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Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus By Changes In Lifestyle

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus By Changes In Lifestyle Among Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus By Changes In Lifestyle Among Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance

Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Changes in Lifestyle among Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance for the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group Other authors were Sirkka Aunola, Ph.D., Research and Development Center, Social Insurance Institution, Turku; Zygimantas Cepaitis, Dipl.Eng., and Vladislav Moltchanov, Ph.D., Diabetes and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki; Martti Hakumki, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio; Marjo Mannelin, M.S., and Vesa Martikkala, M.S., Department of Sports Medicine, Oulu Deaconess Institute, Oulu; and Jouko Sundvall, M.S., Department of Biochemistry, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki all in Finland. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasingly common, primarily because of increases in the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Whether type 2 diabetes can be prevented by interventions that affect the lifestyles of subjects at high risk for the disease is not known. We randomly assigned 522 middle-aged, overweight subjects (172 men and 350 women; mean age, 55 years; mean body-mass index [weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 31) with impaired glucose tolerance to either the intervention group or the control group. Each subject in the intervention group received individualized counseling aimed at reducing weight, total intake of fat, and intake of saturated fat and increasing intake of fiber and physical activity. An oral glucose-tolerance test was performed annually; the diagnosis of diabetes was confirmed by a second test. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.2 years. The mean (SD) amount of weight lost between base line and the end of year 1 was 4.25.1 kg in Continue reading >>

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

INTRODUCTION Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative impairment in insulin secretion. Although the lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes is high, our ability to predict and prevent type 2 diabetes in the general population is limited. However, individuals at high risk, including those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), obesity, close relatives with type 2 diabetes, or who are members of certain ethnic groups (Asian, Hispanic, African American), are appropriate candidates for preventive interventions [1]. The prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus will be reviewed here. The prevalence, risk factors, and screening for type 2 diabetes are discussed elsewhere. (See "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus" and "Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus".) GOALS OF DIABETES PREVENTION The goals of diabetes prevention include: Delaying the onset of diabetes Preserving beta cell function Continue reading >>

A Demonstration Area For Type 2 Diabetes Prevention In Barranquilla And Juan Mina (colombia): Baseline Characteristics Of The Study Participants

A Demonstration Area For Type 2 Diabetes Prevention In Barranquilla And Juan Mina (colombia): Baseline Characteristics Of The Study Participants

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) imposes a heavy public health burden in both developed and developing countries. [1] The growing prevalence of T2D with its high morbidity and mortality will impose a heavy burden on healthcare systems. [2] The predicted number of diagnosed T2D patients will increase in Latin America and a large number of asymptomatic cases of T2D will remain undiagnosed. This is problematic, as asymptomatic T2D is associated with 2-fold and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) with 1.4-fold increased mortality. [3] People with a positive family history of diabetes mellitus have a higher likelihood of developing T2D once exposed to a lifestyle that enhances obesity (unhealthy diet and physical inactivity). [46] The treatment of T2D is difficult and regardless of pharmacological treatment, blood glucose levels have been shown to increase over time. [7] Therefore, primary T2D prevention strategies may be more efficient than secondary prevention approaches. In addition, the most common T2D complications (e.g., cardiovascular diseases) may be postponed by preventing the development of T2D, highlighting the importance of early T2D prevention in the susceptible population. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that T2D can be prevented or at least delayed. Early studies in Finland and the USA revealed that nutritional and physical activity interventions can decrease the relative risk of T2D up to 58% in people with IGT. [8,9] While these findings offer a compelling evidence base, it is necessary to understand how the prevention of T2D works in different settings and population groups. In addition, it is important to determine the extent to which each component (e.g., nutrition, physical activity, nutrition/physical activity) of lifestyle interventions works best in Continue reading >>

2002 - A Lifestyle Intervention Or Metformin Prevented Or Delayed The Onset Of Type 2 Diabetes In Persons At Risk | 2002 Sep-oct : Volume 137, Number 2, Page 55 | Acp Journal Club Archives

2002 - A Lifestyle Intervention Or Metformin Prevented Or Delayed The Onset Of Type 2 Diabetes In Persons At Risk | 2002 Sep-oct : Volume 137, Number 2, Page 55 | Acp Journal Club Archives

< Previous Article In This Issue Next Article In This Issue > A lifestyle intervention or metformin prevented or delayed the onset of type 2 diabetes in persons at risk ACP J Club. 2002 Sep-Oct;137:55. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2002-137-2-055 Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346:393-403. [PubMed ID: 11832527 ] (All 2002 articles were reviewed for relevancy, and abstracts were last revised in 2008.) In overweight persons with elevated fasting and postload plasma glucose levels, does an intensive lifestyle intervention or treatment with metformin plus standard lifestyle recommendations prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus? Randomized (allocation concealed*), blinded (clinicians and participants for metformin and placebo),* placebo-controlled trial with mean follow-up of 2.8 years. 3234 participants (mean age 51 y, 68% women) without diabetes who had a body mass index 24 kg/m2 (22 kg/m2 for Asians) and a plasma glucose level 5.3 to 6.9 mmol/L in the fasting state and 7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L 2 hours after a 75-g oral glucose load. Exclusion criteria included medications known to alter glucose tolerance and illnesses that could seriously reduce life expectancy or ability to participate in the trial. Follow-up was 93%. Participants were allocated to an intensive program of lifestyle modification (n =1079), standard lifestyle recommendations plus glucose control with metformin (850 mg twice daily) (n =1073), or placebo (n =1082). The intensive-lifestyle intervention consisted of a 16-lesson curriculum aimed at achieving and maintaining a weight reduction of 7% of initial body weight through a low-calorie, low-fat diet and physical activity of modera Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Your doctor’s just told you that you have prediabetes. That means there's a good chance you could get , but you don't have to. There are plenty of things you can do to try to prevent it. Focus on the things you can change, like your diet and how active you are. Don’t dwell on the things you can't do anything about, like your age or your family's medical history. Your doctor can let you know where you stand and what you can do to turn things around. Losing extra pounds, eating better, and becoming more active are some of the most important steps you can take. There are people who aren't overweight who have type 2 diabetes. But added pounds do put you at risk. In one study, being overweight or obese was the single most important thing that predicted who would get diabetes. The study results showed that over 16 years, regular exercise -- at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week -- and a low-fat, high-fiber diet helped prevent it. If you're at high risk for the disease, your doctor may recommend taking medication to hold it off. Several studies show that various types of diabetes drugs, along with a healthy lifestyle, can cut the odds that you'll get it One study showed that people most likely to get it could lower their odds by 31%. They took the prescription diabetes drug metformin and made lifestyle and diet changes. That's good. But the study also showed that drastic lifestyle changes are the best way to avoid diabetes. You'll need to work with a dietitian to come up with a meal plan and talk to a trainer about how to get more exercise. Continue reading >>

Primary Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes: Lifestyle Intervention Works And Saves Money, But What Should Be Done With Smokers?

Primary Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes: Lifestyle Intervention Works And Saves Money, But What Should Be Done With Smokers?

Primary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Lifestyle Intervention Works and Saves Money, but What Should Be Done with Smokers? From University of Helsinki, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland, and South Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, Seinajki, Finland. Author, Article, and Disclosure Information From University of Helsinki, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland, and South Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, Seinajki, Finland. Grant Support: By the Academy of Finland (46558). Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: Honoraria: Merck & Co., Inc.; Stock ownership or option (other than mutual funds): Orion Pharma; Grants received: AstraZeneca, Novartis. Requests for Single Reprints: Jaakko Tuomilehto, MD, PhD, MPolSc, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland; e-mail, [email protected] . Reducing the risk factors that diseases have in common may prove to be an efficient prevention strategy (1, 2) . For example, major risk factors, including obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia, predict the development of several chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and dementia (3-5) . Although one risk factor may confer a greater risk for a certain disease outcome than another risk factor, these risk factors are correlated and seem to operate in concert. A successful preventive intervention must, therefore, target several risk factors simultaneously (2, 6) . This characteristic of preventive interventions means that they are necessarily complex and require considerable resources. Continue reading >>

Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Prevented In Uk General Practice? A Lifestyle-change Feasibility Study (isaiah)

Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Prevented In Uk General Practice? A Lifestyle-change Feasibility Study (isaiah)

Background The increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is attributed to increasing weight, reduced physical activity, and poor diet quality. Lifestyle change in patients with pre-diabetes can reduce progression to diabetes but this is difficult to achieve in practice. Aim To study the effectiveness of a lifestyle-change intervention for pre-diabetes in general practice. Method Participants were 33 patients with pre-diabetes. The intervention was a 6-month delayed entry comparison of usual treatment with a lifestyle-change programme: increased exercise and diet change, either reduction in glycaemic load, or reduced-fat diet. The main outcome measures were weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipid profile, and nutrition. Results A statistically significant difference was observed between control and intervention groups in three markers for risk of progression to diabetes (weight (P<0.03), BMI (P<0.03), and waist circumference (P<0.001)). No significant differences in fasting glucose or lipid profiles were seen. Aggregated data showed a statistically non-significant improvement in all the measures of metabolic risk of progression to diabetes in the low-glycaemic-load group when compared with a low-fat-diet group (P>0.05). Significant total energy, fat, and carbohydrate intake reduction was achieved and maintained in both groups. Conclusion A lifestyle-change intervention feasibility programme for pre-diabetic patients was implemented in general clinical practice. The potential of a low-glycaemic-load diet to be more effective than a low-fat diet in promoting change in the features associated with progression to diabetes is worthy of further investigation. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been rising steadily in the UK Continue reading >>

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Through Lifestyle Modification: Is There A Role For Higher-protein Diets?

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Through Lifestyle Modification: Is There A Role For Higher-protein Diets?

Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes through Lifestyle Modification: Is There a Role for Higher-Protein Diets? Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected] . Search for other works by this author on: Author disclosures: SDP holds the Fonterra Chair in Human Nutrition. AY Liu, MP Silvestre, and SD Poppitt, no conflicts of interest. Advances in Nutrition, Volume 6, Issue 6, 1 November 2015, Pages 665673, Amy Y Liu, Marta P Silvestre, Sally D Poppitt; Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes through Lifestyle Modification: Is There a Role for Higher-Protein Diets?, Advances in Nutrition, Volume 6, Issue 6, 1 November 2015, Pages 665673, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence is increasing worldwide, driven by a rapidly changing environment and lifestyle and increasing rates of overweight and obesity. Prevention of diabetes is key and is most likely achieved through prevention of weight gain and/or successful long-term weight loss maintenance. Weight loss is readily achievable but there is considerable challenge in maintaining that weight loss over the long term. Lower-fat carbohydrate-based diets are widely used for T2D prevention. This is supported primarily by 3 successful long-term interventions, the US Diabetes Prevention Program, the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, and the Chinese Da Qing Study, but evidence is building in support of novel higher-protein (>20% of energy) diets for successful weight loss maintenance and prevention of T2D. Higher-protein diets have the advantage of having relatively low energy density, aiding longer-term appetite suppression, and preserving lean body mass, all central to successful weight loss and prevent Continue reading >>

Prevention Of T2dm: Supporting Lifestyle Behaviour Change

Prevention Of T2dm: Supporting Lifestyle Behaviour Change

Prevention of T2DM: Supporting lifestyle behaviour change This page describes evidence-based methods for promoting change in lifestyle behaviour. The focus is on promoting changes in diet and physical activity, which are the key behavioural targets for preventing progression to type 2 diabetes. Fig.1: A meta-analysis of 23 real world diabetes prevention programmes demonstrates the wide variation in success in promoting weight loss through behaviour change.[3]Changes in diet and physical activity are central to non-pharmacological efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes. The primary driver of the diabetes prevention effect seems to be via weight loss [1] [2] . However, programmes that aim to achieve weight loss through lifestyle behaviour change get very mixed results (Fig.1) [3] , so how can we invest our (usually scarce) resources wisely to maximise the likelihood of success? A strategy for supporting behaviour change Evidence from systematic reviews of interventions to change diet and/or physical activity [4] and widespread consultation with experts in the field has informed recommendations for the optimal content of diabetes prevention programmes[1][2]. These can be summarised as follows: Provide specially designed and quality-assured intensive lifestyle-change programmes for groups of 1015 people at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Aim to promote changes in both diet and physical activity. Use established, well defined behaviour change techniques[1] [5] . Engage social support (involve a family member, friend or carer who can offer informational, emotional, or practical support to help them make the necessary changes). Build on a coherent set of self-regulatory intervention techniques (specific goal setting; prompting self-monitoring; providing feedback on perfo Continue reading >>

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus By Changes In Lifestyle Among Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus By Changes In Lifestyle Among Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. [email protected] N Engl J Med. 2001 May 3;344(18):1343-50. BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasingly common, primarily because of increases in the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Whether type 2 diabetes can be prevented by interventions that affect the lifestyles of subjects at high risk for the disease is not known. METHODS: We randomly assigned 522 middle-aged, overweight subjects (172 men and 350 women; mean age, 55 years; mean body-mass index [weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 31) with impaired glucose tolerance to either the intervention group or the control group. Each subject in the intervention group received individualized counseling aimed at reducing weight, total intake of fat, and intake of saturated fat and increasing intake of fiber and physical activity. An oral glucose-tolerance test was performed annually; the diagnosis of diabetes was confirmed by a second test. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.2 years. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SD) amount of weight lost between base line and the end of year 1 was 4.2+/-5.1 kg in the intervention group and 0.8+/-3.7 kg in the control group; the net loss by the end of year 2 was 3.5+/-5.5 kg in the intervention group and 0.8+/-4.4 kg in the control group (P<0.001 for both comparisons between the groups). The cumulative incidence of diabetes after four years was 11 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 6 to 15 percent) in the intervention group and 23 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 29 percent) in the control group. During t Continue reading >>

Prevention Of Diabetes Mellitus In Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance In The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study: Results From A Randomized Clinical Trial

Prevention Of Diabetes Mellitus In Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance In The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study: Results From A Randomized Clinical Trial

Design of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study The design of the DPS has been described in detail elsewhere ( 11,14 ). Overweight subjects, i.e., body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 with IGT aged 40 to 65 yr, were eligible for the study. The study subjects were recruited through various methods. People who in earlier epidemiologic surveys had been found eligible were contacted. Subjects were also recruited through advertising in local newspapers and by opportunistic population screenings with special emphasis on the high risk groups such as obese subjects and first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients. IGT was defined as a 2-h plasma glucose concentration of 140 to 200 mg/dl in subjects whose fasting plasma glucose concentration was less than 140 mg/dl ( 15 ). The test was repeated after the first positive test and the mean of the two 2-h plasma glucose values had to be within the IGT range for inclusion into the study. Altogether, 522 subjects in five study centers were randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups. The subjects in the control group were given general verbal and written diet and exercise information at baseline and at subsequent annual visits but no specific individual tailoring was performed. The subjects in the intervention group were given detailed advice about how to achieve the intervention goals, which were reduction in weight of 5% or more, total fat intake less than 30% of energy consumed, saturated fat intake less than 10% of energy consumed, fiber intake of 15 g/1000 kcal, and moderate exercise for 30 min/d or more. Frequent ingestion of wholemeal products, vegetables, berries and fruit, low-fat milk and meat products, soft margarines, and vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids were recommended. The dietary advice wa Continue reading >>

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence And Strategies

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence And Strategies

Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence and Strategies Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management. 2017 April;24(4) 1. International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes facts and figures. www.idf.org/about-diabetes/facts-figures . Accessed on January 29, 2017. 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes statistics report, 2014. www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/statsreport14/national-diabetes-report-web.pdf . Accessed on January 29, 2017. 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Number of Americans with diabetes projected to double or triple by 2050. www.cdc.gov/media/pressrel/2010/r101022.html . Accessed on January 29, 2017. 4. World Health Organization (WHO). Diabetes fact sheet. No. 312. November 2016. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/ . Accessed on January 29, 2017. 5. Karam JG, McFarlane SI. Update on the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep 2011;11:5663. 6. Menke A, Rust KF, Fradkin J, et al. Associations between trends in race/ethnicity, aging, and body mass index with diabetes prevalence in the United States: a series of cross-sectional studies. Ann Intern Med 2014;161:32885. 7. Ford ES, Li C, Sattar N . Metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes: current state of the evidence. Diabetes Care 2008;31:1898904. 8. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes2017. Diabetes Care 2017;40(Suppl. 1). 9. Kruszynska YT, Olefsky JM. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Investig Med 1996;44:41328.. 10. Butler AE, Janson J, Bonner-Weir S, et al. Beta-cell deficit and increased beta-cell apoptosis in humans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2003;52:10210. 11. Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia. Report of a WHO and IDF Consultation. 2006. 43588/ Continue reading >>

The Effectiveness Of Lifestyle Adaptation For The Prevention Of Prediabetes In Adults: A Systematic Review

The Effectiveness Of Lifestyle Adaptation For The Prevention Of Prediabetes In Adults: A Systematic Review

The Effectiveness of Lifestyle Adaptation for the Prevention of Prediabetes in Adults: A Systematic Review 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine South Block, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2HA, UK 2University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, NCMH Building, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK 3Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, Abant zzet Baysal University, Glky, 14280 Bolu, Turkey 4Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Park, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK Correspondence should be addressed to Gary G. Adams ; [email protected] Received 10 November 2016; Accepted 26 February 2017; Published 16 April 2017 Copyright 2017 George Kerrison et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. L. Guariguata, D. R. Whiting, I. Hambleton, J. Beagley, U. Linnenkamp, and J. E. Shaw, Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035, Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 137149, 2014. View at Publisher View at Google Scholar View at Scopus D. Meetoo, Diabetes: complications and the economic burden, British Journal of Health Care Management, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 6067, 2014. View at Publisher View at Google Scholar View at Scopus Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC), Quality and Outcomes Framework Achievement, Prevalence and Exception Data, 2012/13, 2013, . N. Hex, C. Bartlett, D. Wright, M. Taylor, and D. Varley, Estimating the current and future costs of Type1 and Type2 diabetes in the UK, including direct health costs an Continue reading >>

Is Prevention The Solution To The Worldwide Epidemic Explosion Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Is Prevention The Solution To The Worldwide Epidemic Explosion Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Is Prevention the Solution to the Worldwide Epidemic Explosion of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? European Endocrinology, 2006(1):19-22; DOI: Citation European Endocrinology, 2006(1):19-22; DOI: In the last two decades, the worldwide explosion in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a major societal challenge of the 21st century.1 Diabetes still remains the first cause of blindness below the age of 65 in industrialised countries, the first cause of end-stage renal disease and non-traumatic amputation, and a major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For these reasons, it has a strong impact on healthcare costs.2,3 Type 2 diabetes generally develops in genetically susceptible individuals with superimposed environmental and behavioural factors mainly sedentary lifestyle and obesity. These two conditions will lead to development of insulin resistance, one of the major metabolic impairments involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. But it is only when the pancreatic beta cells fail to fully compensate for this insulin resistance that glucose intolerance will appear as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (postprandial hyperglycemia) and/or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (mild fasting hyperglycemia).4 These two entities are now recognised as pre-diabetic states as both are associated with a very high risk of progressing to overt diabetes. It has to be remembered that glucose intolerance is usually part of a cluster of risk factors for CVD including hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity called the metabolic syndrome, with insulin resistance as the common denominator.5 But IGT and diabetes per se are an independent risk factor for CVD.6 The concept of prevention of type 2 diabetes has now been confirmed by a number of studies showing that both non- Continue reading >>

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Requires Both Intensive Lifestyle Interventions And Population-wide Approaches

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Requires Both Intensive Lifestyle Interventions And Population-wide Approaches

Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Requires BOTH Intensive Lifestyle Interventions and Population-Wide Approaches Evidence-Based Diabetes Management > May 2015 Published on: May 18, 2015 Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Requires BOTH Intensive Lifestyle Interventions and Population-Wide Approaches The CDC's director of the Division of Diabetes Translation discusses the scientific evidence that supports the need for both lifestyle interventions and population-level efforts to combat type 2 diabetes in the United States. More than 29 million people in the United States have diabetes, up from the previous estimate of 26 million in 2010, according to the latest report from the CDC. Another 86 million adults more than 1 in 3 have prediabetes, meaning that their blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to classify them as having type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).1 Only about 10% of these people know they have prediabetes.2 The costs for treating and managing diabetes continue to rise. Besides the actual daily demands of the condition, the American Diabetes Associations estimate is $245 billion annually in direct and indirect costs.3 We cannot afford to continue on this path. It is imperative that we make meaningful strides in preventing dia-betes as we continue to improve treatment and look for cures. The growing epidemic of T2DM has strong roots in modern culture. People are busy, stressed, and eat on the run. Many people live in neighborhoods that promote poor health, and have high rates of poverty and crime.4 The Social-Ecological Model provides a framework for understanding the multiple levels of influence on health behavior.5 Its concentric circles describe 4 levels; beginning at the core and moving outward, these are labeled: individual, family, friends, s Continue reading >>

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