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Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology

Diabetic Retinopathy And Diabetic Macular Edema

Diabetic Retinopathy And Diabetic Macular Edema

Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Nguyen QD, Rodrigues EB, Farah ME, Mieler WF, Do DV (eds): Retinal Pharmacotherapeutics. Dev Ophthalmol. Basel, Karger, 2016, vol 55, pp 137-146 Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema result from chronic damage to the neurovascular structures of the retina. The pathophysiology of retinal damage remains uncertain but includes metabolic and neuroinflammatory insults. These mechanisms are addressed by intensive metabolic control of the systemic disease and by the use of ocular anti-inflammatory agents, including vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and corticosteroids. Improved understanding of the ocular and systemic mechanisms that underlie diabetic retinopathy will lead to improved means to diagnose and treat retinopathy and better maintain vision. This chapter summarizes the pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, signs and symptoms, and treatment options for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME). The complex nature of DR has led to a variety of therapies, but treatments for DR and DME are still challenging, particularly in the stages when retinopathy is mild and patients retain good vision. DR is one of the major complications of diabetes and is a leading cause of blindness and vision impairment. Approximately 75% of persons suffering from type 1 diabetes develop retinopathy, while approximately 50% of persons with type 2 diabetes may develop retinopathy [ 1 ], and approximately 25% of persons with diabetes may develop macular edema. During the next two decades, over 360 million people worldwide are projected to have diabetes and its complications [ 2 ]. Fortunately, the prevalence of severe retinopathy and nephropathy in patients with Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Acute and chronic complications of diabetes Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of visual loss and blindness in working age populations in the developed world. Although everyone with a diagnosis of diabetes is at risk of developing retinopathy, only a minority progress to sight-threatening complications. These are for the most part preventable. Since the prevalence of diabetes is rising rapidly, particularly in Asian countries, and people are living longer following diagnosis, diabetic retinopathy has emerged as a major public health concern. Despite this, accurate data on its prevalence and outcome worldwide are still lacking. Almost all patients with diabetes show evidence of retinal changes over the course of time, if investigated with sufficiently sensitive techniques, and that a large minority - up to half in some populations - progress to sight-threatening variants of the condition. This proportion has fallen over time, most likely because of improved glucose control, and techniques of ophthalmic management have improved in parallel. Epidemiology has played an essential role in monitoring the impact of diabetic retinopathy at a population level, and the success or failure of public health measures designed to influence the course of this largely preventable condition. Worldwide Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy A recent pooled analysis from 35 population-based studies estimated that 93 million people worldwide have diabetic retinopathy, of whom 17 million (~18%) have proliferative DR, 21 million (~23%) have diabetic macular edema (DME), and 28 million (~20%) have sight-threatening DR [1] . Among people with diabetes, this translates to an overall prevalence of 34.6% for any DR, 7.0% for proliferative DR, 6.8% for DME, and 10.2% for sight-threatening D Continue reading >>

The Incidence Of Vitrectomy For The Complications Of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy | Iovs | Arvo Journals

The Incidence Of Vitrectomy For The Complications Of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy | Iovs | Arvo Journals

ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract| March 2012 The Incidence Of Vitrectomy For The Complications Of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, United Kingdom Institute of Genetic Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, United Kingdom Medical Retina Unit, Centre for Eye Research Australia, Melbourne, Australia Commercial Relationships David H. Steel, None; Daniela Vaideanu, None; Sukhpal S. Sandhu, None The Incidence Of Vitrectomy For The Complications Of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can manage this and all other alerts in My Account David H. Steel, Daniela Vaideanu, Sukhpal S. Sandhu; The Incidence Of Vitrectomy For The Complications Of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(14):5752. ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present) To assess the yearly incidence of diabetic vitrectomy in a defined geographical area in Northern England over an eleven year period and to assess the effect of a systematic diabetic retinopathy screening programme on the rate. All patients undergoing vitrectomy for the complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR) in the Sunderland and South Tyneside area (total population ~375,000) were recorded over an eleven year period from 2000 to 2010.Other indications for diabetic vitrectomy e.g. isolated diabetic macular oedema were excluded Yearly incidence rates for the total known diabetic population, the predicted total diabetic population and the population with PDR were calculated.A systematic screening programme for the detection of sight threatening retinopathy was introduced into the area in 2002 The Continue reading >>

Epidemiology

Epidemiology

Predictive Index (PI) above 36 predicts retinopathy The HbA1 value above 42mmol/ 6% was calculated for each year of diabetes. A value of 36 indicates retinopathy might be present Hirose 2012. So a patient with an Hba1c of 1% for eleven years, will have a PI = 44, (11 years; HbA1c 10 (actual, versus ideal 6: 10-6 = 4); 10 x 4 = 40) and be very likely to have retinopathy. Note The study relates to type 1 diabetes, but there is no reason to suppose it will not equate to type 2 diabetes. Patients with high blood pressure or patients with heart disease in the family (suggesting unfavourable genes) will probably get retinopathy with a lower index, and vice versa. The index did not include smoking. At a guess I would think that smokers are highly likely to get retinopathy at a lower index, and none-smokers slightly higher. Different genes influence retinopathy and neuropathy and nephropathy, but the ‘average’ development rate for these problems will probably be similar to the retinopathy PI (I estimate). Hirose Homocysteine We need low homocycsteine levels...these are lower with a diet with plenty of vegetables. Sem 14 . See how to lower levels. Decreasing incidence of nephropathy and retinopathy in type 1 diabetes P Hovind et al Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes and retinopathy H A van Leiden high body mass (waist-hip ratio) increases retinopathy rate 9 times need to screen for impaired glucose tolerance Prevalence of retinopathy 4%10-20 years of diabetes in UK, leads to retinopathy, doubling risk every10 years Eye 17 in Leicester: see full paper on line for every 10,000 people nearly 68 were registered blind from diabetes 27 from non-diabetic causes indo-asian doubles risk of blindness, especially in males (60% diabetic) smoking, alcohol, and elementary education w Continue reading >>

My Site - Chapter 30: Retinopathy

My Site - Chapter 30: Retinopathy

Regular screening is important for early detection of treatable diabetic retinopathy. Screening intervals for diabetic retinopathy vary according to the individual's age and type of diabetes. Optimal glycemic control reduces the onset and progression of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Local intraocular pharmacological therapies have the potential to improve vision and reduce the level of retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy involves changes to retinal blood vessels that can cause them to bleed or leak fluid, distorting vision. With good glycemic control, regular eye exams and early treatment, the risk of vision loss is reduced. Diabetic retinopathy often goes unnoticed until vision loss occurs; therefore, people with diabetes should get a comprehensive dilated eye exam regularly. Discuss the recommended frequency with your diabetes healthcare team and experienced vision care professionals (optometrists or ophthalmologists). Diabetic retinopathy can be treated with several therapies used alone or in combination. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of incident blindness (legal) in people of working age (1) . The Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group determined the crude prevalence rate of retinopathy in the adult population with diabetes of the United States to be 40.3%; sight-threatening retinopathy occurred at a rate of 8.2% (1) . Previous data showed the prevalence rate of proliferative retinopathy to be 23% in people with type 1 diabetes, 14% in people with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy and 3% in people receiving noninsulin antihyperglycemic therapies (2) . Macular edema occurs in 11%, 15% and 4% of these groups, respectively (3) . Higher prevalence rates have been noted in Indigenous populations in Canada Visual loss is associated with significa Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy - Europe

Diabetic Retinopathy - Europe

Worldwide, diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among working-aged adults. Global burden of diabetic retinopathy: 93 million people Proliferative diabetic retinopathy: 17 million Vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy: 28 million Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy is worldwide with only slight ethnic differences. 3%4.1% of Europeans are affected by diabetic retinopathy. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in those over age 60 is highest in France followed by Germany. See Table 1 and Table 2 for incidence and prevalence data. Table 1. Incidence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type II Diabetes Table 2. Prevalence of Different Diabetic Retinopathy Types Chart 1. Pathophysiology. See Image Library for figures. Examination findings consistent with pathophysiology (Chart 1) Table 3. International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale Findings Observable Upon Dilated Ophthalmoscopy More than just microaneurysms but less severe NPDR Any of the following and no signs of proliferative retinopathy: More than 20 intraretinal hemorrhages in each of four quadrants Definite venous beading in 2 or more quadrants ( Figure 14 ) Prominent IRMA in 1 or more quadrants ( Figure 15 ) Vitreous/preretinal hemorrhage ( Figure 12 ) IRMA = intraretinal microvascular abnormalities; NPDR = nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR = proliferative diabetic retinopathy Source: American Academy of Ophthalmology Retina Panel. Preferred Practice Pattern Guidelines. Diabetic Retinopathy. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2008 (4th printing 2012). Available at: www.aao.org/ppp . Chart 2. Treatment of diabetic macular edema. See Image Library for figures. Table 4. Management Recommendations for Patients With Diabetes CSME = clinically significa Continue reading >>

Djo | Digital Journal Of Ophthalmology

Djo | Digital Journal Of Ophthalmology

To estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) who attended the National Center of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG) in Jordan, and to determine the relationship between duration of DM, hyperglycemia, smoking, hypertension, age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and diabetic retinopathy. This is a cross-sectional study that investigates a sample of 1000 diabetic patients suffering from type 2 DM who attended the NCDEG between September 2006 and January 2007. Eye examination by an ophthalmologist under adequate dilatation was performed in all patients. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained. Diabetic Retinopathy was defined according to the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale adopted by American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) and the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO). Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 11.5). Out of 1000 patients; 51 percent were male, 49 percent were female. The mean age and duration of diabetes were 57.8 and 9.6 years, respectively. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients was 34.1 percent. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy was documented in 24.5 percent, while 9.6 percent had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Duration of DM and hyperglycemia, as measured by HbA1C, were statistically significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is highly prevalent among Jordanian patients with type 2 DM. Serious national efforts should be directed towards increasing primary prevention through regular ophthalmic examinations and strict glycemic control in patients with type 2 DM. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is considered to be a major health proble Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Epidemiology Of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

1. Diabetes Care. 1992 Dec;15(12):1875-91. Epidemiology of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. (1)Department of Ophthalmology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53792-3220. OBJECTIVE: This review examines recent epidemiological data about the prevalence and incidence of and risk factors for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Inaddition, the relation of proliferative retinopathy to other systemiccomplications associated with diabetes is reviewed.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The data come mostly from the baseline and 4-yrfollow-up examinations of a large population-based study, the WESDR, whichinvolved 996 younger-onset insulin-dependent people whose diabetes was diagnosed at < 30 yr of age and 1370 older-onset people whose diabetes was diagnosed at >or = 30 yr of age, and who were taking or not taking insulin.RESULTS: The major finding is that proliferative retinopathy is a prevalentcomplication (23% in the WESDR younger-onset group, 10% in the WESDR older-onset group that takes insulin, and 3% in the group that does not take insulin).Hyperglycemia, longer duration of diabetes, and more severe retinopathy atbaseline were associated with an increased 4-yr risk of developing proliferative retinopathy. However, higher blood pressure at baseline was associated only with the development of proliferative retinopathy in the younger-onset group. Thepresence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy was associated with an increased4-yr risk of loss of vision, cardiovascular disease, diabetic nephropathy, andmortality. In the WESDR, a significant number of diabetic people withproliferative retinopathy at risk for vision loss were not under the care of anophthalmologist or had not undergone panretinal photocoagulation.CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that hyperglycemia and, possibly, h Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Macular Edema And Related Vision Loss

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Macular Edema And Related Vision Loss

Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema and related vision loss Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Charumathi Sabanayagam, Phone: +65 6576 7286, Email: [email protected] . Received 2015 Aug 11; Accepted 2015 Sep 1. Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. This article has been cited by other arti Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy: Global Prevalence, Major Risk Factors, Screening Practices And Public Health Challenges: A Review

Diabetic Retinopathy: Global Prevalence, Major Risk Factors, Screening Practices And Public Health Challenges: A Review

Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore DukeNUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore DukeNUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Correspondence: Prof Tien Yin Wong, Singapore National Eye Center, 11 Third Hospital Avenue, Singapore 168751, Singapore. Email: [email protected] Search for more papers by this author Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore DukeNUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore DukeNUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Correspondence: Prof Tien Yin Wong, Singapore National Eye Center, 11 Third Hospital Avenue, Singapore 168751, Singapore. Email: [email protected] Search for more papers by this author Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

Author: Abdhish R Bhavsar, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP more... Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major medical problem throughout the world. Diabetes causes an array of long-term systemic complications that have considerable impact on the patient as well as society, as the disease typically affects individuals in their most productive years. [ 1 ] An increasing prevalence of diabetes is occurring throughout the world. [ 2 ] In addition, this increase appears to be greater in developing countries. The etiology of this increase involves changes in diet, with higher fat intake, sedentary lifestyle changes, and decreased physical activity. [ 3 , 4 ] Patients with diabetes often develop ophthalmic complications, such as corneal abnormalities, glaucoma, iris neovascularization, cataracts, and neuropathies. The most common and potentially most blinding of these complications, however, is diabetic retinopathy, [ 5 , 6 , 7 ] which is, in fact, the leading cause of new blindness in persons aged 25-74 years in the United States. Approximately 700,000 persons in the United States have proliferative diabetic retinopathy, with an annual incidence of 65,000. An estimate of the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States showed a high prevalence of 28.5% among those with diabetes aged 40 years or older. [ 8 ] (See Epidemiology.) The exact mechanism by which diabetes causes retinopathy remains unclear, but several theories have been postulated to explain the typical course and history of the disease. [ 9 , 10 ] See the image below. Fundus photograph of early background diabetic retinopathy showing multiple microaneurysms. Federman JL, Gouras P, Schubert H, et al. Systemic diseases. Podos SM, Yanoff M, eds. Retina and Vitreous: Textbook of Ophthalmology. 1994. Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Macular Edema And Related Vision Loss

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Macular Edema And Related Vision Loss

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision-loss globally. Of an estimated 285 million people with diabetes mellitus worldwide, approximately one third have signs of DR and of these, a further one third of DR is vision-threatening DR, including diabetic macular edema (DME). The identification of established modifiable risk factors for DR such as hyperglycemia and hypertension has provided the basis for risk factor control in preventing onset and progression of DR. Additional research investigating novel risk factors has improved our understanding of multiple biological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of DR and DME, especially those involved in inflammation and oxidative stress. Variations in DR prevalence between populations have also sparked interest in genetic studies to identify loci associated with disease susceptibility. In this review, major trends in the prevalence, incidence, progression and regression of DR and DME are explored, and gaps in literature identified. Established and novel risk factors are also extensively reviewed with a focus on landmark studies and updates from the recent Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic macular edema, Epidemiology, Risk factors Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss in adults aged 2074 years [1]. From 19902010, DR ranked as the fifth most common cause of preventable blindness and fifth most common cause of moderate to severe visual impairment [2]. In 2010, of an estimated 285 million people worldwide with diabetes, over one-third have signs of DR, and a third of these are afflicted with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR), defined as severe non-proliferative DR or proliferative DR (PDR) or the presence of diabetic macular edema (DME) [3]. These estimates are expected to Continue reading >>

The Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy Among Adults In The United States

The Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy Among Adults In The United States

A, Standard photograph 1. Retinopathyequal to this level in 4 quadrants would constitute level 43 (or 40) diabeticretinopathy, the lower threshold for moderate diabetic retinopathy. Retinopathyless than this photograph in any field would constitute mild retinopathy.B, Standard photograph 2. Retinopathy equal to this level in 1 quadrant withlesser retinopathy in the remaining quadrants would constitute level 43 (or40) moderate retinopathy. Retinopathy equal to this level in all 4 quadrants,venous beading in 2 quadrants, or intraretinal microvascular abnormalitiesin 1 quadrant would constitute level 53 (or 50) diabetic retinopathy, thelowest level of severe retinopathy. C, Severe diabetic retinopathy illustratingextensive blot hemorrhages, venous beading, and intraretinal microvascularabnormalities. Courtesy of the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy StudyResearch Group. A, Prevalence of diabetic retinopathyamong white subjects who have diabetes mellitus. B, Prevalence of diabeticretinopathy among Hispanic and black subjects who have diabetes mellitus.BDES indicates Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam, Wis; SAHS, San Antonio HeartStudy, San Antonio, Tex; SLVDS, San Luis Valley Diabetes Study, San Luis Valley,Colo; VER, Vision Evaluation Research, Nogales and Tucson, Ariz; and WESDR,Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy, southern Wisconsin.The Barbados Eye Study was conducted in Barbados, West Indies; all participantswere black. A, Prevalence of vision-threateningdiabetic retinopathy among white subjects who have diabetes mellitus. B, Prevalenceof vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy among Hispanic and black subjectswho have diabetes mellitus. BDES indicates Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam,Wis; BMES, Blue Mountains Eye Study, Sydney, New South Wales, Continue reading >>

Oxidative Stress, Epigenetics, Environment, And Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Oxidative Stress, Epigenetics, Environment, And Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Oxidative Stress, Epigenetics, Environment, and Epidemiology of Diabetic Retinopathy 1Stem Cells and Eye Research Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Albert Szent-Gyrgyi Clinical Center, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary 2Centre of Eye Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Correspondence should be addressed to Daniel Petrovi Received 1 February 2017; Accepted 1 February 2017; Published 22 February 2017 Copyright 2017 Goran Petrovski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Several environmental (external) and genetic (internal) factors are involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Proper screening and early detection of such factors shall improve the prevention and treatment of this blinding disease. Lately, oxidative stress and factors influencing it have been recognised as important determinants of DR appearance and fulmination. Recently, beside genetical factors, epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., global acetylation of retinal histone H3) have been demonstrated to play an important role in the development and progression of DR to more severe and vision threatening stages, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. Other internal factors affecting DR determined by exome sequencing may prove very helpful in the evaluation of diabetic retinopathy, while screening for external factors may supplement Continue reading >>

Incidence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Attending The Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service For Wales: Retrospective Analysis

Incidence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Attending The Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service For Wales: Retrospective Analysis

Incidence of diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service for Wales: retrospective analysis Incidence of diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service for Wales: retrospective analysis BMJ 2012; 344 doi: (Published 22 February 2012) Cite this as: BMJ 2012;344:e874 This article has corrections. Please see: F Dunstan, professor of medical statistics 2 , S Roy Chowdury, clinical research fellow 1 , R L Gibbins, retired general practitioner 6 , 1Diabetes Research Unit, Centre for Endocrine and Diabetes Sciences, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff CF14 4XW, UK 2Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff 3Diabetes Research Group, Swansea University, Swansea, UK 4Cardiff and Vale University Health Board, University Hospital of Wales 5School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University Correspondence to: D R Owens owensdr{at}cardiff.ac.uk Objectives To determine the incidence of any and referable diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending an annual screening service for retinopathy and whose first screening episode indicated no evidence of retinopathy. Setting Screenings at the community based Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service for Wales, United Kingdom. Participants 57 199 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who were diagnosed at age 30 years or older and who had no evidence of diabetic retinopathy at their first screening event between 2005 and 2009. 49 763 (87%) had at least one further screening event within the study period and were included in the analysis. Main outcome measures Annual incidence and cumulative incidence after four years of an Continue reading >>

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