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Relationship Between Diabetes And Hypertension Pdf

Hypertension And Diabetes Mellitus

Hypertension And Diabetes Mellitus

Login or register to view PDF. Order reprints There has been an increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the past 40 years, both in the US and worldwide. The worldwide prevalence of diabetes in 2000 was approximately 2.8% and is estimated to grow to 4.4% by 2030. This translates to a projected rise of diabetes from 171 million in 2000 to well over 350 million in 2030. 1 The epidemic of diabetes will continue to rise as there is growing prevalence of obesity in children, which predisposes to diabetes.2 There is considerable evidence for an increased prevalence of hypertension in diabetic persons.3 In a large prospective cohort study that included 12,550 adults, the development of type 2 diabetes was almost 2.5 times as likely in persons with hypertension than in their normotensive counterparts.3,4 Similarly, evidence points to increased prevalence of hypertension in diabetic persons.3,5 Moreover, each pathophysiological disease entity serves to exacerbate the other.3,6 Both hypertension and diabetes predisposes to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and renal disease.7,8 Subjects with diabetes are at about 60% increased risk of early mortality.8,9 The age-adjusted relative risk of death due to cardiovascular events in persons with type 2 diabetes is three-fold higher than in the general population. The presence of hypertension in diabetic patients substantially increases the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, nephropathy and retinopathy.5,10,11 Indeed, when hypertension coexists with diabetes, the risk of CVD is increased by 75%, which further contributes to the overall morbidity and mortality of an already high-risk population.5,12 Generally, hypertension in type 2 diabetic persons clusters with other CVD risk factors such as microalbuminur Continue reading >>

Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk For Patients With Diabetes

Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk For Patients With Diabetes

BACKGROUND Pharmacists are in the unique position to not only educate patients about diabetes but also discuss the preventable complications that can stem from diabetes. Specifically, pharmacists can help to address risk factors that contribute to cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension, lipid levels, and antiplatelet agents and offer lifestyle modifications when reviewing medications and counseling their patients about this chronic health disease. The CDC 2017 National Diabetes Statistics Report estimated that over 30 million individuals, or 9.4% of the US population, have diabetes.1 Of these 30 million people, about 25% do not have a diabetes diagnosis.1 In 2015, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death, with heart disease as the leading cause.2 The contributing factors to these statistics include the complications that accompany diabetes, such as heart disease and stroke; eye problems that can lead to blindness; and kidney disease and amputations. There is a strong correlation between diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes.3 In fact, at least 68% of adults >65 years with diabetes die from some form of heart disease, and adults with diabetes are 2 to 4 times more likely to die from heart disease than adults without the condition (figure 14).5,6 Pharmacists should ensure that patients have access to all the resources needed to control blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin and should edu- cate patients to ensure they take the steps necessary to minimize risks for complications. Even when glucose is controlled, patients with diabetes have an increased risk of heart disease and stroke, as there are often other risk factors present that contribute to CVD, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesi Continue reading >>

Frontiers | A Systematic Review Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Hypertension In Imaging Studies Of Cognitive Aging: Time To Establish New Norms | Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience

Frontiers | A Systematic Review Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Hypertension In Imaging Studies Of Cognitive Aging: Time To Establish New Norms | Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience

Front. Aging Neurosci., 08 July 2014 | A systematic review of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in imaging studies of cognitive aging: time to establish new norms 1Baycrest Centre, Rotman Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada 2Sunnybrook Research Institute, Heart and Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Toronto, ON, Canada 3Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada 4Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada 5Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hypertension in older adults, and the deleterious effect of these conditions on cerebrovascular and brain health, is creating a growing discrepancy between the typical cognitive aging trajectory and a healthy cognitive aging trajectory. These changing health demographics make T2DM and hypertension important topics of study in their own right, and warrant attention from the perspective of cognitive aging neuroimaging research. Specifically, interpretation of individual or group differences in blood oxygenation level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET H2O15) signals as reflective of differences in neural activation underlying a cognitive operation of interest requires assumptions of intact vascular health amongst the study participants. Without adequate screening, inclusion of individuals with T2DM or hypertension in healthy samples may introduce unwanted variability and bias to brain and/or cognitive measures, and increase potential for error. We conducted a systematic review of the cognitive aging neuroimaging literature to document the Continue reading >>

The Relationship Between Hyperinsulinemia, Hypertension And Progressive Renal Disease

The Relationship Between Hyperinsulinemia, Hypertension And Progressive Renal Disease

The Relationship between Hyperinsulinemia, Hypertension and Progressive Renal Disease Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia and H. S. Truman VAMC, Columbia, Missouri; Divisions of Cardiovascular Medicine and Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, State University of New York-Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York; USA and VA Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York. Correspondence to Dr. James R. Sowers, Professor of Medicine and Physiology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Department of Internal Medicine, MA410 Health Science Center, One Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212. Phone: 5738842013; Fax: 5738841996; E-mail: Sowersj{at}health.missouri.edu The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has risen dramatically in the past decade, mainly due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and both impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension are important contributors to rising rates of ESRD. Obesity, especially the visceral type, is associated with peripheral resistance to insulin actions and hyperinsulinemia, which predisposes to development of diabetes. A common genetic predisposition to insulin resistance and hypertension and the coexistence of these two disorders predisposes to premature atherosclerosis. A constellation of metabolic and cardiovascular derangements, which also includes dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, endothelial dysfunction, fibrinolytic and inflammatory abnormalities, left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and increased oxidative stress, is referred to as the cardiometabolic syndrome. The components of this syndrome, individually and interdependently, substantially increase the risk of renal disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Similar findings and cardiorenal risk f Continue reading >>

Carotid Intima-media Thickness In Diabetics And Hypertensive Patients

Carotid Intima-media Thickness In Diabetics And Hypertensive Patients

Rev Esp Cardiol. 2011;64:622-5 - Vol. 64 Num.07 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2010.10.025 Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetics and Hypertensive Patients , Jos I. Recio-Rodrguez a, Emiliano Rodrguez-Snchez a, Mara C. Patino-Alonso b, Rosa Magalln-Botaya c, Vicente Martnez-Vizcaino d, Leticia Gmez Snchez a, Luis Garca-Ortiz a a Unidad de Investigacin La Alamedilla, REDIAPP, Salamanca, Spain b Departamento de Estadstica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain c Centro de Salud Arrabal, REDIAPP, Zaragoza, Spain d Centro de Estudios Socio-Sanitarios, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca, Spain Carotid arteries. Diabetes mellitus. Hypertension. The aims of this study are to describe the mean values of carotid intima-media thickness and how it increases with age, and to compare carotid injury in diabetics and hypertensive patients with that of controls. We included 562 subjects (121 diabetics, 352 hypertensive patients, 89 controls). The mean intima-media thickness was 0.781mm in diabetics, 0.738mm in hypertensive patients and 0.686mm in controls. The difference in intima-media thickness between diabetics and controls and between hypertensive patients and controls, adjusted for age, was 0.040 and 0.026mm, respectively. We observed an increase in intima-media thickness of 0.005mm in diabetics and of 0.005mm in controls with every additional year of age. We found carotid damage in 23% of the diabetics, 12% of the hypertensive patients and 3.4% of the controls. In conclusion, the intima-media thickness is greater in diabetics, but the annual increase in the thickness is greater in hypertensive patients. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is related to cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, and its measurement by means of ultrasound makes it possible to detect thickenin Continue reading >>

Controlling Hypertension In Patients With Diabetes

Controlling Hypertension In Patients With Diabetes

Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in the United States. Patients with diabetes have a much higher rate of hypertension than would be expected in the general population. Regardless of the antihypertensive agent used, a reduction in blood pressure helps to prevent diabetic complications. Barring contraindications, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are considered first-line therapy in patients with diabetes and hypertension because of their well-established renal protective effects. Calcium channel blockers, low-dose diuretics, beta blockers, and alpha blockers have also been studied in this group. Most diabetic patients with hypertension require combination therapy to achieve optimal blood pressure goals. Nearly one in four adults in the United States has hypertension, and more than 10 million adults have diabetes.1 Moreover, hypertension is twice as common in persons with diabetes as it is in others.2 Obesity may be a common link between the two disorders, but other factors such as insulin resistance3 and autonomic dysfunction4 may also be involved. Excess weight with truncal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia are among the components of the metabolic syndrome, which has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease.5 In general, only 25 percent of patients with hypertension have adequate control of their blood pressure.6 Blood pressure goals are lower, and thus more difficult to achieve, in patients who also have diabetes. Elevated blood pressure is known to contribute to diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications (Table 1).4,7,8 Fortunately, reductions in blood pressure can decrease the risk of these complications.8 TABLE 1 Microvascular complications Renal d Continue reading >>

Payperview: Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin Resistance And Essential Hypertension - Karger Publishers

Payperview: Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin Resistance And Essential Hypertension - Karger Publishers

Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin Resistance and Essential Hypertension I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree. Glucose intolerance and noninsulin-dependent diabetes are commonly associated with hypertension. Epidemiological data suggest that this association is independent of age and obesity. Much evidence indicates that the link between diabetes and essential hypertension is hyperinsulinemia. When hypertensive patients whether obese or of normal weight are compared with matched normotensive control subjects, an increased plasma insulin response to a glucose challenge is consistently observed. Studies using insulin glucose clamp techniques in combination with tracer glucose infusion and indirect calorimetry have demonstrated that the insulin resistance in hypertensive subjects is located in muscles and restricted to glycogen synthesis. The relations between hyperinsulinemia and blood pressure do not prove that the relationship is a causal one. However, at least four mechanisms may link hyperinsulinemia with hypertension: Na+ retention, sympathetic nervous system overactivity, disturbed membrane ion transport and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Diuretics and -blockers may enhance insulin resistance, which is not affected by calcium antagonists, but decreased by the ACE inhibitor captopril. Weight reduction and regular physical exercise can improve insulin sensitivity and decrease blood pressure values. These nonpharmacological interventions should be more strongly recommended to diabetic and nondiabetic hypertensive patients. Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Hypertension, And Cardiovascular Derangements: Pathophysiology And Management

Diabetes, Hypertension, And Cardiovascular Derangements: Pathophysiology And Management

, Volume 6, Issue3 , pp 215223 | Cite as Diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular derangements: Pathophysiology and management Hypertension frequently coexists with diabetes mellitus, occurring twice as frequently in diabetic as in nondiabetic persons. It accounts for up to 75% of added cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in people with diabetes, contributing significantly to the overall morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population. Patients with hypertension are two times more prone to have diabetes than are normotensive persons. Hypertension substantially increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, retinopathy, and nephropathy. In patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension usually clusters with the other components of the cardiometabolic syndrome, such as microalbuminuria, central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypercoagulation, increased inflammation, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In type 1 diabetes, hypertension often occurs subsequent to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Hypertension in people with diabetes is characterized by volume expansion, increased salt sensitivity, isolated systolic blood pressure (BP) elevation, loss of the nocturnal dipping of BP and pulse, and increased propensity toward orthostatic hypotension and albuminuria. Among the treatment strategies tested in hypertensive diabetic persons, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol lowering to less than 100 mg/ dL and aggressive BP control to less than 130/80 mm Hg have proven effective in CVD risk reduction. The combination of two or more drugs is usually necessary to achieve the target BP. Diabetic NephropathyAtrial Natriuretic PeptideUnited Kingdom Prospective Diabetes StudyPrevent Heart Attack TrialCardiometabolic Syndrome These keywords Continue reading >>

Relationship Between Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension And Obesity, And Health-related Quality Of Life In Gaziantep, A Central South-eastern City In Turkey

Relationship Between Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension And Obesity, And Health-related Quality Of Life In Gaziantep, A Central South-eastern City In Turkey

Abstract Aims and objectives. The main goal of nursing care should be to increase health-related quality of life as well as improve the medical status of patients with chronic disease. For this reason, this study aims to evaluate and compare the health-related quality of life of patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity in Gaziantep, a south-eastern city in Turkey. Background. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity are the most decisive factors in terms of adversely affecting health-related quality of life. Design. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used. Method. In this study, the research population included a total of 1601 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity patients. To evaluate health-related quality of life of patients, Short Form-36 (SF-36) was used. Student’s t-test, one-way anova and chi-square analyses were used for comparisons between groups. Results. In total, 18·1% of patients had combined obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus; 16·1% had hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Approximately 16·1% had only hypertension; 15·4% had obesity and hypertension; 13·3% had diabetes mellitus; 12·7% had obesity and diabetes mellitus; and 8·4% had obesity. The health-related quality of life physical component mean scores of patients with combined obesity and hypertension were lower than that of the other groups (p < 0·05). Health-related quality of life physical component mean scores were determined as 34·5 (SD 0·4), and mental component mean scores were determined as 43·9 (SD 4·4). Health-related quality of life physical component mean scores of moderately active patients were higher, while older age and lower educational and income levels had a negative effect on health-related quality of life (p < 0·05). Conclusio Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Hypertension: What Is The Relationship?

Diabetes And Hypertension: What Is The Relationship?

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, often affects people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The American Diabetes Association reports that from 2000 to 2012, 71 percent of adults with diabetes had a blood pressure of greater or equal to 140/90 or were taking medications to help normalize blood pressure. What are hypertension and diabetes Many people with diabetes also have hypertension, or high blood pressure. Having these conditions together can make them both worse. What is hypertension? Known the "silent killer," hypertension usually has no signs or symptoms and many people are not aware they have it. High blood pressure increases a person's risk of stroke and heart attack. It often occurs with diabetes. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and can be assessed using a blood pressure monitor. Two numbers will be produced. The first refers to the systolic blood pressure, or the highest level of the blood pressure during a heartbeat. The second, the diastolic blood pressure, points to the lowest level. Any blood pressure reading of less than or equal to 119/79 is considered normal. A reading between 120 and 139 for systolic pressure and between 80 and 89 for diastolic pressure is considered prehypertension. This is a sign of possible hypertension if a person does not take preventive steps. A doctor will diagnose a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or higher as high blood pressure. People can control hypertension with healthy lifestyle habits. These can include exercise and a low-fat, low-sodium diet. If necessary, a person with hypertension may reduce their blood pressure using medication. What is diabetes? Diabetes occurs when blood sugar increases because the body cannot use the glucose properly. This happens when there a problem with insulin Continue reading >>

The Rising Burden Of Diabetes And Hypertension In Southeast Asian And African Regions: Need For Effective Strategies For Prevention And Control In Primary Health Care Settings

The Rising Burden Of Diabetes And Hypertension In Southeast Asian And African Regions: Need For Effective Strategies For Prevention And Control In Primary Health Care Settings

Copyright © 2013 Viswanathan Mohan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Aim. To review the available literature on burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) and its coexistence in Southeast Asian (SEA) and the African (AFR) regions and to suggest strategies to improve DM and HTN prevention and control in primary health care (PHC) in the two regions. Methods. A systematic review of the papers published on DM, HTN, and prevention/control of chronic diseases in SEA and AFR regions between 1980 and December 2012 was included. Results. In the year 2011, SEA region had the second largest number of people with DM (71.4 million), while the AFR region had the smallest number (14.7 million). Screening studies identified high proportions (>50%) of individuals with previously undiagnosed HTN and DM in both of the SEA and AFR regions. Studies from both regions have shown that DM and HTN coexist in type 2 DM ranging from 20.6% in India to 78.4% in Thailand in the SEA region and ranging from 9.7% in Nigeria to 70.4% in Morocco in the AFR region. There is evidence that by lifestyle modification both DM and HTN can be prevented. Conclusion. To meet the twin challenge of DM and HTN in developing countries, PHCs will have to be strengthened with a concerted and multipronged effort to provide promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. 1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) have emerged as major medical and public health issues worldwide, and both are important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, and cerebrovascular d Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Hypertension: Is There A Common Metabolic Pathway?

Diabetes And Hypertension: Is There A Common Metabolic Pathway?

Go to: Etiology Genetics Genome scans involving thousands of subjects and controls have revealed a large number of genes with small effects, as opposed to a small number of genes with large effects anticipated originally [5, 6]. Genetic variants in the gene encoding angiotensinogen, adrenomedullin, apolipoprotein, and α-adducin have been reported to be associated with common conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, dysglycemia, or metabolic syndrome [7–10]. In Hong Kong studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), SNPs that predict the development of diabetes were found also to predict the development of hypertension [11–14]. In genome scans in Hong Kong Chinese individuals, the region associated with diabetes was also associated with the metabolic syndrome, which includes hypertension as a component [15, 16]. A recent study at Columbia University on somatic gene conversion and deletion suggested that multitudes of common SNPs are involved [17•]. Besides the genetic aspect, another very important aspect for the onset of diabetes and hypertension is environmental. Environmental factors include the period in utero and lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. Gestational diabetes, fetal malnutrition, and high birth weight are three factors that may predispose the fetus to cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood [18, 19•, 20]. High intake of sodium, alcohol, and unsaturated fat, smoking, lack of physical activity, and mental stress are examples of an unhealthy lifestyle. It is now realized that insulin resistance, which predicts type 2 diabetes, also has a role in the development of hypertension [21]. Indeed, hypertension and diabetes substantially share common pathways such as obesity, inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and ment Continue reading >>

Hypertension And Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-sectional Study In Morocco (epidiam Study)

Hypertension And Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-sectional Study In Morocco (epidiam Study)

Mohamed Berraho1,&, Youness El Achhab1, Abdelilah Benslimane1, Karima EL Rhazi1, Mohamed Chikri2, Chakib Nejjari1 1Laboratoire d’Epidémiologie, Recherche Clinique et Santé Communautaire; Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Fès, Maroc, 2Laboratoire de Biochimie, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Fès, Maroc &Corresponding author Mohamed Berraho, Laboratoire d’Epidémiologie, Recherche Clinique et Santé Communautaire; Faculté de médecine et de Pharmacie, BP. 1893; Km 2.200 Route Sidi Harazem, Fès, Morocco Type 2 diabetes is estimated to affect over 150 million people world-wide [1]. This prevalence is increasing rapidly, partly through changes in case ascertainment and diagnostic criteria, but mainly through lifestyle changes in countries which know a fast development [1]. Type 2 diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of premature death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and renal disease [2]. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke and ischemic heart disease. Therefore, this factor represents one of the most preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in developed as well as developing countries [3]. Hypertension and diabetes frequently coexist. The frequency of hypertension in diabetic population is almost twice as compared to non-diabetic general population [4]. There is a considerable evidence for an increased prevalence of hypertension in diabetic persons [5]. The prevalence rate of hypertension among type 2 diabetics is higher than that of age and sex-matched patients without diabetes, ranging between 32% and 82% [6-11]. The coexistence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes is a major contributor to the development and progression of macrovascular and microvascular complications in peo Continue reading >>

Relationship Between Obesity, Hypertension And Diabetes, And Health-related Quality Of Life Among The Elderly

Relationship Between Obesity, Hypertension And Diabetes, And Health-related Quality Of Life Among The Elderly

The population-based study covered 3567 participants, representative of the Spanish non-institutionalized population aged 60 years and above. Data were gathered from home-based interviews and from the measurements of blood pressure and other anthropometric variables. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relationships between health-related quality of life, on each scale of the SF-36 questionnaire, and obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm in men and >88cm in women), hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg), and known diabetes, after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Patients with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, or a combination of these factors were, in general, associated with a worse health-related quality of life, on both the physical and the mental scales, than those without these factors, though statistical significance (P<0.05) was only attained for some relationships. Obesity in women (−2.9 to −6.7 points, according to the scale) and diabetes in men (−6.1 to −16.4 points, according to the scale) were the factors most closely and significantly associated with diminished health-related quality of life. Women who had all three factors showed the maximum decline in health-related quality of life (−10.2 to −17.7 points, according to the scale). Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Hypertension And Its Relationship With Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity In Eastern Morocco

Epidemiology Of Hypertension And Its Relationship With Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity In Eastern Morocco

Abstract The major objectives of this work are to estimate the hypertension (HT) frequency in the east of Morocco and to study the relationship between HT, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Our sample is composed of 1628 adults aged 40 years and older, recruited voluntarily by using the convenience sampling method through 26 screening campaigns in urban and rural areas of the east of Morocco. We enumerated 516 hypertensive people (31.7%), without significant difference between women (32.5%) and men (30.2%). The known hypertensive people represent 10.1% of the whole sample. The frequency of HT, increases with age and it is more marked in rural (39.9%) than in urban areas (29%) (p < 0.001). It is significantly very high in diabetic subjects (69.9%) than among the non-diabetic ones (27.4%) (p < 0.001). The odd ratio (OR) of the diabetics to HT is 6.16 (IC95% [4.33-8.74]). Among the obese persons, HT is present at (40.8%) vs. (30.2%) among the subjects of normal weight (p < 0.05). The OR of the obese to HT is 1.6 (IC95% [1.26 - 2.04]). In conclusion, our results show a high frequency of HT in the east of Morocco; it affects nearly one third of the adult population aged 40 years and older. The relations between type 2 diabetes and obesity have also been identified and estimated. Introduction Hypertension (HT) is a silent disease that affects the cardiovascular system and settles down without pain and symptoms at the beginning; therefore, it is bad or late diagnosed (WHO 2012; Nejjari et al. 2013). HT affects various organs and engenders grave affections; such as vascular cerebral accident and heart disorder (Nejjari et al. 2013). When the hypertensive patients are bad treated or untreated, the disease reduces the flexibility of arteries, what favors the apparition of the cardiac Continue reading >>

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