diabetestalk.net

Puppy Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is an endocrine disease characterized by vasopressin dysregulation[1], excessive polyuria, polydipsia, and the absence of hyperglycemia and glucosuria. Diabetes insipidus is entirely different to diabetes mellitus and has two presentations: Central diabetes insipidus - due to hypothalamic-pituitary trauma[2], post-transsphenoidal surgery for correction of hyperadrenocorticism[3], dorsally expanding cysts, inflammatory granuloma, lymphocytic hypophysitis[4], congenital malformation and neoplasms such as craniopharyngioma, pituitary chromophobe adenoma[5], pituitary chromophobe adenocarcinoma[6] and metastatic tumors such as metastatic mammary carcinoma, lymphoma[7], malignant melanoma and pancreatic carcinoma - results in lack of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) production Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus - due to nephron impairment as a result of genetic or acquired disease - results in lack of vasopressin sensitivity by nephrons Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) results in absolute or partial loss of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone; ADH) production by the central nervous system, causing persistent hyposthenuria (urine specific gravities ≤ 1.006) and severe diuresis, even with severe dehydration. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which may be primary (familial; X-linked in humans[8]) or secondary (acquired), results from impaired responsiveness of the nephron to the actions of vasopressin. Plasma vasopressin concentrations are normal or increased in animals with this disorder. Primary NDI is a rare congenital disorder of dogs resulting from a congenital defect involving the cellular mechanisms responsible for insertion of aquaporin-2 water channels into the luminal cell membrane. Acquired secondary NDI includes a variety of renal and metabolic Continue reading >>

Practical Matters: Desmopressin Is Safer Than Water Deprivation To Identify The Cause Of Polyuria And Polydipsia In Dogs

Practical Matters: Desmopressin Is Safer Than Water Deprivation To Identify The Cause Of Polyuria And Polydipsia In Dogs

Polyuria and polydipsia have many causes in dogs (Table 1). Obtaining a thorough history and performing a physical examination, a complete blood count, a serum chemistry profile, a full urinalysis including urine bacterial culture, and imaging (e.g. ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys, liver, and adrenal glands) will help rule out many of the common causes. Measuring the basal serum cortisol concentration may help rule out hypoadrenocorticism since this disorder is unlikely if the value is > 2 μg/dl (~70 mmol/L). If the value is ≤ 2 μg/dl, hypoadrenocorticism must be confirmed with an ACTH stimulation test. If hyperadrenocorticism is suspected, perform ACTH stimulation and low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests, imaging, and other diagnostic tests as needed. If these test results are inconclusive or within the reference range, the remaining differential diagnoses include central diabetes insipidus, psychogenic polydipsia, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and early-stage chronic kidney disease. A congenital form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus exists, but it is rare and manifests in puppies. Most causes of acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus are among the listed differential diagnoses in Table 1 and need to be definitively diagnosed. A water deprivation test can be used to differentiate central diabetes insipidus from psychogenic polydipsia; however, this test involves intentionally dehydrating a patient. Ideally, the glomerular filtration rate should be evaluated before water deprivation testing is considered in a polyuric, nonazotemic patient for which the remaining differential diagnoses are central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, psychogenic polydipsia, and early-stage chronic kidney disease. But evaluating the glomerular filtration rate is not Continue reading >>

Polyuria, Polydipsia And Diabetes Insipidus - Wsava2002 - Vin

Polyuria, Polydipsia And Diabetes Insipidus - Wsava2002 - Vin

Polyuria, Polydipsia and Diabetes Insipidus School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Water consumption and urine production are controlled by complex interactions among plasma osmolality and volume, the thirst center, the kidney, the pituitary gland, and the hypothalamus. Dysfunction in any of these areas results in the clinical signs of polyuria (PU) and polydipsia (PD). A variety of metabolic disturbances can cause PU/PD (Table 1). Perhaps the least common but most interesting is diabetes insipidus (DI). Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a polyuric syndrome that results from a lack of sufficient arginine vasopressin (AVP) to concentrate the urine for water conservation. This deficiency may be absolute or partial. An absolute deficiency of AVP causes persistent hyposthenuria (urine specific gravities # 1.006) and severe diuresis, even with severe dehydration. A partial deficiency of AVP also causes persistent hyposthenuria and a marked diuresis during periods of unlimited access to water. During periods of water restriction, dogs and cats with partial CDI can increase their urine specific gravity into the isosthenuric range (1.008 to 1.015) but cannot concentrate urine above 1.020, even with severe dehydration. Maximum urine concentrating ability with partial CDI is inversely related to the severity of the deficiency in AVP secretion. CDI may result from any condition that damages the neurohypophyseal system. Idiopathic CDI is the most common form, appearing at any age, in any breed, and affecting animals of either sex. The most common identifiable causes of CDI in dogs and cats are head trauma, neoplasia, and hypothalamic-pituitary malformations. Primary intracranial tumors causing DI in dogs and cats include craniopharyngioma, pituitary chromophobe Continue reading >>

Canine Diabetes Insipidus: Symptoms And Treatment

Canine Diabetes Insipidus: Symptoms And Treatment

Central diabetes insipidus in dogs is usually diagnosed in the middle age, while nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is generally detected in the first year of life. Diabetes insipidus, also known as the 'other type of diabetes', is a condition where the body fails to maintain water balance. This can result either from a failure of the body to produce or release a sufficient amount of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (also known as vasopressin), or an inability of the kidneys to respond to this hormone. Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder, and is quite different from diabetes mellitus, which is caused by a deficiency of the hormone insulin, or an inability of the body cells to respond to this hormone. The hormone vasopressin is produced in the hypothalamus, but then stored in the pituitary gland. So, it is released from the pituitary gland that is located at the base of the brain. Vasopressin or ADH is responsible for regulating water retention by the kidneys. There are mainly two types of diabetes insipidus - central diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Central diabetes insipidus is caused by an insufficient production of ADH, while nephrogenic diabetes insipidus refers to the condition, wherein the kidneys fail to respond to ADH properly. Another type of diabetes insipidus is psychogenic polydipsia or dipsogenic diabetes insipidus. This condition is not caused by a problem in the production of ADH. Rather, it is associated with an excessive intake of water or fluid, which results in the excretion of a large volume of dilute urine. This condition is also known as primary polydipsia. » Diabetes insipidus is considered to be idiopathic in nature, which means that what exactly causes this disorder is not known with certainty. However, the central diabetes in Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs | Treatment And Prognosis

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs | Treatment And Prognosis

The goals of treating dogs with diabetes insipidus are to find and address the underlying cause of the condition and to correct the excessive water intake and urine output. If the dog has central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and is not producing or secreting sufficient antidiuretic hormone (ADH), exogenous ADH can be administered either orally in tablet form, or into the corner of the eye (conjunctival sac) in liquid drop form. The actual synthetic drug is called desmopressin acetate, or DDAVP. Dogs with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) or psychogenic polydipsia will not respond to this treatment, because the cause of their condition is not abnormally low circulating levels of ADH. Certain diuretic drugs can be administered orally to increase sodium and water reabsorption by the kidneys and decrease urine output. A low sodium diet can be extremely beneficial as well. All of these treatment options should be discussed thoroughly with the dogs veterinarian. If the dogs elevated thirst, increased water intake and increased urine output are well tolerated by and not overly disruptive to the dogs owner, it may not be necessary to treat the condition. Any dog with diabetes insipidus must have free access to fresh water at all times, with the exception that it may be wise to restrict access to water for a very short period of time after DDAVP is administered, to help prevent cellular overhydration. Dogs that have either congenital or idiopathic diabetes insipidus, and many with central diabetes insipidus, typically respond quite well to oral treatment with DDAVP and go on to live full, normal lives. Dogs with central diabetes insipidus caused by pituitary tumors have a more guarded prognosis. Dogs with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus also have a guarded prognosis, because thei Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

What is Diabetes insipidus? There are two types of diabetes in dogs. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is also called “sugar diabetes” and results from a disruption of pancreas function and abnormal regulation of blood sugar. The term, meaning “sweetened with honey,” originated from the fact that the urine of these patients was “sweet” due to high amounts of sugar excreted from the body. Diabetes insipidus (DI) gets its name from the fact that the urine of these patients is dilute enough to be “tasteless” or “insipid.” Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in dogs, and is characterized by excessive thirst/drinking and the production of enormous volumes of extremely dilute urine. Some dogs may produce so much urine that they become incontinent (incapable of controlling their urine outflow). The irony of this disease is that despite drinking large volumes of water, the dog can become dehydrated from urinating so much. My dog is drinking and urinating a lot. Is DI the likely cause? There are many causes of increased thirst (polydipsia) and increased urine production (polyuria), including diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, liver problems, and kidney disease, to name a few. It is essential that several diagnostic tests be performed to determine the cause of your dog’s problem. How is DI diagnosed? Part of diagnosing DI involves first eliminating other potential explanations for increased drinking and increased urinating. Typical laboratory testing will include a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry panel to evaluate liver and kidney parameters and blood sugar, and a urinalysis. The urine concentration (specific gravity) is quite low in these dogs. A more advanced test involves calculating normal daily water intake, measuring how much the dog is truly drinking Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus (water Diabetes) In Cats And Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus (water Diabetes) In Cats And Dogs

Overview of diabetes insipidus Most everyone is familiar with the term “diabetes;” it is a common human disease. But our four-legged friends can get diabetes, too. There are different types of diabetes, one being diabetes insipidus—an uncommon disorder that affects our pet’s ability to conserve water. Because of this disease, your dog or cat urinates and drinks water excessively in an attempt to keep up with the loss of water through the urine. There are two types of diabetes insipidus. One is due to the insufficient production of a hormone called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) that regulates the body’s ability to absorb water from the kidneys. The other form of diabetes insipidus is caused by the kidneys’ inability to respond to ADH. The kidneys are responsible for regulating the water in your pet’s body. So, without this hormone or the kidney’s response to it, your dog or cat can’t conserve water. Access to water is critical for pets with diabetes insipidus—without it, a dog or cat can become dehydrated in as little as 4–6 hours. Generally, diabetes insipidus is considered idiopathic, which means the ultimate cause is unknown. Possible causes include congenital issues, trauma, metabolic conditions, kidney disease, adverse reactions to certain medications, or tumors of the pituitary gland. Despite the underlying cause of diabetes insipidus, the symptoms are the same. They include: Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam and take a detailed history of your pet’s health. The symptoms of diabetes insipidus are very similar to other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (“sugar diabetes”), Cushing’s syndrome, liver or kidney disease, Addison’s disease, and hypo-/hyperthyroidism. Your veterinarian may Continue reading >>

Dealing With Diabetes Insipidus In Animals

Dealing With Diabetes Insipidus In Animals

Diabetes Insipidus: Symptoms Checklist Could your dog or cat have Diabetes Insipidus (DI)? If your pet is drinking and urinating excessively, then Diabetes Insipidus might be the cause. This guide will help you learn more about this disease and what warning signs to watch out for. What Is Diabetes Insipidus? Diabetes Insipidus is one of two types of diabetes that can affect dogs and cats, the other being Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Insipidus, also known as “watery diabetes” or “weak diabetes,” is the more rare of the two types, and it can only be diagnosed after performing extensive urine and blood tests. This type of diabetes is known as watery diabetes because it affects a pet’s water metabolism. It causes the pet to release too much water instead of storing it. Because the pet can’t retain the water, the pet will usually exhibit significantly increased thirst and urination. Two Forms of Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes Insipidus is seen in dogs and cats in two different forms, neurogenic DI and nephrogenic DI. Neurogenic DI is caused by a lack of the hormone vasopressin, which his crucial for managing the body’s ability to retain water. Nephrogenic DI is caused when there’s a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body. ADH is the hormone that stimulates the capillary muscles and reduces the flow of urine. Preventing Diabetes Insipidus There isn’t much a pet owner can do to help prevent their pet from developing Diabetes Insipidus because in most cases, the disease is due to either an inadequate secretion of ADH or a renal insensitivity to the hormone. Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus If you think your dog or cat might have this form of diabetes, you may start to notice several tell-tale signs. Here is a checklist that you can use to mon Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Overview of Diabetes Insipidus in Dogs Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a metabolic disorder characterized by excessive, extreme urination, and accompanied by undue thirst. It is either caused by impaired production of a hormone called ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) from the brain (central DI), or an impaired ability of the kidney to respond properly to the ADH (nephrogenic DI). Central DI can occur if there is damage to the part of the brain that makes the ADH. Trauma or cancer would be potential causes of this kind of damage. Most cases are “idiopathic”; in other words, there is no known cause. Nephrogenic (originating from the kidneys) DI is a very rare congenital disorder that also occurs for no known reason. There is no apparent age, gender, or breed predilection for DI. Most cases occur in dogs; cats are rarely affected. As long as dogs with DI have unlimited access to water and are in an environment where excessive urination is not a problem, most dogs do fine and have an excellent life expectancy. What to Watch For Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus in Dogs may include: Severe, excessive urination Insatiable desire to drink water Stupor, disorientation, lack of coordination, or seizures if a brain tumor is the primary cause Diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus in Dogs Diagnostic tests are needed to rule out other common causes of excessive thirst and urination, including: Complete medical history and physical examination Complete blood count Serum biochemistry panel Urinalysis X-rays or ultrasound Bile acid test Urine culture Tests of the adrenal gland Thyroid hormone test Modified water deprivation test is the most important test for confirming a diagnosis of diabetes insipidus Treatment of Diabetes Insipidus in Dogs If therapy is necessary, treatment for diabetes insipidus Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus Types Signs Diagnosis Treatment Personal Stories Ziggy, Puff, & Simone the cats Sonny the Samoyed Ferris Resources References What is Diabetes Insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disorder of water balance. The animal is unable to concentrate urine, so the urine volume is very high and the urine is dilute. "Insipid" means tasteless -- referring to the dilute urine. This disease is rare in both dogs and cats. The condition is usually permanent, and the prognosis is good. Without treatment, dehydration leads to stupor, coma, and death. This is a completely different disease from Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a disorder of sugar metabolism involving the hormone insulin. We include the information here because people are often looking for resources and we had some owners of pets with DM who also have experience with DI. Types of diabetes insipidus Central Diabetes Insipidus - caused when the pituitary gland does not secrete enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) [also called vasopressin]. This type of DI may be the caused by a congenital defect, trauma, a tumor on the pituitary gland, or unknown causes. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus - caused when the kidneys do not respond to the ADH that is produced by the pituitary gland. This type of DI may be caused by a congenital defect, drugs, or caused by other metabolic disorders polyuria (excessive urination) polydipsia (excessive drinking) Diagnosis includes ruling out other diseases such as hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's disease), diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism (in cats), renal failure, liver disease, pyometra (infection of the uterus), and other disorders. Images of the pituitary gland may be taken to determine if there is a tumor. A water deprivation test or an ADH trial with DDAVP may be done. These tests det Continue reading >>

How To Treat Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

How To Treat Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Edit Article Diabetes insipidus is a rare disease that affects young dogs that are less than a year old. The condition causes a dog’s body to become unable to concentrate urine, so the dog has a hard time retaining fluid. If your dog has diabetes insipidus, it is very important that you can spot the signs of dehydration, which are discussed in Method 1. 1 Understand why it is important to check for dehydration. A dog with diabetes insipidus who is denied water will initially be agitated and restless, as he seeks water but can't find any. As he becomes dehydrated there are relatively few warning signs, unless you specifically look for things such as dry gums and test his scruff for hydration. Unfortunately, if the dehydration is undetected the blood supply to major organs will be reduced and those organs (of which the kidneys are especially sensitive) will go into failure. The first signs of this could be vomiting and collapse. 2 There should be moisture present; if the gums are dry this could point to early dehydration. 3 Use the scruff method. You can also use your dog’s skin as a way to check for dehydration. Lift the scuff of skin located in between his shoulders; lift it away from his body and then release it. A well hydrated dog’s skin will fall back into place immediately. A dog who is dehydrated will have skin that “tents”, which means that after you release it, it stays peaked and very slowly returns to its original position. 1 Troubleshoot your dog’s need to urinate frequently. A dog with diabetes insipidus pretty much needs constant access to an outside area. Installing a doggie door is a good way to handle this.[1] Another might be the canine equivalent of a cat-litter box, perhaps utilizing the large type of tray used by garage's to collect oil d Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in dogs and is distinct from diabetes mellitus (DM). There are 2 types of DI and both are related to the pituitary gland. Your dog will most likely present with issues with urination frequency and amount of water intake. Other diagnoses may have to be ruled out due to their similar symptoms, some of those include diabetes mellitus, Cushing’s disease, renal failure, liver disease and infection of the uterus amongst others. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an issue with your dog’s ability to control his water intake and urine output. This is a pituitary gland disorder that is rare in dogs and causes your dog’s urine to become diluted due to his inability to concentrate his urine and can lead to dehydration in your dog if left alone. Symptoms are quite simple to identify, however once again they are similar to other disorders and cannot be used solely to diagnose. Excessive urination (polyuria) Excessive drinking (polydipsia) It may appear that your dog has incontinence problems, however, it is probably the excessive urination he is experiencing Weight loss Failure to thrive Types There are two types of diabetes insipidus and both are directly related to the pituitary gland and how it interacts with the body. Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) Caused by the pituitary gland not releasing enough of the hormone called vasopressin which is an antidiuretic hormone May be due to birth defect, trauma, tumor on the pituitary gland, or possible unknown cause Found in any breed, gender and age of dog Can begin anywhere from 7 weeks to 14 years of age Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) Caused by your dog’s kidneys not responding to vasopressin that the pituitary gland produces May be due to birth defect, drugs, other metabolic disorders Found more of Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus: The “other” Type Of Diabetes

Diabetes Insipidus: The “other” Type Of Diabetes

Download Interview Transcript Diabetes insipidus, often called the “other” type of diabetes, is different from the more common diabetes mellitus, though they share some symptoms. Diabetes insipidus, or DI, is a metabolic disorder in which the kidneys aren’t able to reabsorb normal amounts of water. That’s why one of the chief symptoms of DI is the production of large quantities of very dilute urine. There are two primary types of DI, central diabetes insipidus, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. There’s also a less common third type called psychogenic diabetes insipidus. Symptoms of DI besides excessive urination include extreme thirst with increased water intake, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, house soiling, weight loss, poor coat condition and disorientation. Treatment for a pet with DI will depend on its cause. Some forms of DI can be cured, while others will be with the animal for life. Caring for a pet with diabetes insipidus includes insuring the animal has access to fresh water at all times, as well as constant access to a potty spot. By Dr. Becker Diabetes insipidus, or DI, is also referred to as water diabetes. The more common form of diabetes, diabetes mellitus, is known as sugar diabetes. The two conditions are actually very different, though they have some symptoms in common. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of sugar metabolism involving the hormone insulin. Diabetes insipidus is a metabolic disorder in which the kidneys aren’t able to reabsorb normal amounts of water, so the dog or cat eliminates large quantities of very dilute urine. The word “insipid” describes this colorless, tasteless characteristic of the dilute urine. DI is also called the “other type of diabetes.” There are two forms of DI: central diabetes insipidus and neph Continue reading >>

Water Diabetes In Dogs

Water Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus in Dogs Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disorder that affects water metabolism, preventing the body from conserving water and releasing too much of it. This condition is characterized by increased urination, dilute urine (so-called insipid, or dull urine), and increased thirst and drinking. This disease is not related to diabetes mellitus (insulin diabetes). Symptoms and Types There are two main types of DI that affect dogs: neurogenic (or central diabetes insipidus) and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In neurogenic DI, the cause is due to a lack of the hormone vasopressin, which regulates the body's retention of water. The release of vasopressin is produced and regulated by the hypothalamus (in the brain), so a dysfunction in its release may be due to a head injury, or to a tumor in the brain. Vasopressin is produced in the hypothalamus into the connected pituitary gland, and is then released into the bloodstream. A lack of vasopressin may be due to a failure in the hypothalamus, or a failure in the pituitary gland. A significant number of cases is idiopathic. Nephrogenic DI, meanwhile, can be caused by a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which functions to stimulate the capillary muscles and reduce the flow of urine, effectively conserving water for the body's various functions. The cause is found in the kidneys and their inability to respond appropriately to ADH, allowing too much water from the body to escape into the urine. This is typically an acquired condition, and may be due to amyloidosis of the kidney, cysts on the kidney, or an imbalance of electrolytes. Other common symptoms seen in dogs with DI include: Causes Inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone ADH Congenital defect Unknown causes Trauma Cancer Renal insensitivity to Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Central diabetes insipidus is caused by reduced secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). When target cells in the kidney lack the biochemical machinery necessary to respond to the secretion of normal or increased circulating levels of ADH, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus results. It occurs infrequently in dogs, cats, and laboratory rats, and rarely in other animals. Etiology: The hypophyseal form develops as a result of compression and destruction of the pars nervosa, infundibular stalk, or supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus. The lesions responsible for the disruption of ADH synthesis or secretion in hypophyseal diabetes insipidus include large pituitary neoplasms (endocrinologically active or inactive), a dorsally expanding cyst or inflammatory granuloma, and traumatic injury to the skull with hemorrhage and glial proliferation in the neurohypophyseal system. Clinical Findings: Affected animals excrete large volumes of hypotonic urine and drink equally large amounts of water. Urine osmolality is decreased below normal plasma osmolality (~300 mOsm/kg) in both hypophyseal and nephrogenic forms, even if the animal is deprived of water. The increase of urine osmolality above that of plasma in response to exogenous ADH in the hypophyseal form, but not in the nephrogenic form, is useful in the clinical differentiation of the two forms of the disease. Lesions: The posterior lobe, infundibular stalk, and hypothalamus are compressed or disrupted by neoplastic cells. This interrupts the nonmyelinated axons that transport ADH from its site of production (hypothalamus) to its site of release (pars nervosa). Diagnosis: This is based on chronic polyuria that does not respond to dehydration and is not due to primary renal disease. To evaluate the ability to concentrate urine, a wa Continue reading >>

More in diabetes