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Relationship Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes And Obesity

Diabetes And Obesity

Tweet The UK currently ranks as the country with the highest level of obesity in Europe, with more than 1 in 4 (28.1%) adults obese and nearly two out of three (63.4%) overweight. Over the next 20 years, the number of obese adults in the country is forecast to soar to 26 million people. According to health experts, such a rise would result in more than a million extra cases of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer.[10] Obesity is also no longer a condition that just affects older people, although the likelihood does increase with age, and increasing numbers of young people have been diagnosed with obesity. Data from Public Health England suggests that nearly a third (31.2%) of children aged 2 to 15 years old are obese. Links between obesity and type 2 diabetes While the exact causes of diabetes are still not fully understood, it is known that factors up the risk of developing different types of diabetes mellitus. For type 2 diabetes, this includes being overweight or obese (having a body mass index - BMI - of 30 or greater). In fact, obesity is believed to account for 80-85% of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while recent research suggests that obese people are up to 80 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those with a BMI of less than 22. How does obesity cause type 2 diabetes? It is a well-known fact that if you are overweight or obese, you are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes, particularly if you have excess weight around your tummy (abdomen). Inflammatory response Studies suggest that abdominal fat causes fat cells to release ‘pro-inflammatory’ chemicals, which can make the body less sensitive to the insulin it produces by disrupting the function of insulin responsive cells and their ability to respond to insulin. This is kn Continue reading >>

An Introduction To The Link Between Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity

An Introduction To The Link Between Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity

“Even ambrosia can turn into poison when consumed beyond limits” is a common saying I often hear. Just as the saying goes, the food that we consume every day and the sugar content present within these foods are vital for our survival and “fuel us” by providing the energy we need. However, when the food and sugar we consume increase beyond healthy limits, obesity and diabetes may result. Diabetes and obesity cases are increasing worldwide at an alarmingly high rate [1, 2]. Studies have shown that Type 2 Diabetes and obesity are highly interlinked. Obesity is one of the main risk factors for developing Type 2 Diabetes. A study conducted in 2014 in the United Kingdom revealed that more than 80% of Type 2 Diabetes patients are also obese [3]. How does our body react to sugar? Type 2 Diabetes is a disorder characterised by increased blood sugar levels [2]. Sugar enters our bloodstream when we consume foods rich in carbohydrates. Sugar is one of the main components of our diet that provides us with energy. Immediately after we eat a meal, the sugar level in our blood will “spike”. Don’t worry, this is normal and will even occur in healthy individuals. Our body then secretes a protein called insulin into the blood for our cells (especially our muscle, fat and liver cells) to take up the sugar from the bloodstream. The secreted insulin attaches to cell surface receptors and forms channels for the cells to take up the sugar, eventually returning our blood sugar to baseline levels [4]. The onset of Type 2 Diabetes Insulin resistance occurs when the cells in our body stop responding adequately to the insulin secreted, which leaves sugar circulating in our bloodstream rather than being stored for further use in our muscle, fat or liver cells. Insulin resistance is one Continue reading >>

More Evidence Ties Childhood Obesity To Type 2 Diabetes In Kids

More Evidence Ties Childhood Obesity To Type 2 Diabetes In Kids

(Reuters Health) - Rates of type 2 diabetes among children in the UK have been rising, and tracking along with increased obesity and severe obesity, researchers say. Based on data for hundreds of thousands of UK children and teens, the study found that obese kids were four times as likely as normal weight children to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, which has already been linked to obesity in adults. “Obesity is a major global health issue. More than half of adults and one out of three children leaving primary school are now overweight or obese,” said lead study author Ali Abbasi of King’s College London. More than 12 million children and teens in the United States are considered obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About 3,600 cases of type 2 diabetes are diagnosed in children and teens each year in the U.S. “The rapidity of the increase in type 2 diabetes is a real concern, which may have an important impact on the health of future generations,” Abbasi told Reuters Health by email. Abbasi and colleagues looked at records from 375 doctors’ offices across the UK for the years 1994 through 2013. They analyzed data from 369,362 patients between ages 2 and 15, tracking new cases of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and comparing them to children’s body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight relative to height, over time. There were 654 type 2 diabetes cases and 1,318 type 1 diabetes cases diagnosed during the study period. The incidence of type 2 diabetes among the children rose from 6.4 cases per 100,000 people per year in 1994 - 1998 to 33.2 cases per 100,000 per year in 2009 - 2013, the study team reports in Journal of the Endocrine Society. The increase took place primarily among overweight and obese children, and the greates Continue reading >>

Obesity In The Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes

Obesity In The Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes

Obesity, and especially visceral adiposity, escalates the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Excess adipose tissue contributes to a chronic increase in circulating fatty acids reducing the usage of glucose as a source of cellular energy. Excess fatty acids also result in increased deposition of fat in muscle and liver, and increased metabolites such as diacylglycerol and ceramide which activate isoforms of protein kinase C that impede cellular insulin signalling. Chronically raised lipid levels also impair islet beta cell function, acting in conjuction with insulin resistance to aggravate hyperglycaemia. The detrimental effects of several adipokines such as TNFα, IL6 and RBP4, which are produced in excess by an increased adipose mass, and reduced production of adiponectin are further mechanisms through which obesity potentiates the development of type 2 diabetes. Continue reading >>

31. The Relationship Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes—the Role Of Gut Factors

31. The Relationship Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes—the Role Of Gut Factors

With the introduction of incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes, it is clear that there are alterations in gut hormones that affect glycemia. Gut hormones have important roles in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and insulin secretion. There is also emerging understanding of the role gut microbiota play in modulating physiologic processes contributing to human health. The precise role that the gut microbiota play in obesity and diabetes is still being evaluated; however, it likely involves differences in the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota among individuals leading to pathophysiologic changes such as varied energy harvest from the diet and low-grade chronic inflammation (due to intestinal permeability) which may contribute to insulin resistance. In this chapter, the focus will be on the role of gut factors, specifically gut hormones and the gut microbiota, which contribute to the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Continue reading >>

Silent Killer: The Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Silent Killer: The Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Play Video Play Mute Current Time 0:00 / Duration Time 0:00 Loaded: 0% 0:00 Progress: 0% 0:00 Progress: 0% Stream TypeLIVE Remaining Time -0:00 Playback Rate 1 Chapters Chapters descriptions off, selected Descriptions subtitles off, selected Subtitles captions settings, opens captions settings dialog captions off, selected Captions Audio Track Fullscreen This is a modal window. Caption Settings Dialog Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaque Font Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400% Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadow Font FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall Caps DefaultsDone Media Player Error Reloading media in seconds Unable to reload media Please contact technical support CBN.com - Obesity is one of the biggest generators of silent inflammation. Since nearly two-thirds of Americans are now overweight, this means that the epidemic of silent inflammation is also out of control. By the same token, our diabetes epidemic has grown by 33 percent in the last decade. It should come as no surprise that all three epidemics have worsened in recent years. All three are intricately connected with a condition known as insulin resistance. Insulin resistance occurs when your cells become less responsive to the actions of insulin, forcing your pancreas to continuously produce more insulin to drive glucose into cells. This excess insulin (produced as that response to insulin resistance) also increases th Continue reading >>

Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes.

Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes.

Abstract The relationship between obesity and diabetes is of such interdependence that the term 'diabesity' has been coined. The passage from obesity to diabetes is made by a progressive defect in insulin secretion coupled with a progressive rise in insulin resistance. Both insulin resistance and defective insulin secretion appear very prematurely in obese patients, and both worsen similarly towards diabetes. Thus, the classic 'hyperbolic relationship' between insulin resistance and insulin secretion and the 'glucose allostasis concept' remain prevailing concepts in this particular field of knowledge. An increase in overall fatness, preferentially of visceral as well as ectopic fat depots, is specifically associated with insulin resistance. The accumulation of intramyocellular lipids may be due to reduced lipid oxidation capacity. The ability to lose weight is related to the capacity to oxidize fat. Thus, a relative defect in fat oxidation capacity is responsible for energy economy and hampered weight loss. Continue reading >>

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes: What Can Be Unified And What Needs To Be Individualized?

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes: What Can Be Unified And What Needs To Be Individualized?

Most patients with type 2 diabetes are obese, and the global epidemic of obesity largely explains the dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes over the past 20 years. Currently, over a third (34%) of U.S. adults are obese (defined as BMI >30 kg/m2), and over 11% of people aged ≥20 years have diabetes (1), a prevalence projected to increase to 21% by 2050 (2). However, the precise mechanisms linking the two conditions remain unclear, as does our understanding of interindividual differences. Improved understanding will help advance identification and development of effective treatment options. Excess weight is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, yet most obese individuals do not develop type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have identified “links” between obesity and type 2 diabetes involving proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6), insulin resistance, deranged fatty acid metabolism, and cellular processes such as mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress. These interactions are complex, with the relative importance of each unclearly defined. Further genetic studies may elucidate additional common pathophysiological pathways for obesity and diabetes and identify promising new treatment targets. As physicians frequently prescribe glucose-lowering medications associated with weight gain, trade-offs between glycemic control and body weight with current therapeutic options need more consideration. This issue is particularly pressing given accumulating evidence that even modest weight reduction—whether through lifestyle/behavioral interventions, obesity medications, or bariatric surgery—can improve glycemic control and reduce diabetes risk. These intriguing, but still largely unexplored, c Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Hypertension

Type 2 Diabetes And Hypertension

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a condition that’s often present in people with type 2 diabetes. It’s unknown why there’s such a significant correlation between the two diseases. It’s believed that obesity, a diet high in fat and sodium, and inactivity contribute to both conditions. Hypertension is known as a “silent killer” because it has no obvious symptoms and many people are unaware that they have it. A 2013 survey by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) found that fewer than half of people at risk for heart disease or type 2 diabetes reported discussing biomarkers, including blood pressure, with their care providers. If you have hypertension, it means that your blood is pumping through your heart and blood vessels with too much force. Over time, consistently high blood pressure tires the heart muscle and can enlarge it. In 2008, 67 percent of adults aged 20 and over with self-reported diabetes had blood pressure rates of greater than 140/90. In the general population and in people with diabetes, a blood pressure reading of less than or equal to 140/90 is considered normal. What does this mean? The first number (140) is called the systolic pressure. It indicates the highest pressure exerted as blood pushes through your heart. The second number (90) is called the diastolic pressure. This is the pressure maintained by the arteries when the vessels are relaxed between heartbeats. Healthy people should get their blood pressure checked several times a year. People with diabetes need to be even more vigilant. If you have diabetes, you should have your pressure checked at least four times each year. If you have diabetes and high blood pressure, the ADA recommends that you self-monitor at home, record the readings, and share them with your doctor. Ac Continue reading >>

Association Between Obesity Indices And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Middle-aged And Elderly People In Jinan, China: A Cross-sectional Study

Association Between Obesity Indices And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Middle-aged And Elderly People In Jinan, China: A Cross-sectional Study

Background The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies with geographical area and race. Objectives To investigate the prevalence of T2DM and the proportion of subjects with undiagnosed T2DM. In addition, to compare the associations between different obesity indices and T2DM for middle-aged and elderly people from six communities in Jinan, China. Setting A cross-sectional study was designed and the study subjects were chosen from blocks which were randomly selected in the 6 communities of Jinan, China in 2011–2012. Participants A total of 3277 residents aged ≥50 years were eligible for this study, but 1563 people were excluded because they did not provide anthropometric data such as height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) or information about their current medication use. Hence, 1714 participants were included in the final data analysis. Results The prevalence of T2DM among people aged ≥50 years was 16.6% (19.3% for men and 15.3% for women) and the proportion of patients with undiagnosed T2DM was 32.7%. Compared with the lowest levels of body mass index (BMI), WC, waist-to-hip ratio or waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), the ORs and 95% CIs of the highest levels for men, after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, hypertension, TG and TC, were 1.607 (0.804 to 3.210), 2.189 (1.118 to 4.285), 1.873 (0.968 to 3.623) and 2.572 (1.301 to 5.083), respectively, and for women, 2.764 (1.622 to 4.712), 2.407 (1.455 to 3.985), 2.500 (1.484 to 4.211) and 2.452 (1.447 to 4.155), respectively. Conclusions Among adults aged ≥50 years in Jinan, China, the best indicator of the relationship be Continue reading >>

Molecular Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Reveals Potential Therapy

Molecular Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Reveals Potential Therapy

Inflammatory molecule LTB4 promotes insulin resistance in obese mice and blocking the LTB4 receptor prevents and reverses type 2 diabetes in this model Obesity causes inflammation, which can in turn lead to type 2 diabetes. What isn’t well established is how inflammation causes diabetes — or what we can do to stop it. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that the inflammatory molecule LTB4 promotes insulin resistance, a first step in developing type 2 diabetes. What’s more, the team found that genetically removing the cell receptor that responds to LTB4, or blocking it with a drug, improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice. The study is published Feb. 23 by Nature Medicine. “This study is important because it reveals a root cause of type 2 diabetes,” said Jerrold M. Olefsky, MD, professor of medicine, associate dean for scientific affairs and senior author of the study. “And now that we understand that LTB4 is the inflammatory factor causing insulin resistance, we can inhibit it to break the link between obesity and diabetes.” Here’s what’s happening in obesity, according to Olefsky’s study. Extra fat, particularly in the liver, activates resident macrophages, the immune cells living there. These macrophages then do what they’re supposed to do when activated — release LTB4 and other immune signaling molecules to call up an influx of new macrophages. Then, in a positive feedback loop, the newly arriving macrophages also get activated and release even more LTB4 in the liver. This inflammatory response would be a good thing if the body was fighting off an infection. But when inflammation is chronic, as is the case in obesity, all of this extra LTB4 starts activating other cells, too. Like macrophages Continue reading >>

Your Weight And Diabetes

Your Weight And Diabetes

Diabetes is a group of disorders characterized by chronic high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to the body's failure to produce any or enough insulin to regulate high glucose levels. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, which often occurs in children or adolescents, is caused by the body's inability to make insulin or type 2 diabetes, which occurs as a result of the body's inability to react properly to insulin (insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than type 1 diabetes and is therefore seen in roughly 90% of all diabetes cases. Type 2 diabetes is predominantly diagnosed after the age of forty, however, it is now being found in all age ranges, including children and adolescents. The impact of diabetes goes beyond chronic hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness (diabetic retinopathy), end stage kidney diseases (diabetic nephropathy) and non-traumatic lower extremity amputations (diabetic neuropathy) in working-age adults. People with diabetes are also two to four times more likely to experience cardiovascular complications and strokes. Diabetes and its related complications result in an estimated 200,000+ deaths each year, making diabetes one of the major causes of mortality in the U.S. In 2012, the NIH reported an estimated 29.1 million Americans (9.3% of the population) living with diabetes. Of these, an estimated 8.1 million persons were unaware that they had the disease. How does my weight relate to type 2 diabetes? There are many risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as age, race, pregnancy, stress, certain medications, genetics or family history, high cholesterol and obesity. However, the single best predictor of type 2 diabetes is overweight or obesity. Almost 90% of people living with type 2 diabetes a Continue reading >>

Key Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Discovered

Key Link Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Discovered

(Medical Xpress)—New research published in the journal Cell Metabolism has identified a key mechanism in the immune system involved in the development of obesity-linked type 2 diabetes. The findings open up new possibilities for treatment and prevention of this condition, which is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. The study is by Dr Jane Howard and Professor Graham Lord, King's College London, and colleagues, and is funded by the UK Medical Research Council. There are an estimated 371 million people with diabetes in the world and around 90 per cent of these cases are type 2 diabetes. By 2030, there will be some 550 million with the condition based on current trends. Cases of diabetes have more than doubled since 1980, with 70 per cent of the trend due to ageing populations worldwide and the other 30 per cent estimated to be due to increasing prevalence of risk factors including obesity. The association between obesity and diabetes has long been recognised but the molecules responsible for this association are unclear. Dr Jane Howard, lead author in this research and colleagues from King's, studied mice genetically engineered to lack T-bet, a protein which regulates the differentiation and function of immune cells. They found that the mice had improved insulin sensitivity despite being obese. 'When T-bet was absent this altered the relationship between fat and insulin resistance; the mice had more intra-abdominal fat but were actually more sensitive to the glucose lowering effects of insulin,' said Dr Howard. 'As fat accumulation in the abdomen is typically associated with worsening insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome, the findings seen were both unusual and unexpected.' It turned out that the intra-abdominal fat of these mice conta Continue reading >>

The Relationship Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

The Relationship Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a disease that makes it difficult for the body to manage its blood-glucose levels. Diabetes is broken down into two types: type 1 diabetes, which occurs when the pancreas cannot adequately produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar; and type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the body either resists the effects of insulin or does not produce enough to maintain a normal blood sugar level. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports type 2 diabetes has been occurring with increasing frequency among American children and adolescents over the past 20 years. The Mayo Clinic says 90 percent of diabetes cases are type 2, and 80 percent of these people are overweight. Being overweight or obese is a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but many people do not know why. There is some evidence that fat cells are more resistant to insulin than muscle cells. In addition, being overweight taxes the body in other ways and can put more pressure on the body’s ability to properly control blood sugar and use insulin. Carbohydrate-rich diets full of simple sugars and refined foods can cause unhealthy spikes in blood-glucose readings. Individuals who overeat and lead sedentary lifestyles may not burn enough energy, and excess calories are then stored as fat, compounding the problem. The Obesity Society says type 2 diabetes is largely preventable, and research shows that lifestyle changes that include small amounts of weight loss (between 5 and 10 percent of body weight) can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. In fact, managing weight is the best thing a person can do to reduce their risk for diabetes. Losing as few as 10 pounds can markedly improve insulin resistance and make it much easier to manage blood sugar levels. In addition to losing weight, Continue reading >>

Association Between Obesity And Depression In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; A Study Protocol

Association Between Obesity And Depression In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; A Study Protocol

Background: Diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent conditions throughout the world and have significant impact on health outcomes. It has been estimated that diabetes mellitus type 2 affects about 246 million people in the world; nevertheless, incidence varies among countries. There is evidence that depression is associated with a poor metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that present other health problems (such as hypertension and obesity). The aim of this study protocol is to determine if obesity increases the risk for depression in patient with diabetes type 2. Methods: The analysis will be reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).The studies suitable for inclusion will be assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) to determine their methodological quality. To identify the studies of interest, we will search on PubMed and EBSCO databases. We will use the following keyword combinations: "Diabetes Mellitus type 2 AND obesity AND depression", "depression AND Diabetes Mellitus type 2", "Diabetes Mellitus type 2 AND body mass index cross sectional study", "depression AND obesity cross-sectional study". Causes for exclusion will be publications that studied patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1; articles that focused on the treatment and complications of diabetes mellitus type 2; publications that have studied other clinical or psychiatric conditions (for instance, seizure disorder or history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychotic symptoms or dementia). Conclusion: The results of this study will form the basis for a better understanding of the association between obesity and depression in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, and will allow development of p Continue reading >>

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