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Prevention Of Diabetic Foot

Amputation And Diabetes: How To Protect Your Feet

Amputation And Diabetes: How To Protect Your Feet

Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that are difficult to treat and may require amputation. Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood circulation. These problems make the feet vulnerable to skin sores (ulcers) that can worsen quickly. The good news is that proper diabetes management and careful foot care can help prevent foot ulcers. In fact, better diabetes care is probably why the rates of lower limb amputations have gone down by more than 50 percent in the past 20 years. When foot ulcers do develop, it's important to get prompt care. More than 80 percent of amputations begin with foot ulcers. A nonhealing ulcer that causes severe damage to tissues and bone may require surgical removal (amputation) of a toe, foot or part of a leg. Some people with diabetes are more at risk than others. Factors that lead to an increased risk of an amputation include: High blood sugar levels Smoking Nerve damage in the feet (peripheral neuropathy) Calluses or corns Foot deformities Poor blood circulation to the extremities (peripheral artery disease) A history of foot ulcers A past amputation Vision impairment Kidney disease High blood pressure, above 140/80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) Here's what you need to know to keep your feet healthy, the signs you need to see a doctor and what happens if amputation is necessary. Preventing foot ulcers The best strategy for preventing complications of diabetes — including foot ulcers — is proper diabetes management with a healthy diet, regular exercise, blood sugar monitoring and adherence to a prescribed medication regimen. Proper foot care will help prevent problems with your feet and ensure prompt medical care when problems occur. Tips for proper foot care include the followin Continue reading >>

Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Prevention, Diagnosis And Classification

Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Prevention, Diagnosis And Classification

Diabetic ulcers are the most common foot injuries leading to lower extremity amputation. Family physicians have a pivotal role in the prevention or early diagnosis of diabetic foot complications. Management of the diabetic foot requires a thorough knowledge of the major risk factors for amputation, frequent routine evaluation and meticulous preventive maintenance. The most common risk factors for ulcer formation include diabetic neuropathy, structural foot deformity and peripheral arterial occlusive disease. A careful physical examination, buttressed by monofilament testing for neuropathy and noninvasive testing for arterial insufficiency, can identify patients at risk for foot ulcers and appropriately classify patients who already have ulcers or other diabetic foot complications. Patient education regarding foot hygiene, nail care and proper footwear is crucial to reducing the risk of an injury that can lead to ulcer formation. Adherence to a systematic regimen of diagnosis and classification can improve communication between family physicians and diabetes subspecialists and facilitate appropriate treatment of complications. This team approach may ultimately lead to a reduction in lower extremity amputations related to diabetes. Diabetic foot complications are the most common cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputations in the industrialized world. The risk of lower extremity amputation is 15 to 46 times higher in diabetics than in persons who do not have diabetes mellitus.1,2 Furthermore, foot complications are the most frequent reason for hospitalization in patients with diabetes, accounting for up to 25 percent of all diabetic admissions in the United States and Great Britain.3–5 The vast majority of diabetic foot complications resulting in amputation begin w Continue reading >>

Patient Education For The Prevention Of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Patient Education For The Prevention Of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Patient education for the prevention of diabetic foot ulcers Interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial due to morbidity and mortality of participants Malm University Faculty of Health and Society, Malm, Sweden Skne University Hospital Department of Endocrinology, Malm, Sweden Malm University, Faculty of Health and Society, 205 06 Malm, Sweden Malm University Faculty of Health and Society, Malm, Sweden Skne University Hospital Department of Endocrinology, Malm, Sweden Malm University, Faculty of Health and Society, 205 06 Malm, Sweden Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. This study was designed to explore whether participantdriven patient education in group sessions, compared to provision of standard information, will contribute to a statistically significant reduction in new ulceration during 24 months in patients with diabetes and high risk of ulceration. This is an interim analysis after six months. A randomised controlled study was designed in accordance with CONSORT criteria. Inclusion criteria were: age 3579 years old, diabetes mellitus, sensory neuropathy, and healed foot ulcer below the ankle; 657 patients (both male and female) were consecutively screened. A total of 131 patients (35 women) were included in the study. Interim analysis of 98 patients after six months was done due to concerns about the patients' ability to fulfil the study per protocol. After a sixmonth follow up, 42% had developed a new foot ulcer and there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The number of patients was Continue reading >>

Prevention Of Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Prevention Of Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran 1Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran 2Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Correspondence to: Assistant Prof. Gholamreza Askari, Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. E-mail: [email protected] Received 2012 Jan 27; Accepted 2012 Oct 12. Copyright : International Journal of Preventive Medicine This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. It is estimated that on an average 7% of the world population are diabetics now and this number is estimated to increase to 8.3% by 2030. It is also estimated that 80% of the diabetics patients live in developing countries.[ 1 ] On an average every 30 s an extremity is amputated due to complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the majority of these amputations are secondary to foot ulcers.[ 2 ] Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is not only a patient problem but also a major health care concern throughout the world. Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the common and serious complications in diabetic patients. Treatment of infection in diabetic ulcer is difficult and expensive. Patients usually need to take long-term medications or become hospitalized for an extended period of time. It is estimated that usually 15-25% of diabetic patients develop DFU during their life-time.[ 3 ] On the other hand, more than 70% of patien Continue reading >>

Preventing Diabetic Foot Infections

Preventing Diabetic Foot Infections

Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit familydoctor.org , the AAFP patient education website. See related article on diabetic foot infections If you have diabetes, you can develop sores or wounds on your feet. These sores are called ulcers. If a foot ulcer does not heal, it could get infected. However, if you watch your diabetes carefully and take good care of your feet, you can usually prevent infection. Here are some tips to help you avoid an infection. Do inspect your feet daily. Look for redness, pain, blisters, cuts, scratches, or other sores. If you can't see your feet, use a mirror or ask a family member or caretaker for help. Do wear comfortable shoes. Make sure to check the inside of your shoes and feel around for anything that could rub against your feet. Do wash your feet regularly. Dry them carefully, especially between the toes. Do use lubricants (LOO-brih-cantz) or moisturizers (MOYS-chur-eyes-urz) to keep your skin from getting dry or cracking. These also prevent calluses from forming. Do cut your nails straight across, and avoid cutting into the corners of the nails. If the edge of your nail is sharp, file it down to make it smooth. If you can't feel your toes, don't cut your own nails. A special foot doctor called a podiatrist (poh-DYE-uh-trist) should check your nails regularly. Do avoid extremely hot or cold temperatures. Always test the temperature of the water before you take a bath or shower. Do visit your doctor or a podiatrist right away if you find anything wrong with your feet. Don't walk barefoot indoors or outdoors, or use adhesive tape on Continue reading >>

Diabetic Foot | The Bmj

Diabetic Foot | The Bmj

Satish Chandra Mishra, consultant surgeon and scientist 1 , 1Department of Surgery, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Hospital, Mumbai, India 3Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India 4Global Health and Development Group, Imperial College London, St Marys Hospital, London, UK Correspondence to: A Mehndiratta abha{at}mail.harvard.edu Diabetic foot can be prevented with good glycaemic control, regular foot assessment, appropriate footwear, patient education, and early referral for pre-ulcerative lesions Examine the feet of people with diabetes for any lesions and screen for peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease, which can lead to injuries or ulceration Refer patients with foot ulceration and signs of infection, sepsis, or ischaemia immediately to a specialised diabetic foot centre for surgical care, revascularisation, and rehabilitation Foot disease affects nearly 6% of people with diabetes 1 and includes infection, ulceration, or destruction of tissues of the foot. 2 It can impair patients quality of life and affect social participation and livelihood. 3 Between 0.03% and 1.5% of patients with diabetic foot require an amputation. 4 Most amputations start with ulcers and can be prevented with good foot care and screening to assess the risk for foot complications. 5 We provide an update on the prevention and initial management of diabetic foot in primary care. This clinical update is based on recommendations in the standard treatment guideline, The diabetic foot: prevention and management in India 2016, published by the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 33 A multidisciplinary guideline development group consisting of surgeons, primary care practitioners, and a patient representative developed these Continue reading >>

Prevention And Early Intervention For Diabetes Foot Problems

Prevention And Early Intervention For Diabetes Foot Problems

Prevention and Early Intervention for Diabetes Foot Problems Research articles, most published since 1990, were identified and retrieved through computerized searches of the National Library of Medicine database (MEDLINE). This review is not meant to summarize the entire literature on the subject, but rather to present a condensation and consolidation of the major findings concerned with prevention of and early intervention for diabetes foot disease. Key points are highlighted in boldface. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' report specifying health objectives for the nation, Healthy People 2000, calls for a 40 percent overall reduction in lower extremity amputations (LEA) due to diabetes by the year 2000. A special population target goal for amputations is to reduce the 1984-87 rate of amputations in African Americans from 10.2 to 6.1 per 1,000 by the year 20001. These goals are based on the estimate that at least 50 percent of the amputations that occur each year in people with diabetes can be prevented through proper foot care. To achieve the targeted 40 percent reduction, at least 80 percent of people with diabetes at high risk for lower extremity amputations must receive effective clinical management and foot care1. Current data indicate that on average, 50 to 60 percent of patients with diabetes have a semi-annual foot examination2,3. Analysis of a statewide California hospital discharge database indicated that in 1991, the age-adjusted incidence of diabetes-related lower extremity amputations per 10,000 people with diabetes was 95.3 in African Americans, 56.0 in non-Hispanic whites, and 44.4 in Hispanics. Amputations were 1.72 and 2.17 times more likely in African Americans compared with non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics, respectively. Hispanics ha Continue reading >>

Foot Care For People With Diabetes: Prevention Of Complications And Treatment

Foot Care For People With Diabetes: Prevention Of Complications And Treatment

This article for nurses on foot care for people with diabetes is the second in a series of five evidence reviews being written by Sarah Chapman for the British Journal of Community Nursing through 2017. It was published there in April. The prevalence of diabetes, one of the most common chronic conditions in the UK, is increasing. In England, the number of people diagnosed with diabetes rose from 1.9 million in 2006 to 2.9 million in 2013 and this is expected to rise to more than 5 million by 2025. The life expectancy of people with diabetes is shortened by up to 15 years, and 75% die of macrovascular complications (NICE, 2016). Diabetic neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease put people with diabetes at greater risk of foot problems and it is estimated that one in ten will have a foot ulcer due to diabetes during their lives. Diabetes is also the most common cause of limb amputation not associated with trauma, and 80% of these amputations will be preceded by foot ulceration (NICE, 2016). Foot ulcers have a significant impact on people’s quality of life, while the annual cost to the NHS of foot ulcers or amputations was estimated to be around £650 million in 2012, or £1 in every £150. There is considerable regional variation in services and practice for preventing and treating foot problems in people with diabetes, highlighted by NICE in their latest guideline on Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management (NICE, 2016). Evidence-based practice in foot care for people with diabetes Evidence-based practice is the use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients combined with clinical expertise and the patient’s preferences and values (Sackett DL et al, 1996). This evidence review will focus on Cochrane reviews relevant Continue reading >>

Idf Clinical Practice Recommendations On The Diabetic Foot

Idf Clinical Practice Recommendations On The Diabetic Foot

Long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually. The longer you have diabetes — and the less controlled your blood sugar — the higher the risk of complications. With the growing number of people living with diabetes worldwide, healthcare professionals are encouraged to pay attention to the major complications of diabetes in their daily practice. It is therefore IDF’s vision is to develop a series clinical practice recommendations for health care professionals on specific topics, with the aim of creating clinical guidelines in an easily digestible and user-friendly format, adaptable to any country, region or health setting. Diabetic foot disease, mainly due to neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, and/or infection, often leads to ulceration and possible subsequent limb amputation. It is one of the most costly complications of diabetes, and can result in an important economic, social, and public health burden; especially in low-income communities, if there is neither an appropriate educational programme, nor adequate and suitable footwear. The IDF Clinical Practice Recommendations on the Diabetic Foot are simplified, easy to digest guidelines to prioritize health care practitioner's early intervention of the diabetic foot with a sense of urgency through education. The main aims of the guidelines are to promote early detection and intervention; provide the criteria for time- adequate referral to a second or third level centers and serve as a tool to educate people with diabetes about the importance of prevention of this pathology. They are also designed to provide clinicians with practice recommendations based on published evidence, which have been validated through reviews and field-testing by experienced diabetic foot care clinicians. They not only target Continue reading >>

Diabetic Foot Ulcer: Treatment And Prevention

Diabetic Foot Ulcer: Treatment And Prevention

Diabetic Foot Ulcer: Treatment and Prevention Submitted by WoundSource Editors on November 9th, 2017 Estimates are that by 2030 there will be 550 million individuals with diabetes in the world. Because almost a quarter of all people with diabetes will develop a foot ulcer at some point, health care workers need to know the best practices for diabetic foot ulcer prevention and treatment. Determining which diabetic foot ulcer type is important to determine an effective treatment. Here are the different types of these wounds: Neuropathic ulcers arise when the nerve damage from diabetic neuropathy causes the individual with diabetes to not feel pain from an injury, which often leads to the ulcer progressing substantially before the person is even aware of it. Foot and toe deformities, corns, calluses and areas repetitive stress are likely places of injury. Footwear can not only hide these issues, but can exacerbate the injury if the shoe is ill-fitting. Ischemic ulcers or arterial ulcers as they are sometimes called may occur due to lack of blood flow to the extremity. When an ulcer occurs as the result of an injury to the extremity, the lack of blood flow makes these ulcers difficult to heal. Neuroischemic ulcers occur in individuals with both neuropathy and poor arterial blood flow and are the most difficult to heal. Infected wounds occur in about half of patients with a diabetic foot ulcer and require particularly close care. The first step in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers is to remove necrotic wound tissue from the wound. It is essential that the method of debridement utilized does not damage nerves, tendons, and blood vessels. Since many people with diabetes don't feel pain from the wound site, health care practitioners can't rely on the patient to let them know w Continue reading >>

Preventing Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Preventing Diabetic Foot Ulcers

One of the most common injuries in people with diabetes—a condition in which the body has trouble regulating blood sugar levels—is an open sore, or ulcer, that forms on the foot. If you have diabetes, NYU Langone doctors advise taking steps to prevent foot ulcers, or prevent them from worsening. Without treatment, even a small blister on the foot can become an open sore in a matter of days. Because people with diabetes often have nerve damage called peripheral neuropathy, which prevents them from feeling foot pain, any type of blister, cut, or scrape may go unnoticed. Diabetes is also associated with reduced blood flow in the legs and feet, called lower extremity arterial disease. This can slow the rate of healing, so that once an ulcer develops, it may take weeks or months to fully heal. Because an ulcer is an open sore, the risk of infection is high. An infection that starts in an ulcer can travel through the bloodstream to a bone in the foot. An infection in the bone can pose a serious health risk and, in severe instances, may require amputation of the affected foot. Diabetic foot ulcers can be preventable. Doctors at NYU Langone recommend daily foot inspections so any injury can be addressed right away, before it becomes an open sore. Managing your blood sugar levels and maintaining a healthy weight can help your body remain healthy, which can speed healing. Daily Foot Inspection NYU Langone podiatrists and orthopaedic surgeons encourage people with diabetes to inspect both feet daily for blisters, cuts, scratches, and ingrown toenails. It’s also important to check the bottom of each foot with a mirror, since blisters often form there. Doctors also recommend monitoring your feet for signs of infection, including redness, swelling, and warmth. If you notice the Continue reading >>

Top 5 Causes Of Non-healing Diabetic Foot Ulcers (and How To Prevent Them)

Top 5 Causes Of Non-healing Diabetic Foot Ulcers (and How To Prevent Them)

If you have diabetes, your blood sugar levels are higher than normal. Over time, this can cause complications with other bodily functions, especially within the feet. In fact, diabetic foot ulcers, open wounds that occur in approximately 15 percent of diabetics, are the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in the United States. Read on to learn the top five causes of non-healing diabetic foot ulcers, as well as important information on how to prevent complications before they occur. 1. High Blood Sugar Levels Diabetes is a metabolic disease that causes elevated levels of glucose in the blood. Elevated blood glucose levels stiffen the body’s arteries and narrow its blood vessels, restricting the delivery of the blood and oxygen needed to support the body’s natural healing abilities. 2. Poor Circulation Individuals with diabetes are at an increased risk for peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a condition that restricts blood flow to the feet and legs. PAD is especially problematic for those with chronic wounds, particularly diabetic foot ulcers, because it can seriously inhibit the body’s ability to heal. If left untreated, PAD can lead to amputation of the affected limb. 3. Nerve Damage Uncontrolled blood sugar levels can lead to nerve damage in people with diabetes. Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disease that causes a loss of sensation, including the ability to feel pain. For those with nerve damage, a small cut, blister or surgical wound on the foot can go unnoticed and untreated, leading to infection and interference with diabetic foot ulcer recovery. 4. Immune System Issues One of the roles the body’s immune system is to clear away dead, damaged tissue and build new skin cells once a wound or injury has occurred. Diabetes can Continue reading >>

Preventing Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A 4-pronged Approach

Preventing Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A 4-pronged Approach

Lisa Nhan, DPM,Michael B. Strauss, MD, Stuart S. Miller, MD ABSTRACT: In the first part of this article (November 2013) , we discussed the various precursors and risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs)including joint contractures, arthridities, and callus formation, to name a few. In this article, we will summarize a 4-prong approach to preventing DFUs. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The adage an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure is particularly appropriate when talking about prevention of DFUs. Although the majority of DFUs will eventually heal with off-loading and appropriate wound care, the real measures of successful outcomes are durability and restoration of function. A 4-pronged approach including patient education, foot skin and toenail care, appropriate footwear selection, and proactive surgical interventions are the essential measures for prevention of new and recurrent DFUs (Figure 1). In our experiences with healed DFU, lower limb amputations proximal to the midfoot/hindfoot level have only been required in 5 specific situations: Figure 1. There are 4 essentials for preventing DFU. When fully implemented almost all new andrecurrent foot wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Prevention starts withpatient education, an important role of the PCP. Foot skin & toenail care and protective footwear(yellow boxes) are defensive measures that should be done for all patients with DM. When theneed arises, proactive surgeries (red box) are indicated and considered an offensive measure. Patients with uncontrollable deformities of the foot. Patients with pernicious collagen vascular diseases. A subset of patients who hav Continue reading >>

8 Daily Habits For Preventing Diabetic Foot Ulcers

8 Daily Habits For Preventing Diabetic Foot Ulcers

If you have diabetes, it is critical that you have regular foot exams, at least every six months, by your doctor or a foot health professional—such as a podiatrist. A foot exam can reveal a lesion that hasn’t healed or may be infected. You may not feel pain, but that doesn’t mean you’re not at risk. Any untreated foot infection increases the risk of amputation. Also, do daily foot inspections yourself. Look and feel for bumps, lumps, blisters or bruises; cuts, sores or cracked skin; patches of thin or shiny skin, which can signal lack of blood flow; tingling or numbness; ingrown toenails with red, puffy skin along the nail and tenderness or pain. Check the bottom of your feet with a hand mirror if you aren’t flexible enough to look at the soles. See a health professional to treat any of these conditions. Follow these additional tips to keep your feet healthy and free of sores and infections: 1. Clean and dry Wash your feet every day with lukewarm water, making sure to dry them thoroughly, especially between and under toes; athlete’s foot or other fungal infections can occur in moist areas of the feet. 2. Fit and trim Trim your toenails regularly or have a foot health professional do it for you. 3. Keep your hands to yourself Don’t cut or file calluses or other protrusions on your feet and don’t use wart removers or other harsh chemicals. 4. Get comfy Have new shoes properly measured and fitted—don’t wear shoes that are too loose or too tight. 5. Search your shoes Check inside shoes daily for sharp points, sharp edges, seams or other rough areas or foreign objects that may lead to cuts, wounds or abrasions. 6. Stay sweat-free Wear padded socks made of acrylic or acrylic blends to protect feet and keep moisture away. 7. Go with the flow Walk as much as Continue reading >>

5 Tips For Preventing Diabetic Foot Ulcers

5 Tips For Preventing Diabetic Foot Ulcers

5 Tips for Preventing Diabetic Foot Ulcers Quitting smoking is one of the many ways to reduce the risk of diabetic foot ulcers. People who suffer from diabetes must take special care Quitting smoking is one of the many ways to reduce the risk of diabetic foot ulcers. People who suffer from diabetes must take special care of their feet, as they are at a higher risk of infection and necrosis that can lead toamputation. In fact, the International Diabetes Federationreported that people with diabetes may be as much as 25 times more likely to require amputation than those without the metabolic condition. The increased prevalence of infection among diabetics is due to a lack of sensitivity in the lower extremities caused by reduced blood flow and nerve damage. This can make it difficult for diabetics to notice when they have a sore or an infection that needs special care. Recognizing when you have a sore or infection is essential to knowing when you require specialized diabetic foot ulcer care. However, the best way to care for your feet is to prevent these wounds in the first place, such as with these protective measure: Check your feet daily: Since people with diabetes may be less aware of pain in their feet due to decreased sensitivity, its important to inspect ones feet on a regular basis. Keep an eye open for cuts, cracks, blisters and other signs of the beginning of a wound. Use a mirror if youre having trouble seeing the bottoms of your feet, or ask for help from a friend or family member. Keep your feet clean: Wash your feet everyday with mild soap and lukewarm water. Dry them gently with a towel, being sure to get between the toes. You may want to finish off with moisturizer on the tops and bottoms of feet (to reduce the risk of blistering) and talcum powder between Continue reading >>

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