Glycosuria (glucose In Urine) Symptoms, Causes, And Potential Complications
Glycosuria, or glucose in the urine, is the presence of higher than normal levels of sugar in the urine and may be due to complications with your kidneys or diabetes. To learn more about this condition, including symptoms, causes, and prevention strategies, as well as what normal and abnormal levels of glucose in the urine are, continue reading. Glycosuria symptoms Glycosuria may occur with a host of other symptoms, including excessive hunger, fatigue, infections, frequent urination, irritability, increased thirst, issues with vision, slower healing of wounds, tingling sensation in hands and feet, unexplained weight loss, abdominal pain, and in some cases, high blood sugar levels. Difference between blood glucose and glucose in urine Blood glucose is regulated by insulin produced by the pancreas, though in patients with diabetes, the insulin is not produced or processed properly meaning they may need insulin injections to regulate their blood sugar. If left unmanaged, diabetes can cause blood glucose levels to rise and some may enter into the urine. Urine glucose may not always be due to diabetes, and can be a benign symptom that sometimes accompanies pregnancy. Glucose in urine causes Some of the most common causes of glucose in the urine include: Diabetes mellitus: The excess blood glucose levels of people with unmanaged diabetes make it difficult for your kidneys to properly reabsorb the glucose and can cause it to leak into the urine. Hyperthyroidism: Excessive thyroid hormones can cause decreased absorption of glucose that is then passed out of the body through the urine. High sugar diet: Consuming excessive sugar can raise your blood glucose past the level that your kidneys can properly reabsorb, which causes some glucose to be passed into the urine. Benign glycos Continue reading >>
Checking Blood Glucose Levels
When a person's body is operating normally, it automatically checks the level of glucose in blood. If the level is too high or too low, the body will adjust the sugar level to return it to normal. This system operates in much the same way that cruise control adjusts the speed of a car. With diabetes, the body doesn't do the job of controlling blood glucose automatically. To make up for this, someone with diabetes has to check blood sugar regularly and adjust treatment accordingly. A doctor can measure blood glucose during an office visit. However, levels change from hour to hour and someone who visits the doctor only every few weeks won't know what his or her blood glucose is daily. Do-it-yourself tests enable people with diabetes to check their blood sugar daily. The easiest test someone can do at home is a urine test. When the level of glucose in blood rises above normal, the kidneys eliminate the excess glucose in urine. Glucose in urine, therefore, reflects an excess of glucose in blood. Urine testing is easy. Tablets or paper strips are dipped in urine. The color change that occurs indicates whether blood glucose is too high. However, urine testing is not completely accurate because the reading reflects the level of blood glucose a few hours earlier. In addition, not everyone's kidneys are the same. Even when the amount of glucose in two people's urine is the same, their sugar levels may be different. Certain drugs and vitamin C also can affect the accuracy of urine tests. It's more accurate to measure blood glucose directly. Kits are available that allow people with diabetes to test their blood glucose at home. The test involves pricking a finger to draw a drop of blood. A spring-operated "lancet" does this automatically. The drop of blood is placed on a strip of Continue reading >>
What Do Urine Tests Say About Diabetes?
When you have diabetes, you’re no stranger to tests that keep track of your disease. Most look at your blood, but there are others. Two simple ones that check your urine can help you and your doctor watch for kidney disease and severe high blood sugar. About one-third of people with diabetes have problems with their kidneys. But early and tight control of your blood sugar and blood pressure, plus help from certain medications, can keep these organs working like they should To check for problems, your doctor can do a test that measures the amount of protein in your urine, called microalbuminuria. It shows up when small amounts of albumin (the main protein in your blood) seep into your pee. Without treatment to slow the leak, your kidneys could be damaged and eventually fail. You should get this test every year starting as soon as you’re diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. That’s because high blood sugar is usually present many years before you find out you have the disease. If you have type 1 diabetes, you probably won’t get the test until you’ve been diagnosed for 5 years. If the test is positive, it means your kidneys can no longer filter the blood as well as they should. It also shows you have blood vessel disease that could lead to heart problems. Your doctor will probably suggest medications or lifestyle changes to help prevent these conditions: Kidney damage. You may start specific medicines to prevent further harm. If your microalbumin level is high, your doctor may suggest another type of test that requires you to collect samples for 24 hours. This can better tell the extent of damage to the organs and see how well they’re working. High blood sugar. Studies show tight control of your blood sugar can lower kidney damage, so your doctor may put you on more Continue reading >>
Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar
Diabetes management requires awareness. Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall — And how to control these day-to-day factors. Keeping your blood sugar levels within the range recommended by your doctor can be challenging. That's because many things make your blood sugar levels change, sometimes unexpectedly. Following are some factors that can affect your blood sugar levels. Food Healthy eating is a cornerstone of healthy living — with or without diabetes. But if you have diabetes, you need to know how foods affect your blood sugar levels. It's not only the type of food you eat but also how much you eat and the combinations of food types you eat. What to do: Learn about carbohydrate counting and portion sizes. A key to many diabetes management plans is learning how to count carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the foods that often have the biggest impact on your blood sugar levels. And for people taking mealtime insulin, it's crucial to know the amount of carbohydrates in your food, so you get the proper insulin dose. Learn what portion size is appropriate for each type of food. Simplify your meal planning by writing down portions for the foods you eat often. Use measuring cups or a scale to ensure proper portion size and an accurate carbohydrate count. Make every meal well-balanced. As much as possible, plan for every meal to have a good mix of starches, fruits and vegetables, proteins and fats. It's especially important to pay attention to the types of carbohydrates you choose. Some carbohydrates, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains, are better for you than are others. These foods are low in carbohydrates and contain fiber that helps keep your blood sugar levels more stable. Talk to your doctor, nurse or dietitian about the best food choices and Continue reading >>
What Is The Difference Between Urine Glucose And Blood Glucose?
Glucose is a simple sugar that exists in many types of food and in your blood. It serves many functions, the most important of which is as an energy source. Your body has sensitive systems for keeping the glucose in your blood within a normal range. However, in conditions such as diabetes, blood glucose levels can become elevated, causing glucose to spill out into your urine. In pregnancy, glucose may appear in the urine, although the blood glucose level is typically normal. Video of the Day Glucose is a simple carbohydrate, and many dietary sources exist. In fact, glucose is present in nearly all foods that contain carbohydrates. Glucose can be present on its own, or paired with fructose to form the two-sugar molecule sucrose, also known as table sugar. Other sources of glucose include fruits and vegetables. Grains, legumes, nuts and seeds contain large molecules of glucose known as starch. Sweeteners such as maple syrup, honey, high-fructose corn syrup and molasses also contain abundant quantities of glucose. Animal products such as fish, being carbohydrate-free, do not contain glucose. The major function of glucose is to provide energy to your cells. Once it is broken down in your small intestine, it is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it travels throughout your body and can enter the cells of every major organ. Within your cells, glucose undergoes chemical reactions called glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle, in which it is broken down and combined with oxygen to produce ATP, the energy currency of your body. ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, helps your body undergo chemical reactions such as building new proteins and recycling old cells. The normal range for blood glucose is from 70 to 115 mg/dL, according to “Maxwell Quick Medical Reference.” To keep the glucose Continue reading >>
Correlation Between Plasma And Urine Glucose In Diabetes
Correlation Between Plasma and Urine Glucose in Diabetes LAWRENCE R. MORRIS, M.D.; JAMES A McGEE, M.S.; ABBAS E. KITABCHI, Ph.D., M.D. Article, Author, and Disclosure Information Author, Article, and Disclosure Information Grant support: in part by the following grants: grant USPHS RR 00211, General Clinical Research Center; Training Grant AM 07088; and the Abe Goodman Research Fund for Diabetes; at the University of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences. Requests for reprints should be addressed to Abbas E. Kitabchi, Ph.D., M.D., Ph.D.; 951 Court Avenue, Room 327B; Memphis, TN 38163. To determine whether semiquantitative glucose measurements of spot urine specimens accurately reflect prevailing plasma glucose levels, we compared reported levels from 400 second-voided urines to simultaneous plasma determinations from 246 adult diabetics. Quantitative urine levels and plasma glucose levels correlated. However, when semiquantitative urinary determinations were compared to plasma glucose stratified into 0 to 149, 150 to 199, and greater than 200 mg/dL, 75% of the urine samples associated with plasma levels from 150 to 199 mg/dL were negative by Diastix, and 16.5% of samples negative by Diastix were in the 200+ mg/dL plasma range. Only 9% of samples from 0 to 149 mg/dL showed any positive Diastix readings. Because of the low sensitivity of semiquantitative methods, we feel that, except for detection of marked hyperglycemia, spot urine glucose determinations are inadequate as the sole means of clinical assessment for management of diabetic patients. Home glucose monitoring may be a better alternative for follow-up of these patients. Continue reading >>
What Is The Difference Between Blood Sugar And Urine Sugar?
Glucose is a normal component of blood. The normal blood glucose levels are:- Fasting blood glucose level: 70-110 mg/dl Postprandial blood glucose level: up to 140 mg/dl But glucose is not a normal component of urine. Under normal physiological conditions, when blood glucose level is within normal limits, the urine does not contain any glucose. However, under pathologic conditions like diabetes mellitus, when blood sugar level crosses renal threshold (160-180 mg/100 ml), the blood glucose appears in urine. This condition is called glycosuria or glucosuria. Continue reading >>
Correlation Between Plasma And Urine Glucose In Diabetes.
Ann Intern Med. 1981 Apr;94(4 pt 1):469-71. Correlation between plasma and urine glucose in diabetes. To determine whether semiquantitative glucose measurements of spot urine specimens accurately reflect prevailing plasma glucose levels, we compared reported levels from 400 second-voided urines to simultaneous plasma determinations from 246 adult diabetics. Quantitative urine levels and plasma glucose levels correlated. However, when semiquantitative urinary determinations were compared to plasma glucose stratified into 0 to 149, 150 to 199, and greater than 200 mg/dL, 75% of the urine samples associated with plasma levels from 150 to 199 mg/dL were negative by Diastix, and 16.5% of samples negative by Diastix were in the 200+ mg/dL plasma range. Only 9% of samples from 0 to 149 mg/dL showed any positive Diastix readings. Because of the low sensitivity of semiquantitative methods, we fell that, except for detection of marked hyperglycemia, spot urine glucose determinations are inadequate as the sole means of clinical assessment for management of diabetic patients. Home glucose monitoring may be a better alternative for follow-up of these patients. Continue reading >>
Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones
What Are Urine Tests for Diabetes? Diabetes is a condition that is characterized by high blood sugar levels. This is due to the body’s inability to make any or enough insulin, use insulin effectively, or both. Insulin is a hormone that helps the cells of your body absorb blood sugar to make energy. Insulin is produced by the pancreas after you eat food. There are two major classifications of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This type is usually diagnosed in childhood and develops quickly. Symptoms include quick weight loss, excessive thirst, excessive urination, and fatigue. Type 1 makes up just 5 percent of diabetes cases in the United States. Type 2 diabetes is when cells aren’t able to use insulin effectively anymore. This is called insulin resistance. If the cells can’t take in and store glucose, the glucose remains in the blood. Eventually the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels within normal ranges, and diabetes develops. This type of diabetes develops gradually and is associated with being overweight and having a sedentary lifestyle. Diabetes causes blood glucose (blood sugar) to rise to abnormally high levels. In type 1 diabetes, the body may also begin to burn fat for energy because the cells aren’t getting the glucose they need. When this happens, the body produces chemicals called ketones. When ketones build up in the blood, they make the blood more acidic. A buildup of ketones can poison the body and result in coma or even death. Urine tests aren’t ever used to diagnose diabetes, but they may be used to monitor a person’s levels of urine ketones and urine glucose and sometimes to make sure their diabetes is being manag Continue reading >>
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Diabetes And Urine Glucose Monitoring
Although urine glucose monitoring has been used in the past for people with diabetes to monitor their glucose (sugar) levels, it has now largely been replaced by blood glucose monitoring using a personal blood glucose meter. However, urine glucose tests may occasionally be done in some circumstances to give a rough indication of high glucose levels. What does urine glucose testing measure? A urine glucose test can tell you whether there is glucose (sugar) in the urine, and gives an indication of the glucose level. If glucose is found in your urine it is called glycosuria or glucosuria. Glucose is usually only found in the urine when blood glucose levels are raised due to diabetes. When your blood glucose levels are high enough, glycosuria occurs because your kidneys can’t stop glucose from spilling over from the bloodstream into the urine. In most people, blood glucose levels above 10 mmol of glucose per litre of plasma will cause glucose to appear in the urine. This level is called the ‘renal threshold’ for glucose. Glucose in the urine can sometimes occur as a side effect of certain medicines and in people with certain kidney problems, including a rare condition called renal glycosuria, where glucose is found in the urine despite normal blood glucose levels. What does urine glucose testing involve? If you sometimes check your diabetes with urine glucose testing, you will be advised which time of day to perform the test. Make sure you understand how to perform the test, and go over the instructions for your brand of test strip with your doctor or diabetes educator. To perform the test: collect a small amount of urine; expose the test strip or dipstick to the urine, usually by dipping it in the urine sample; read the test result at the specified time, by comparing Continue reading >>
There are a range of tests which will need to be done to monitor your health and your diabetes. Some of these, such as your blood glucose levels, you will be able to do yourself. Others will be done by healthcare professionals. Self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes management. As part of the day-to-day routine it can help with necessary lifestyle and treatment choices as well as help to monitor for symptoms of hypo- or hyperglycaemia. Monitoring can also help you and your healthcare team to alter treatment which in turn can help prevent any long-term complications from developing. Some people with diabetes (but not all) will test their blood glucose levels at home. Home blood glucose testing gives an accurate picture of your blood glucose level at the time of the test. It involves pricking the side of your finger (as opposed to the pad) with a finger-pricking device and putting a drop of blood on a testing strip. Some people can't see the point of testing as they think they know by the way they feel, but the way you feel is not always a good or accurate guide to what is happening. Blood glucose targets It is important that the blood glucose levels being aimed for are as near normal as possible (that is in the range of those of a person who does not have diabetes). These are: 3.5–5.5mmol/l* before meals less than 8mmol/l, two hours after meals. There are many different opinions about the ideal range to aim for. As this is so individual to each person, the target levels must be agreed between the person and their diabetes team. The target blood glucose ranges below are indicated as a guide. Children with Type 1 diabetes (NICE 2015) on waking and before meals: 4–7mmol/l after meals: 5–9mmol/l.after meals: 5–9mmol/l. Adults with Type Continue reading >>
High Blood Sugar With Absence Of Sugar In The Urinein Diabetes Treated With Insulin
This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. During the last two years we have seen several patients who showed high values for blood sugar but nevertheless had no sugar in the urine. Since all these patients were receiving insulin and were, with one exception, young, this finding seemed of interest and possible importance. It has been repeatedly emphasized that there is no fixed level of blood sugar at which sugar appears in the urine, and it has been pointed out that this renal threshold varies in the same person from time to time. It has also been shown that the renal threshold in diabetes tends to be higher than in health. In the group of patients we have studied, however, the renal threshold seemed to be so abnormally high as to constitute an unusual condition. In the accompanying table a brief summary of the blood sugar findings in this group of patients is given. A specimen of Continue reading >>
15 Ways High Blood Sugar Affects Your Body
High blood sugar symptoms Glucose, or sugar, is the fuel that powers cells throughout the body. Blood levels of this energy source ebb and flow naturally, depending what you eat (and how much), as well as when you eat it. But when something goes wrong—and cells aren't absorbing the glucose—the resulting high blood sugar damages nerves, blood vessels, and organs, setting the stage for dangerous complications. Normal blood-sugar readings typically fall between 60 mg/dl and 140 mg/dl. A blood test called a hemoglobin A1c measures average blood sugar levels over the previous three months. A normal reading is below 5.7% for people without diabetes. An excess of glucose in the bloodstream, or hyperglycemia, is a sign of diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes don’t make insulin, the hormone needed to ferry sugar from the bloodstream into cells. Type 2 diabetes means your body doesn’t use insulin properly and you can end up with too much or too little insulin. Either way, without proper treatment, toxic amounts of sugar can build up in the bloodstream, wreaking havoc head to toe. That’s why it’s so important to get your blood sugar levels in check. “If you keep glucose levels near normal, you reduce the risk of diabetes complications,” says Robert Ratner, MD, chief scientific and medical officer of the American Diabetes Association. Here’s a rundown of the major complications and symptoms of high blood sugar. No symptoms at all Often, high blood sugar causes no (obvious) symptoms at all, at least at first. About 29 million people in the U.S. have diabetes, but one in four has no idea. Another 86 million have higher-than-normal blood sugar levels, but not high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. That's why it’s a good idea to get your blood sugar test Continue reading >>
Does Sugar In My Urine Mean I Have Diabetes?
Question: I went to my Doctor for general check up, and mentioned frequent urination, and a feeling that my bladder was full. I thought I may have urinary tract infection. Urine sample revealed sugar in urine although my blood was only 7.5 mmo/L nearly two hours after a breakfast of Special K. I am scheduled for a fasting blood sugar. I would be very grateful if you could advise me whether sugar can be present in urine for reasons other than diabetes and also if there is a link between having underactive thyroid and developing diabetes? Thank you, Answer: Hello Kate! You ask good questions and have astute observation! The most common cause of sugar in the urine, by far, is the presence of diabetes mellitus. There is other potential cause for sugar in the urine which includes the use of certain drugs that may increase urine glucose measurements; and renal glycosuria which is a rare condition in which glucose is excreted in the urine, even when blood glucose levels are normal or low, due to improper functioning of the renal tubules in the kidneys. Fasting blood glucose levels in the 5.5 to 7 mmol/L range (100 to126 mg/dl), and blood glucose levels two hours following an oral glucose tolerance test in the 7.7 to 11.11 mmol/L range (140 to 200 mg/dl) are considered Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and are indicative of Pre-Diabetes. Your blood glucose reading of 7.5 mmol/L two hours following a light meal of Special-K (most likely a lesser glucose load than a glucose tolerance test involves) would therefore raise concern that you may have Pre-Diabetes or Diabetes. And sugar in the urine is not indicative of the actual blood glucose level at time of a urine test, but rather of blood glucose levels prior to the time of sampling . . . perhaps in the early AM hours when blood g Continue reading >>
Urine Glucose Test
Test for glycosuria, the excretion of glucose in the urine. The test for urine glucose uses a small dipstick that changes color after it has been dipped in urine. Matching the color on the dipstick against a chart on the test package reveals whether there is glucose in the urine. Before people with diabetes started measuring blood glucose levels, urine glucose testing was the best way to monitor diabetes control. Some people still use urine glucose tests, but these tests are of dubious value in monitoring diabetes control for two reasons. First, the renal threshold — the blood glucose level at which the kidneys begin to excrete glucose in the urine — is relatively high. In healthy, nondiabetic individuals, the average renal threshold is at a blood glucose level of 160–180 mg/dl. In other words, only when the blood glucose level reaches 160–180 mg/dl will some glucose appear in the urine. Many people with diabetes have an even higher renal threshold, so glucose will not appear in their urine until blood glucose levels are very high — well above the normal range. Thus, a positive urine glucose test would indicate that the blood glucose level is very high, and a negative urine glucose test could mean that the level is low, normal, or slightly elevated. The second factor that limits the value of this test is that urine can remain in the bladder for several hours, which means that a positive urine glucose test may actually reflect a high blood glucose level from several hours ago, even if the current blood glucose level is actually normal. Continue reading >>