the sugar is a ketose. The number of carbons is denoted by the relevant prefix, e.g., triose (3C), pentose (5C), and hexose (6C). Carbohydrates can exist in open-chain (linear) or cyclized (ring) forms. The open-chain form (Fig. 2-3), termed the Fisher projection, has the most oxidized O2 at or near the top. Physicochemical properties of carbohydrates include the following: At least one carbon is asymmetric, making the molecule optically active (rotates polarized light). The numbering of the carbons begins at the top of the Fisher projection (oxidized end). The d- or l- configuration is represented by the position of the hydroxyl group on the carbon farthest from the carbonyl (e.g., if it is on the right, it is a d-sugar). An equal mixture of d- and l- forms is called a racemic mixture. Sugars that differ at only one carbon atom are called epimers (e.g., glucose and galactose). Note: d- and l- refer to the configuration around the carbon, not the rotation of polarized light; the terms dextrorotatory and levorotatory refer to rotation of light to the right or the left, respectively. The major features of the cyclic form are Condensation of a hydroxyl with the carbonyl produces a cyclic structure referred to as a hemiacetal or a hemiketal. The flat, Continue reading >>

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5 Overview: The Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Macromolecules are large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms Molecular structure and function are inseparable Concept 5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks These small building-block molecules are called monomers Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids A dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis, a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers Figure 5.2a (a) Dehydration reaction: synthesizing a polymer Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond. Longer polymer 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 Figure 5.2b (b) Hydrolysis: breaking down a polymer Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 The Diversity of Polymers Each cell has thousands of different macromolecules Macromolecules vary among cells of an organism, vary more within a species, and vary even more between species An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers HO Figure 5.3 Aldoses (Aldehyde Sugars) Ketoses (Ketone Sugars) Glycerald Continue reading >>

Structure And Function Of Gdp-mannose-3 ,5 -epimerase; An Enzyme Which Performs Three Chemical Reactions At The Same Active Site

Structure And Function Of Gdp-mannose-3 ,5 -epimerase; An Enzyme Which Performs Three Chemical Reactions At The Same Active Site

Structure and function of GDP-mannose-3 ,5 -epimerase; an enzyme which performs three chemical reactions at the same active site Louise L Major ,1 Beata A Wolucka ,2 and James H Naismith 1,* 1Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland KY16 9ST, United Kingdom 1Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland KY16 9ST, United Kingdom 1Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland KY16 9ST, United Kingdom 2Laboratory of Mycobacterial Biochemistry, Pasteur Institute of Brussels, 642 Engeland Street, 1180 Brussels, Belgium The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Am Chem Soc See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. GDP-mannose-3,5-epimerase (GME) from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyses the epimerization of both the 3 and 5 positions of GDP--d-mannose to yield GDP--l-galactose. Production of the C5 epimer of GDP--d-mannose, GDP--l-gulose, has also been reported. The reaction occurs as part of vitamin C biosynthesis in plants. We have determined structures of complexes of GME with GDP--d-mannose, GDP--l-galactose and a mixture of GDP--l-gulose with GDP--l-4-keto-gulose, to resolutions varying from 2.0 to 1.4 . The enzyme has the classical extended short chain dehydratase/reductase (SDR) fold. We have confirmed that GME establishes an equilibrium between two products, GDP--l-galactose and GDP--l-gulose. The reaction proceeds by C4 oxidation of GDP--d-mannose followed by epimerization of the C5 position to give GDP--l-4-keto-gulose. This intermediate is either reduced to give GDP--l-gulose or the C3 position is epimerized to give GDP--l-4-keto-galactose, then C4 is red Continue reading >>

5.2 Biomass Carbohydrate Tutorial

5.2 Biomass Carbohydrate Tutorial

When the word carbohydrate is used, I typically think of the carbohydrates in food. Carbohydrates are the sugars and complex units composed of sugars. This section will describe each. Sugars are also called saccharides. Monomer units are single units of sugars called monosaccharides. Dimer units are double units of sugars called disaccharides. Polymers contain multiple units of monomers and dimers and are called polysaccharides. So, what are typical monosaccharides? They are made up of a molecule that is in a ring structure with carbons and oxygen. Figure 5.9a shows the structure of glucose; it is made up of C6H12O6. Glucose is distinguished by its structure: five carbons in the ring with one oxygen; CH2OH attached to a carbon; and OH and H groups attached to the other carbons. This sugar is known as blood sugar and is an immediate source of energy for cellular respiration. Figure 5.9b shows galactose next to glucose, and we can see that galactose is almost like glucose, except on the No. 4 carbon the OH and H are an isomer and just slightly different (highlighted in red on the galactose molecule). Galactose is a sugar monomer in milk and yogurt. Figure 5.9c shows fructose; while it still has a similar chemical formula as glucose (C6H12O5), it is a five membered ring with carbons and oxygens, but two CH2OH groups. This is a sugar found in honey and fruits. Figure 5.9a: Glucose structure with carbons numbered. Continue reading >>

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