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Protein Injection For Type 2 Diabetes

Protein Injection Reverses Type 2 Diabetes In Lab Tests | Newsmax.com

Protein Injection Reverses Type 2 Diabetes In Lab Tests | Newsmax.com

A single injection of a certain protein temporarily reversed symptoms of diabetes in mice, researchers report. The mice had diet-induced diabetes, which is the equivalent of type 2 diabetes in people. The injection of the protein FGF1 restored their blood sugar levels to a healthy range for more than two days. It also reversed insulin insensitivity, which is the underlying cause of diabetes. The injection did not cause the kinds of side effects commonly seen with many diabetes medications, according to the Salk Institute scientists, who report their findings in the July 16 issue of Nature. The findings could help in efforts to develop safer, more effective diabetes drugs for people, the researchers said. "Controlling glucose [blood sugar] is a dominant problem in our society," study co-corresponding author Ronald Evans, director of Salk's Gene Expression Laboratory in La Jolla, Calif., said in an institute news release. "And FGF1 offers a new method to control glucose in a powerful and unexpected way." "Many previous studies that injected FGF1 showed no effect on healthy mice," co-corresponding author Michael Downes, a Salk senior staff scientist, said in the news release. "However, when we injected it into a diabetic mouse, we saw a dramatic improvement in glucose." Much more research is needed before it may be possible to use the protein to develop a drug to treat people with diabetes, the study authors noted. And animal research often does not pan out in human trials. Nearly 30 million Americans have type 2 diabetes. Continue reading >>

Protein Deposits Seem To Play Role In Type 2 Diabetes

Protein Deposits Seem To Play Role In Type 2 Diabetes

home / diabetes center / diabetes a-z list / protein deposits play a role in type 2 diabetes article Protein Deposits Seem to Play Role in Type 2 Diabetes Want More News? Sign Up for MedicineNet Newsletters! TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Protein deposits in the pancreas may lead scientists to a better understanding of type 2 diabetes . The protein -- called amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) -- collects in the pancreas in people with type 2 diabetes . But whether these deposits cause the disease or appear after the disease begins hasn't been clear. Researchers from McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston injected mice with this protein to try to better define their role in type 2 diabetes . They found that when the mice received this protein, the animals developed symptoms of type 2 diabetes, such as the death of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas and high blood sugar levels. The study team also injected the protein into pancreatic tissue from healthy human donors. The researchers found IAPP collected in the pancreatic tissue. "Almost all patients with type 2 diabetes have these protein [deposits], but we don't know if it's a disease pathway or a correlate," said study author Claudio Soto, a professor of neurology. "I think the IAPP are really essential for the [development of] this disease, and that's why we did the animal studies," he said. Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance . Insulin is a hormone that helps the body usher sugar from foods into the body's cells to be used as energy. When someone is insulin-resistant, their body can't use the sugar from foods efficiently. To compensate, the beta cells in the pancreas make more insulin, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Eventually, the Continue reading >>

Protein May Help Control Diabetes Symptoms

Protein May Help Control Diabetes Symptoms

"Diabetes could be cured 'in single jab'," is the misleading headline in the Daily Express. The news comes from an exciting new mouse study which found promising results for a treatment for type 2 diabetes. However, the study did not show that it would cure diabetes, and certainly not after a single injection. Researchers performed experiments in mice using a protein called fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). FGF1 works in a similar way to an existing class of diabetes drugs called thiazolidinediones by making the body's cells more sensitive to insulin-reducing blood sugar levels. Unfortunately, using thiazolidinediones in humans causes side effects such as weight gain, which can be problematic in patients who are often already overweight. Researchers found repeated injections of FGF1 every other day for 35 days in mice improved their insulin sensitivity and lowered blood sugar levels without any noticeable side effects. However it is unlikely there would be no side effects in humans. It is too early to say this would be a "cure" for diabetes, and further research is required before human trials are conducted. This is a promising new avenue of study, however. Where did the story come from? The study was carried out by researchers from the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, New York University School of Medicine, and the University of California, San Diego, in the US, the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, and the Westmead Millennium Institute and the University of Sydney in Australia. It was funded by the US National Institutes of Health, the Glenn Foundation for Medical Research, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, the European Research Council, and several US and Dutch foundations and research organisations. The study was published Continue reading >>

Medication For Type 2 Diabetes

Medication For Type 2 Diabetes

People with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of heart attacks and strokes. Depending on age and lifestyle, different medications and treatment goals can be important. It also depends on whether people have any other health problems. Since high blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) are the main sign of type 2 diabetes, it seems logical to use blood-sugar lowering medication. But that is not always necessary. Medication is only needed if blood sugar levels cannot be regulated any other way, for example by changing your diet, losing weight or exercising more. Blood sugar levels that are permanently high can cause damage to the retina or the kidneys, and can also harm the blood vessels. The risk of stroke or heart attack may also increase. But the age at which type 2 diabetes begins also plays a role. Many older people with type 2 diabetes do not have any problems caused by an increased blood sugar level. For them, other conditions like high blood pressure are more serious. But if you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in your forties, you will probably live with the condition for quite a long time. Complications can occur even if your blood sugar levels are only slightly too high over a long period of time. It is therefore very important for younger people with diabetes to keep their blood sugar levels low. Drugs for lowering the risk of cardiac diseases Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. But people with diabetes often have other risk factors as well, like high blood pressure. It is then quite likely that treating those other factors may be more effective at lowering the risk of heart attack or stroke than keeping blood sugar levels low. The main drugs are: All of those drugs can have side effects. It is a good idea to talk to your doctor befo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Cure In Single Jab | Health | Life & Style | Express.co.uk

Diabetes Cure In Single Jab | Health | Life & Style | Express.co.uk

Injections of protein were hailed in US [GETTY] One injection of a protein stops the disease in its tracks, claim scientists. It reverses symptoms and restores blood sugar levels to a healthy range for at least two days. The findings could revolutionise treatment of the condition, which is at epidemic levels in the UK. Figures this month showed the true toll of the disease, with more than 700 people diagnosed every day due to unhealthy lifestyles. More than a quarter of a million new cases are identified a year, equal to the population of Newcastle upon Tyne a figure much higher than previously thought. In all, 3.8 million Britons have diabetes and about 35 per cent of the population more than 18 million people have pre-diabetes. This means they are at serious risk of going on to develop full-blown diabetes, and shows the true extent of the burden is only likely to worsen. Now, scientists at the Salk Institute in California have discovered the beneficial effect of an injection of the protein FGF1. If this medication is developed, it might help to improve and maintain insulin sensitivity around the body and overcome the typical side effects of existing drugs It brings hope of new, safer, and more effective diabetes drugs. Lead researcher Professor Ronald Evans said: Controlling glucose is a dominant problem in our society. And FGF1 offers a new method to control glucose in a powerful and unexpected way. With no current cure, diabetes is managed using a combination of diet changes, increased amounts of exercise and drugs which work by reversing insulin resistance by altering levels of genes to lower glucose levels in the blood. Tests on mice with diet-induced diabetes the equivalent of Type 2 diabetes in humans showed that sustained treatment with the protein does not me Continue reading >>

One Injection Stops Diabetes In Its Tracks

One Injection Stops Diabetes In Its Tracks

One injection stops diabetes in its tracks Treatment reverses symptoms of type 2 diabetes in mice without side effects. LA JOLLA—In mice with diet-induced diabetes—the equivalent of type 2 diabetes in humans—a single injection of the protein FGF1 is enough to restore blood sugar levels to a healthy range for more than two days. The discovery by Salk scientists, published today in the journal Nature, could lead to a new generation of safer, more effective diabetes drugs. The team found that sustained treatment with the protein doesn’t merely keep blood sugar under control, but also reverses insulin insensitivity, the underlying physiological cause of diabetes. Equally exciting, the newly developed treatment doesn’t result in side effects common to most current diabetes treatments. In the liver tissue of obese animals with type 2 diabetes, unhealthy, fat-filled cells are prolific (small white cells, panel A). After chronic treatment through FGF1 injections, the liver cells successfully lose fat and absorb sugar from the bloodstream (small purple cells, panel B) and more closely resemble cells of normal, non-diabetic animals. “Controlling glucose is a dominant problem in our society,” says Ronald M. Evans, director of Salk’s Gene Expression Laboratory and corresponding author of the paper. “And FGF1 offers a new method to control glucose in a powerful and unexpected way.” Type 2 diabetes, which can be brought on by excess weight and inactivity, has skyrocketed over the past few decades in the United States and around the world. Almost 30 million Americans are estimated to have the disease, where glucose builds up in the bloodstream because not enough sugar-carting insulin is produced or because cells have become insulin-resistant, ignoring signals to ab Continue reading >>

A Single Injection Can Eliminate Type 2 Diabetes In Mice For Months

A Single Injection Can Eliminate Type 2 Diabetes In Mice For Months

Scientists have made a discovery that could lead to better treatments for diabetes in the future, with a protein injection administered directly into the brains of rodents with type 2 diabetes putting the animals into remission for several months. Both mice and rats were injected with a low dose of synthesised Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 (FGF1), a growth-promoting protein known to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic mice. But while FGF1 had previously been shown to restore healthy blood sugar levels in mice for up to two days after injection, the same hormones injected directly into the animals' brains provided a dramatically extended effect: up to 17 weeks of what the researchers call a "sustained remission". While it might not be quite a cure, it's still a big improvement on previous research with FGF1, and the findings could lead to a new potential target for diabetic treatments – focusing on the brain's role in regulating blood glucose levels, rather than other organs and organ systems in the body. "We thought that FGF1 could be acting in the brain, because the receptors for FGF1 are highly prevalent there," gastroenterologist Jarrad Scarlett from the University of Washington told Laurie Tarkan at EndocrineWeb. "We think that diabetes represents a dysfunction of neural circuits within the brain. What FGF1 is doing is acting upon these circuits to ameliorate the dysfunction." And the level of that effect surprised even the researchers, who thought they might see similar results to what had previously been shown when diabetic mice bodies were injected with the protein. "We were expecting the results to last 48 to 72 hours, not several months," Scarlett told EndocrineWeb. "We think it's stimulating synaptic remodelling within these circuits." When the first diabeti Continue reading >>

One Injection Reverses Diabetes Symptoms Without Side Effects

One Injection Reverses Diabetes Symptoms Without Side Effects

There’s no cure for type 2 diabetes right now, and even with the best practices and therapies, healthy glucose levels are hard to achieve. Now researchers say they're onto a potential treatment that can restore normal insulin activity, normalizing blood sugar levels with just one injection. So far it works without adverse side effects, at least in mice. With type 1 diabetes, the body attacks the cells that produce the glucose-lowering hormone insulin, which is needed to keep sugar levels from building up in the blood. People with type 2 diabetes can produce insulin, but the body doesn’t respond to it properly and ends up resisting its effects -- this is called insulin resistance or insensitivity. At first, the pancreas keeps up by making more insulin, but over time, the pancreas just stops making enough. A group of drugs called thiazolidinediones can restore normal responses to insulin, but they come with side effects ranging from bone loss to accumulation of fat in the liver. So, a large international team led by Michael Downes and Ronald Evans from the Salk Institute for Biological Studies investigated a promising protein called fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). Previous work has suggested that FGF1 helps regulate insulin sensitivity: Mice who lack the factor quickly developed diabetes when fed a high-fat diet. In this study, the researchers injected the protein into the bloodstream of diabetic mice and found a potent, glucose lowering effect -- without weight gain, bone loss, or fatty buildup in the liver. The work was published in Nature this week. A single dose was enough to restore blood sugar levels to a healthy range for several days. Sustained treatment, with repeated injections over a month, reversed insulin resistance, restoring the body’s own ability Continue reading >>

Could A Single Injection Stop Diabetes?

Could A Single Injection Stop Diabetes?

Current drugs for regulating blood sugar in type 2 diabetes - which occurs when the body becomes desensitized to insulin - come with the risk that blood sugar levels drop too low. Now in a study of mice with the equivalent of type 2 diabetes, researchers were surprised to find just one injection of the growth factor FGF1 reduced blood sugar to normal - without side effects - for over 2 days. Writing in the journal Nature, the researchers - led by a team from the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA - say they believe their findings will lead to a new generation of safer and more effective drugs for diabetes. There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 is where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, effectively destroying the body's ability to make the hormone that keeps blood sugar or glucose in check. Type 2 diabetes, which usually results from carrying too much weight and being physically inactive, is when the body develops resistance to insulin - so even though the pancreas continues to make the hormone, the cells that need it cannot use it properly, resulting in high levels of circulating glucose. Rates of type 2 diabetes have risen in the last few decades, to the point where estimates suggest some 30 million Americans have the disease. As a chronic disease, type 2 diabetes can lead to serious health problems. There is no cure as such, instead the disease is managed with varying levels of success through drugs and lifestyle changes, including diet, weight loss and regular exercise. Treating diabetic mice with FGF1 reversed insulin resistance What surprised the researchers in this new study was that treating the mice with FGF1 - fibroblast growth factor 1 protein - did not only keep glucose in check, but also reversed insuli Continue reading >>

Drug To Reverse Type 2 Diabetes Passes Critical Test In Mice

Drug To Reverse Type 2 Diabetes Passes Critical Test In Mice

In a groundbreaking study, researchers found that they were able to effectively reverse type 2 diabetes symptoms in mice by administering a daily oral drug with no adverse side effects. Millions of people worldwide suffer from diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes—which accounts for nearly 90% of all documented cases. If the medication is successful in humans, it would revolutionize how diabetes is treated. Type 2 diabetes is common in older individuals whose bodies’ do not respond as they should to insulin, the key hormone that regulates blood sugar. Most diabetics opt for insulin injections to control their blood sugar levels, while others rely on restrictive diets to avoid sugar altogether. Though both of these techniques help manage the disease, they cannot cure it. They come with a number of potential of side effects including weight gain and diarrhea. What’s more, dependence on insulin injections may lead to insulin resistance. And if untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to health problems like kidney disease, nerve damage, and vision problems. The proposed daily pill would restore the body’s sensitivity to insulin and increase the activity of the insulin receptor in the liver. Researchers believe this could introduce a new therapeutic strategy to treating type 2 diabetes and hopefully result in a lessened reliance on insulin injections by people with adult-onset diabetes. Here’s Andy Coghlan, reporting for New Scientist: The drug works by inhibiting an enzyme called low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP), which seems to contribute to cells losing their sensitivity to insulin. By hindering LMPTP, the drug reawakens insulin receptors on the surface of cells – especially in the liver – which normally absorb excess sugar from the bloo Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes May Be A Protein Misfolding Disease

Type 2 Diabetes May Be A Protein Misfolding Disease

Here’s a paper that will not calm anyone down about the possibility of prion-like diseases. Those, as many will know, are spread by misfolded proteins that, on contact, template others to follow their example. I last wrote about this field a couple of years ago, when examples appeared of transmissable amyloid pathology in humans, spread by surgical instruments. This latest work (commentary here at Science) is also amyloid-related, specifically IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide). That forms a protein aggregate that’s commonly found in the pancreatic tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes, and as is usual in these things, no one’s ever been sure if diabetes gives you amyloid (the majority view over time) or if amyloid gives you diabetes (a hypothesis that’s apparently been gaining ground – here’s a review from the same group). Alarmingly, this paper has evidence for the latter case. If you take mice that are transgenic for the human form of IAPP, and inject them with pancreatic homogenate containing the IAPP aggregate, they rapidly start showing deposits of the same protein precipitate themselves. And then they start developing symptoms strongly reminiscent of diabetes: elevated glucose levels, impaired glucose tolerance, changes in beta-cell mass, and so on. The same thing happens with injections of purified synthetic IAPP, so it’s not some other factor in the pancreatic mixture. Otherwise, there were no abnormalities in either gross organ pathology or histopathology. Injecting other amyloidogenic proteins (such as tau) had no effect. So how does this fit in with the widely accepted view that insulin resistance is a key factor in type 2 diabetes? The authors think it’s all part of the same picture – insulin resistance might come on first (through mechani Continue reading >>

Scientists Discovered A Protein Injection That Could Treat Type 2 Diabetes

Scientists Discovered A Protein Injection That Could Treat Type 2 Diabetes

Scientists Discovered A Protein Injection That Could Treat Type 2 Diabetes A new study in rats and mice suggests that a single shot, which is a protein injection, to the brain can get rid rats and mice of all the symptoms of Type 2 diabetes for months. Science Alert reports that the findings were published in Nature Medicine. It was led by researchers from the University of Washington. This study could lead for future diabetes research. The injection is called fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). It is a growth-promoting protein known to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic mice. FGF1 is a relatively low dose of a tissue growth factor protein that resets powerful neural networks that can control the amount of sugar in the blood. The researchers gave the mice a shot of FGF1 in the brain. They explained that FGF1 may be a more powerful player in the brain because it can activate a greater number of brain cell signals. They injected just a tenth of that intravenous dose directly into the brains of the mice. The said rodents have a moderate case of type 2 diabetes. The results showed that the blood sugar levels in the mice had completely normalized after a week. This continued for over four months as the researchers monitored them, according to Ars Technica . On the other hand, the researchers were perplexed because, after the injection, the mice lessen their food intake and lose a bit of weight. However, this effect disappeared after the first week. Then the rodents had eaten properly again and maintained their weights as that of the control diabetic rodents. This implies that the drop in glucose was not due to the rats and mice eating less or having a healthier weight but the sugar drop was due to some other reasons. The researchers also found out that the insulin levels Continue reading >>

Protein Discovery That Could Reverse The Damage Of Diabetes: Breakthrough Could Lead To Cheap Drug That Would Halt Disease

Protein Discovery That Could Reverse The Damage Of Diabetes: Breakthrough Could Lead To Cheap Drug That Would Halt Disease

Raises hopes of a cheap drug which could halt one of the world's fastest growing diseases Scientists have discovered a treatment for type 2 diabetes which could reverse the disease. The researchers found that a protein which is already naturally produced in the body cured the disease in mice and they are confident that it could be easily replicated in humans. The breakthrough raises hope of a cheap drug which could effectively halt one of the world’s fastest growing diseases. The protein, called FGF1, already plays a natural role in human cell growth and tissue repair - but it never usually enters the blood stream. Diabetes experts found that when the protein was injected into a muscle and interacted with the blood, it dramatically reduced blood sugar levels. Crucially, the protein also seems to reverse the root cause of type 2 diabetes - making the metabolic system react to insulin when it had been failing to do so. In obese mice with a rodent version of type 2 diabetes, just one injection of the protein FGF1 restored blood sugar levels to a healthy range for more than two days. Continued treatment with the protein reversed insulin insensitivity, they found. People with type 2 diabetes gradually become less sensitive to the effects of the hormone, forcing up their blood sugar. Professor Ronald Evans, of the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, said: ‘This is a big deal - this treatment is very simple to make. We are at a very early stage but we know all about this protein already so we have a head start. ‘Type 2 diabetes is an epidemic in the modern world and current treatments are not sufficient – it is not properly controlled. ‘This treatment offers a new method to control glucose, in a powerful, potent and very unexpected way. ‘The fact that simple re Continue reading >>

Protein And Diabetes

Protein And Diabetes

Tweet Protein is one of the three main energy providing macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and fat. It helps the body to grow new tissue, therefore helping to build muscle and repair damage to the body. Protein is also a constituent part of each cell of our bodies and makes up approximately a sixth of our body weight. Protein and blood glucose In addition to helping the body grow, protein can also be broken down by the body into glucose and used for energy (a process known as gluconeogenesis). Protein can be broken down into glucose by the body and the effects are more likely to be noticed if you are having meals with less carbohydrate. Protein is broken down into glucose less efficiently than carbohydrate and, as a result, any effects of protein on blood glucose levels tend to occur any where between a few hours and several hours after eating. People with type 1 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes on insulin, may need to bear the effects of protein in mind if having a largely protein based meal. It’s best to learn how your sugar levels react to such meals so that you can judge the right insulin requirements. How much protein should I be eating? The UK Food Standards Agency has a sliding scale for recommended protein intake, varying by age: 1 to 3 years: 15g 4 to 6 years: 20g 7 to 10 years: 28g 11 to 14 years: 42g 15 to 18 years: 55g 19 to 50 years: 55g Over 50 years: 53g Some diets, such as the Zone diet, advocate eating an amount of protein in proportion to your lean body mass (body weight minus body fat). Can protein be bad for you? A number of studies have found there to be correlations between intake of red meat and the development of type 2 diabetes and cancers (including lung cancer liver cancer and notably bowel cancer). The studies found that if people were con Continue reading >>

A Single Injection Eliminated Type 2 Diabetes In Mice For Months, Shocking Researchers

A Single Injection Eliminated Type 2 Diabetes In Mice For Months, Shocking Researchers

A Single Injection Eliminated Type 2 Diabetes in Mice For Months, Shocking Researchers Photo credit: Steven Depolo/flickr (CC by 2.0) "We were expecting the results to last 48 to 72 hours, not several months. Researchers at Salk Universitys Gene Expression Laboratory investigated how a protein injection would affect mice with type 2 diabetes , and they were shocked at what they observed. The growth-promoting hormone, Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 (FGF1), is known to lower blood-glucose levels in diabetic mice, and it had previously been shown to bring about healthy blood sugar levels in diabetic mice for up to two days after injection. However, the researchers tweaked the experiment by injecting the protein directly into the animals brains, and the effect was dramatically extended. The researchers expected the protein to have an impact for a couple days, but healthy blood sugar levels were restored in mice for up to 17 weeks the researchers call it a sustained remission. SEE ALSO: Scientists Create Painless Smart Cell Patch in Fight Against Diabetes Of course, since the study was done on mice, theres no saying whether these effects would translate into humans, nor are the researchers implying that theyve found a cure. Nonetheless, its a leap forward with FGF1 research, and the findings could lead researchers to a new potential target for diabetic treatments the brain. Most diabetic treatments focus on organs and organ systems in the body, but perhaps the brain holds the answer weve been looking for. "We think that diabetes represents a dysfunction of neural circuits within the brain, the studys lead researcher Jarrad Scarlett told EndocrineWeb . What FGF1 is doing is acting upon these circuits to ameliorate the dysfunction. "We were expecting the results to last 48 to 72 Continue reading >>

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