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Principle Of Glucometer

Glucose Meter

Glucose Meter

Four generations of blood glucose meter, c. 1993–2005. Sample sizes vary from 30 to 0.3 μl. Test times vary from 5 seconds to 2 minutes (modern meters typically provide results in 5 seconds). A glucose meter is a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. It can also be a strip of glucose paper dipped into a substance and measured to the glucose chart. It is a key element of home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM) by people with diabetes mellitus or hypoglycemia. A small drop of blood, obtained by pricking the skin with a lancet, is placed on a disposable test strip that the meter reads and uses to calculate the blood glucose level. The meter then displays the level in units of mg/dl or mmol/l. Since approximately 1980, a primary goal of the management of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus has been achieving closer-to-normal levels of glucose in the blood for as much of the time as possible, guided by HBGM several times a day. The benefits include a reduction in the occurrence rate and severity of long-term complications from hyperglycemia as well as a reduction in the short-term, potentially life-threatening complications of hypoglycemia. History[edit] Leland Clark presented his first paper about the oxygen electrode, later named the Clark electrode, on 15 April 1956, at a meeting of the American Society for Artificial Organs during the annual meetings of the Federated Societies for Experimental Biology.[1][2] In 1962, Clark and Ann Lyons from the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital developed the first glucose enzyme electrode. This biosensor was based on a thin layer of glucose oxidase (GOx) on an oxygen electrode. Thus, the readout was the amount of oxygen consumed by GOx during the enzymatic reaction with the substra Continue reading >>

How Does Glucometer Or Glucose Monitoring Device Work?

How Does Glucometer Or Glucose Monitoring Device Work?

Glucose testing is an important part of a diabetic’s daily health care. Without testing, a diabetic can easily become ill, because his glucose levels are not where they need to be. To do glucose testing, a diabetic uses a glucose testing meter, which uses a glucose testing strip. A glucose meter or glucometer, is a medical device used for measuring the approximate level of glucose in the blood. The glucose meter, determines the concentration of glucose in the solution. Most glucose meters, are based on electrochemical technology, they use electrochemical test strips to perform the measurement. A small drop of the solution to be tested, is placed on a disposable test strip, that the glucose meter uses for the glucose measurement. Glucose meter test strips Glucose strips, that are used for glucose monitoring from blood. In each test strip, there is an enzyme called glucose oxidase. This enzyme reacts with the glucose, in the blood sample and creates an acid called gluconic acid. The gluconic acid then reacts, with another chemical in the testing strip called ferricyanide. The ferricyanide and the gluconic acid, then combine to create ferrocyanide. Once ferrocyanide has been created, the device runs an electronic current through the blood sample on the strip. This current is then able to read, the ferrocyanide and determine how much glucose is in the sample of blood, on the testing strip. That number is then displayed on the screen of the glucose testing meter. The two most common methods, used in electrochemical measurement of glucose are: Colorimetric method and Amperometric method. Colorimetric method In this method, the typical sensors such as LEDs or photo sensors form the analog interface. These sensors are followed by a Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) for the gluco Continue reading >>

Other Types: Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy

Other Types: Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease effecting millions worldwide. Diabetes is categorized by: Type I (Juvenile Diabetes): Pancreas produces very little or no insulin Type II (Insulin Resistant): Pancreas does not produce enough insulin or does not use produced insulin effectively (insulin resistant) Insulin is a circulating hormone that helps the body use and store glucose. At low levels of insulin, the body stores less nutrients in the formof glucose After eating, blood glucose rises as food is broken down. High blood glucose levels damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart over time. Diabetics aim to keep their blood glucose level within normal range (82 to 110 mg/dL). Insulin therapy is a common method in which exogenous insulin analogs are injected when blood gluose are high Example home glucometer At home glucometers allow diabetic patients to monitor their blood glucose levels with a minimal amount of sample blood. Glucometers utilize disposable electrochemical cells. Type I diabetics check their blood glucose levels about 4 times a day. Type II diabetics check their blood glucose levels about 2 times a day. Components of a typical galvanic electrochemical cell: Working electrode: reaction of interest takes place example: silver electrode Reference electrode: standard hydrogen electrode Current flowing between electrodes can be measured using a voltmeter. Traditional Electrochemical Cell Chemical Reactions Step 1: Oxidation of Glucose by Enzyme Glocuse Oxidase (GOD) is an enzyme that directly oxides glucose Step 2: Reduction of enzyme by Mediator Mediator transports electrons to working electrode. An example of a mediator is ferrocene monocarboxylic acid. When blood added, glucose is oxidized by enzyme coated on the working electrode Voltage applied between Continue reading >>

9.2 Glucometer Use

9.2 Glucometer Use

People with diabetes require regular monitoring of their blood glucose to help them achieve as close to normal blood glucose levels as possible for as much of the time as possible. The benefits of maintaining a blood glucose level that is consistently within the range of 4-7 mmol/L will reduce the short-term, potentially life-threatening complications of hypoglycemia as well as the occurrence rate and severity of the long-term complications of hyperglycemia. Patients in the hospital setting are likely to have inconsistent blood glucose levels as they are affected by changes in diet and lifestyle, surgical procedures, and the stress of being in a hospital. The physician will prescribe how regularly the blood glucose should be monitored. In acute situations, a sliding-scale treatment for insulin will be individually prescribed per patient. The medication administration record (MAR) or sliding scale will provide directions for the amount of medication to be given based on the blood glucose reading. It is usually the responsibility of the nurse to perform blood glucose readings. As with any clinical procedure, ensure that you understand the patient’s condition, the reason for the test, and the possible outcomes of the procedure. Prior to performing a blood glucose test, ensure that you have read and understood the manufacturer’s instructions and your agency’s policy for the blood glucose monitoring machines (see Figure 9.1) used in your clinical setting, as these vary. It is also important that you determine the patient’s understanding of the procedure and the purpose for monitoring blood glucose level. Before you begin, you should also determine if there are any conditions present that could affect the reading. For example, is the patient fasting? Has the patient j Continue reading >>

Bls Glucometer Use

Bls Glucometer Use

Diabetes mellitus is a disease state characterized by a deranged relationship of insulin and glucose In diabetes, there is insufficient insulin to get glucose into the cells, and thus the cells start to malfunction and produce characteristic findings Emergencies from diabetes are usually from hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by an altered relationship between glucose and insulin. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that is needed to promote the movement of glucose from the blood into the cells. Glucose, a simple form of sugar, is the body’s main source of energy. Diabetic patients have either Type I or Type II diabetes. Type I diabetics commonly acquire the disease during childhood, do not produce any insulin by the pancreas, and therefore must inject insulin daily. Type II diabetics, who usually develop the disease in adulthood, typically still secrete insulin and may control the disease by diet, exercise, oral medications or, in severe cases, insulin. Checking the Blood Glucose Level (BGL) Multiple Brands of Glucometers are commonly found on EMS units Glucometer determines the amount of glucose in the blood, the sample usually coming from a finger stick A normal range is 80–120 mg/dl Hypoglycemia is a BGL <60 mg/dl Hyperglycemia is a BGL >120 mg/dl Blood Glucose Monitoring BLS Glucometer Use You must read manufacturer's instructions for your particular glucometer * Portable blood glucose meters, commonly referred to as glucometers by EMS, are available to both the EMS crew and the diabetic patient. These devices can fairly accurately determine the blood glucose level (BGL). The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple form of sugar; therefore, the terms glucose and Continue reading >>

Glucose Testing

Glucose Testing

Glucose Testing Glucose Testing is a important and vital part of a diabetics daily health care. Without testing, a diabetic can become sick because their glucose levels are not where they need to be. Glucose testing is done by using a glucose testing meter, which uses a glucose testing strip. Glucose Testing Meter Steps for Testing Glucose To test for glucose one must drop a sample of blood by placing on the strip. This is done by poking the skin with a needle called a lancet. The lancet pricks the finger which allows the sample of blood to flow right onto the glucose strip. Once the blood sample has made it on to the glucose strip, a device called a glucose meter is used to measure the glucose in the blood. In each test strip, there is a chemical called glucose oxidase. This glucose oxidase reacts with the glucose in the blood sample and is created into a acid called gluconic acid. This current is then able to read and determine how much glucose is in the sample of blood on the testing strip. The number is then relayed on the screen of the glucose testing meter. Blood Glucose Meters A glucose meter is used to determine the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. The glucose meter is a key element in monitoring diabetes can help test if the blood sugar is too high or low. Glucose meters are small and are handheld, they can fit in the palm of a hand. Glucose meters cost anywhere from $20 to the most advanced meters costing $500. Examples One Touch Verio Glucose Meter System The One Touch Verio glucose meter is practical, reliable, and affordable. This glucose meter provides instant notifications of high and low blood sugar trends, unsurpassed accuracy, and requires a very small blood sample size. The Verio glucose meter is one of the more recent and efficient Continue reading >>

How Do Glucometers Work?

How Do Glucometers Work?

Through a pinprick several times a day — but what if diabetics could tell their blood-sugar levels anytime, by glancing at a tattoo?… Monitoring blood sugar levels is a pain for the diabetic — both figuratively and literally. Several times a day, they prick a finger to obtain a blood droplet and apply it to a plastic strip that’s inserted in a glucometer — a hand-held device that tells them if their glucose level is high, low, or right on target. It’s usually the job of the pancreas to keep track of sugar levels and to secrete glucagon and insulin to keep them at 100 or so milligrams per deciliter of blood. But for diabetics — either because their pancreas doesn’t function properly or because their body can’t process the hormones it secretes — glucose testing is a do-it-yourself proposition. And a crucial one. Blood-sugar checks show if it’s time to inject a few units of insulin — or grab a lifesaving snack. That’s where the glucometer comes in. “Current glucometers use test strips containing glucose oxidase, an enzyme that reacts to glucose in the blood droplet, and an interface to an electrode inside the meter,” explains Michael Strano, the Charles and Hilda Roddey Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at MIT. “When the strip is inserted into the meter, the flux of the glucose reaction generates an electrical signal,” he says. “The glucometer is calibrated so the number appearing in its digital readout corresponds to the strength of the electrical current: The more glucose in the sample, the higher the number.” Periodic tests via glucometer play an important part in the diabetic’s treatment plan, but current models fall short in giving a true picture of glucose fluctuations in real time. “The complications of diabetes st Continue reading >>

Glucometer

Glucometer

1. A Glance at Glucometer Bense Tony. J Anna University Chennai 2. GLUCOMETER~ Glucose meter is a medicaldevice for determiningapproximate concentration Ofglucose in the blood.~ Key Element of Home BasedGlucose Monitoring 3. StructureGlucose- It is amonosaccahride with thechemical formula C6-H12-O6 4. Need Of Glucose~Glucose is essential forcell respiration~It also helps thephotosynthesis in plants 5. ~Also used as a source ofenergy in cells throughaerobic and anaerobicrespiration~Glucose plays importantrole in various metabolicfunction in the body.SoGlucose level must bemaintained periodically. 6. Glucose Level chart 7. Parameters of the Device~ The device is almost apalm sized one~It works on battery so thatthe device is a portable~ 0.3 to 1 microlitre ofblood is enough for the test 8. ~ The test strips containchemicals that react withthe glucose in the blood.~Result is displayed inmg/dl[US, France, Japan,India] & in mmol/dl [Canada,Australia, China, UK]Germany uses both units. 9. How to HandleRequirements:~ Glucometer~ Test Strips~ Lancet 10. Steps :~ Get the requirements in readycondition~ Wash hands to preventinfection~Decide where you are gettingthe blood -Fingers -Forearms -Less sensitive areas 11. ~Warm Hands for faster flowof blood~Fix The strip in theglucometer and when it isready pierce the finger tipand a get a drop of hangingblood~The results are displayedin approx. 40 seconds. 12. Advantages :~Patients with “Type 1”diabetes and “Type 2”diabetes are in a need totest their sugar levelseveral times a day which ismade simple usingglucometer. 13. ~Patients sufferingimmediate raise or suddendown of glucose level couldcheck immediately theirglucose level and consult adoctor.~lock/memory chips in itstore the details about eachtest done 14. ~Data transfer t Continue reading >>

The Principle Of Operation Of Different Types Of Glucometers

The Principle Of Operation Of Different Types Of Glucometers

The principle of operation of different types of glucometers A glucometer is a device that is designed to measure the level of glucose in the blood. It is also used for the diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism in people who suffer from diabetes mellitus. Thanks to him, the level of glucose in the blood is determined on the basis of the data obtained. The main principle of the glucometer is to determine the amount of "sugar" in the blood. There are two variations of this action. The first option is photometric determination, and the second one is electromechanical. Modern glucometers allow us to show the exact content of human sugar. Thus, the photometric principle of operation is based on the determination of glucose by changing the shade of the reagent. The electrochemical form shows the sugar level by measuring the current that appears during the process. Devices of modern types for measuring glycemia consist of a system with adjustable ejection of blades in order to pierce the skin, an electronic unit that is equipped with a liquid crystal display and test strips. Initially, nothing is particularly clear, the device seems strange and it's not at all clear how to use it. In fact, there is nothing wrong with that. Modern instruments allow you to quickly use them. After all, this device should be in the house of every person suffering from diabetes. Many people are interested in how the glucometer works , and how to measure the glucose level. So, as mentioned above, there are two principles of action. One of them is called photometric, the second - electromechanical. So, the first option works as follows. In the interaction of blood glucose and a special reagent that will be applied to the test strip, the latter stains blue. So the intensity of the shade depends on the Continue reading >>

Principles And Problems Of Blood Glucose Measurement

Principles And Problems Of Blood Glucose Measurement

Although blood glucose measurement is commonly performed, the use of a whole-blood sample introduces complications and compromise in terms of the assay principle, the method of calibration and the expression of results. Most point-of-care systems are calibrated against a method chosen by the manufacturer for reference purposes and assumptions are made, not necessarily valid ones, that blood samples from different individuals will behave similarly in both the reference and point-of-care methods. While most conventional laboratory techniques measure blood glucose as concentration in plasma or whole blood, direct-reading electrode systems measure it as molality in mmol/kg water, which is numerically greater, but results are often factorized and expressed, e.g. as plasma glucose concentration. However, there is inconsistency and the variety of techniques and principles leads to some difficulty in comparing results of blood glucose measurements by different methods. It has been proposed that some uncertainty could be eliminated by expressing all results as plasma glucose concentration, irrespective of specimen type or analytical method used. Variation in blood sampling site can also introduce errors, especially in point-of-care testing. Introduction The measurement of glucose is one of the longest established and most frequently performed tests in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Surprisingly, despite the availability of purified reference standards, calibration of blood glucose methods can be extremely complex and, in some cases, rather approximate. This often stems from the fact that different techniques assay the glucose present in different fractions of the blood sample. They may employ different analytical principles to do this and may even express the results in a Continue reading >>

The Principle Of Operation Of Meter Readings, Types, Types Of Device, Electrochemical

The Principle Of Operation Of Meter Readings, Types, Types Of Device, Electrochemical

The principle of operation of blood glucose meters Comparison of blood glucose meters The control solution is used to check glucose meters The accuracy and validation Batteries for blood glucose meters Blood glucose meters for different ages Laser glucose meters Repair and exchange of meters Monitors-glucometry Measurement of glucose level Glucometer-measuring cholesterol The rate of sugar by glucometer To obtain a glucometer free of charge Modern blood glucose meter called an electronic device used to measure the level of glucose contained in the blood (glycemia). As the world is experiencing a dramatic increase of people suffering from one or another type of diabetes, the role of the meter to date it is difficult to overestimate. the Principles of operation Principle of operation meter can be divided into two types - photometric (when the optical system of the device determines the glucose level to change the hue of the reagent) and electrochemical (this principle is based on the glucose contained in the blood by measuring the current that occurs during the reaction). Modern blood glucose meter, the principle of which allows you to accurately determine the sugar content in the blood, has become indispensable for many diabetics, both the first and second type of the disease. If we talk about the device meter, the appliances of the modern types for the measurement of glycemia in the blood consists of a system with adjustable ejection blade for piercing leather, electronic unit, equipped with LCD display and test strips. the Types of blood glucose meters Now a little about what are blood glucose meters. As mentioned above, types glucose meters are based on the principle of their work. There are photometric and electrochemical types of devices for measuring the level of g Continue reading >>

Glucometer

Glucometer

Adaptations to the Blood Glucose Meter Despite the controversy around the use of glucometers for diabetes management beyond that of insulin-treated patients, a large and growing industry has developed around the use of mobile technology for glycemic control. Many of these technologies transform the mobile platform into what would otherwise be a traditional glucometer, typically through the (physical or wireless) connection of an external hardware unit used to perform blood analysis. For example, the iBGStar® glucometer (AgaMatrix, Salem, NH; Sanofi-Aventis, Frankfurt, Germany) consists of a small hardware unit (for blood analysis) that plugs into the data port of an Apple iPhone® or iPod Touch®, automatically synching the blood glucose measurements (along with insulin and carbohydrate information) via the iBGStar Diabetes Manager software app for longitudinal tracking and review by the patient and healthcare provider. Several studies have evaluated the accuracy and performance of iBGStar in comparison with numerous traditional glucometers, finding close correlation between glucose measurements [5], no clinically relevant interference from hematocrit at high or low glucose concentrations [66], and <5% variation in inter- and intra-assay precision analyses [67]. These studies suggest that mobile-based glucometer solutions can achieve performance characteristics similar to those of traditional devices. While iBGStar and other similar technologies transform mobile platforms into traditional glucometers, other innovative approaches are under development, typically involving noninvasive means to measure glucose. For example, one approach uses chemical sensors in a contact lens to measure glucose concentration in tear fluid as a surrogate for blood glucose concentration [68 Continue reading >>

Glucometer - How To Use, What Is The Best Glucometer | Health Care Qsota

Glucometer - How To Use, What Is The Best Glucometer | Health Care Qsota

Glucometer a device for measuring the glucose level in organic fluids (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.). The meters are used for diagnostics of a condition of carbohydrate metabolism in persons with diabetes. Diabetes (lat. diabetes melltus) a group of endocrine diseases, developing as a consequence of absolute or relative insufficiency of insulin, resulting in hyperglycemia develops a persistent increase of glucose in the blood. The disease is characterized by a chronic course and a violation of all types of metabolism: carbohydrate, fat, protein, mineral and water and salt. Improper nutrition characterized by excess of fats and carbohydrates, stress, sedentary lifestyle these are just the main factors contributing to the development of diabetes. First quite rare, in the 21st century this disease became one of the most common on our planet, so many doctors are starting to speak about the epidemic of diabetes. And forecasts are disappointing: experts believe the UN in the field of health, the number of people with this disease in the near future will only increase. Today the diagnosis of diabetes is not a death sentence, and people who suffer from this disease, it can lead the same active lifestyle as everyone else. However, the overriding issue that sometimes depends their life itself, is the ability to control the level of sugar in the blood to avoid its uncontrolled recession or lifting, but if sharp fluctuations happen have to take all the necessary measures. Treatment and prevention of diabetes involves the use of insulin (for diabetes first type), physical activity and diet. When you use insulin the patient should strictly follow the diet by limiting the consumption of foods high in calories and carbohydrates. When insulin injections are also necessary to measur Continue reading >>

Glucose Meters: A Review Of Technical Challenges To Obtaining Accurate Results

Glucose Meters: A Review Of Technical Challenges To Obtaining Accurate Results

Go to: Introduction Glucose meters are widely used in hospitals, outpatient clinics, emergency rooms, ambulatory medical care (ambulances, helicopters, cruise ships), and home self-monitoring. Glucose meters provide fast analysis of blood glucose levels and allow management of both hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic disorders with the goal of adjusting glucose to a near-normal range, depending on the patient group. The development of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is probably the most important advance in controlling diabetes since the discovery of insulin in the 1920s and provides the ability for diabetes patients to test their own blood glucose and adjust insulin dosage to control their glucose needs. With the universal availability of glucose meters today, it is difficult to imagine that managing blood glucose was once considered impossible. The history of glucose meters started in 1963 when Ernie Adams invented the Dextrostix®, a paper strip that develops a blue color whose intensity was proportional to glucose concentration and could be read by visually comparing the strip color to a color-concentration chart. This method gave an approximation of the blood glucose level. In 1970, Anton H. Clemens developed the first blood glucose meter and glucose self-monitoring system, the Ames Reflectance Meter (ARM), to detect reflected light from a Dextrostix.1 This ARM weighed 3 lb, cost $650, and was intended for physician office use. Richard K. Bernstein was the first patient to test his blood glucose with an ARM.2 Medical journals at the time refused to publish this method, so Bernstein had to complete medical school at the age of 45 in order to gain attention for this method from the medical world. The idea of SMBG developed by Bernstein had to travel to Europe and Continue reading >>

A Guide To Understanding Blood Glucose Monitoring Sensors

A Guide To Understanding Blood Glucose Monitoring Sensors

Introduction Second-Generation Monitoring Device Advances in Blood Glucose Sensors References Introduction A glucose monitoring sensor is used to measure the concentration of blood glucose and is a key home glucose monitoring device for diabetes sufferers. The pathophysiology behind diabetes is based on a lack of insulin abundance which can be due to insufficient release of insulin from beta cells in the pancreas, or inactive insulin receptors that can no longer responds to insulin compounds. Diabetes type II is the most common type of diabetes and is prevalent among people whom are overweight or over middle age. The video below animates the pathophysiology to diabetes. With approximately 346 million people worldwide living with diabetes, it is no surprise that this disease is costly. An estimated 3.4 million sufferers of diabetes die from poor management of blood glucose. According to the World Health Organization, the number of deaths as a result of diabetes is estimated to double between the periods of 2005 and 2030. Poor diabetes management can be due to a number of factors including the patient’s diet and poor compliance to monitoring blood glucose levels on a regular basis. Glucose monitors are paramount to helping patients to regularly keep track of blood glucose levels and adjust their diet, medication, and exercise routine. Traditional methods to measure blood glucose involve measuring blood glucose levels in the lab which provides the most accurate representation of a patient’s blood glucose concentration. However, careful measurement techniques and regular extraction of sample blood can be physically demanding for the patient and time-consuming. Blood glucose monitoring techniques advanced by the 1980s, a time during which the healthcare industry stressed Continue reading >>

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