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Prevention Of Diabetes Insipidus

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus is a condition that results from insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), a hormone that helps the kidneys and body conserve the correct amount of water. Normally, the antidiuretic hormone controls the kidneys' output of urine. It is secreted by the hypothalamus (a small gland located at the base of the brain), stored in the pituitary gland, and then released into the bloodstream. ADH is secreted to decrease the amount of urine output so that dehydration does not occur. Diabetes insipidus, however, causes excessive production of very diluted urine and excessive thirst. The disease is categorized into groups: Central diabetes insipidus. An insufficient production or secretion of ADH; can be a result of damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland caused by head injuries, genetic disorders, and other diseases. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. A lack of kidney response to normal levels of ADH: can be caused by drugs or chronic disorders, such as kidney failure, sickle cell disease, or polycystic kidney disease. What causes diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus can be caused by several conditions, including the following: Malfunctioning hypothalamus (that produces too little ADH) Malfunctioning pituitary gland (that fails to release ADH into the bloodstream) Damage to hypothalamus or pituitary gland during surgery Brain injury Tumor Blockage in the arteries leading to the brain Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord) Sarcoidosis (a rare inflammation of the lymph nodes and other tissues throughout the body) Family heredity What are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus? The following are the most common symptoms of diabetes insipidus. However, eac Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus Herbal Treatment, Prevention, Symptoms, Causes, Cured By

Diabetes Insipidus Herbal Treatment, Prevention, Symptoms, Causes, Cured By

Description Diabetes Insipidus is a disease of the Kidneys and the Hormones. It is a rare condition caused by the deficiency of Vasopressin hormone which controls the functioning of the Kidneys. It leads to Kidney dysfunction and frequent Urination. The condition is a diseased state and is known as Diabetes Insipidus. Kidneys filter gallons of blood in a day. They regulate body fluids and remove the extra fluids in the form of Urine. The waste fluid gets stored in the Urinary Bladder and when it is filled, it produces an urge to Urinate. When the body gets dehydrated, the feeling of thirst and to drink water arises. The Kidneys absorb the water and remove the waste. The amount of body fluid remains in equilibrium due to action of drinking water and excreting the excess in the form of Urine by Kidneys. The entire process of excretion of extra fluids by the Kidneys is regulated by a hormone known as vasopressin or ADH ( anti duretic Hormone ). Vasopressin ( ADH ) hormone is produced by Hypothalamus in the Body. It controls the level of Body fluid by regulating the amount of Urine excreted by the Kidneys. Vasopressin gets stored in the Pituitary Gland until it is required by the Body. When the body gets dehydrated and the level of fluid decreases, the Pituitary Gland secrets Vasopressin to the Blood Streams to prevent the loss of body fluid. But, if the hormone fails to function properly, the kidneys may produce excess amount of urine. Causes of Diabetes Insipidus Tumor Head Injury Family History Bacterial or Viral Infections Poor blood circulation to the gland If not treated properly, Diabetes Insipidus may cause Loss of Appetite Dehydration Differential Diagnosis : Diabetes is a condition of impaired glucose level in the body. Diabetes may sound similar to Diabetes Insip Continue reading >>

Drug-induced Diabetes Insipidus: Incidence, Prevention And Management.

Drug-induced Diabetes Insipidus: Incidence, Prevention And Management.

Abstract Drug-induced diabetes insipidus is always of the nephrogenic type, i.e. unresponsiveness of the kidneys to the action of antidiuretic hormone. This condition is easily diagnosed by measuring urinary concentrating capacity during a thirst test (e.g. 12 hours of water deprivation) or by administration of a modified antidiuretic hormone, desmopressin, to demonstrate the renal unresponsiveness. Drug-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is not a common disorder except in patients receiving treatment with lithium salts for affective disorders where it may affect about 10% of patients treated long term (15 years). Drug-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus caused by other drugs usually occurs in critically ill patients in intensive care units receiving a multitude of drugs dominated by antimicrobials and cytostatics. A search of the World Health Organization's adverse effect database revealed 359 reports of drug-induced diabetes insipidus. Lithium was the most common cause (159 reports) followed by foscarnet (15) and clozapine (10). Treatment is symptomatic in most patients and the offending drug should be stopped. If urine volumes exceed 4 L/day, treatment with thiazides and amiloride has been advocated, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as indomethacin, may be tried in severe cases. Prevention of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is an important aspect of the treatment of affective disorders. In patients treated long term it appears to be only partly reversible upon lithium discontinuation. Close monitoring of the treatment aiming at 12-hour trough value of 0.4 to 0.6 mmol/L is recommended. Yearly measurement of the urinary volume/day is effective in making both the patient and the physician aware of the development of the drug-induced n Continue reading >>

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Prevention And Treatment

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Prevention And Treatment

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus Prevention and Treatment General: There is currently no known cure for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Treatment involves preventing dehydration by drinking water on a regular basis and especially at the first signs of thirst. In infants and children who may not readily communicate their thirst, water must be offered frequently, even during the night. Reducing or stopping medications that can cause NDI may improve symptoms. Friends, teachers, and neighbors should be educated about the condition. Infants and children should be monitored for abnormal growth and blood sodium concentrations and should have a yearly ultrasound evaluation to monitor for a swollen urinary tract. Continuous or intermittent bladder catheterization may be necessary when the bladder does not completely empty on its own. Intravenous (IV) hydration: Healthcare providers generally treat dehydration with normal saline, which can be dangerous to individuals with NDI because of the sodium content. Acute blood loss or shock may be treated with isotonic fluid until the blood pressure and heart rate are stabilized, after which 2.5% dextrose in water is the preferred solution. Whenever possible, rehydration should occur through drinking water. Drinking: The goal of treatment is to regulate fluid levels in the body. Treatment should involve regular intake of a high volume of fluid. The volume of fluids consumed should be about equal to the volume of urine produced. Lifestyle changes: NDI patients require constant access to drinking water and toilet facilities, which may disrupt school and other social or group activities. Patients with NDI are advised to adopt a low-sodium diet. A low-sodium diet maximizes the effectiveness of thiazide diuretics in reducing urine output. Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus, not to be confused with the more common diabetes mellitus, is a relatively rare disorder resulting from a failure to produce sufficient amounts of vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Vasopressin, produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, helps the kidneys to reabsorb water and maintain proper fluid balance. If the pituitary fails to produce enough ADH, water is not conserved but simply passed through the kidneys and excreted, typically in very large quantities. More rarely, the kidneys fail to respond properly to ADH; this is known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Dehydration is the primary health risk associated with either form. Diabetes insipidus affects both sexes equally. With proper treatment, overall prognosis is good (except in cases caused by cancer). What Causes Diabetes Insipidus? In approximately one third of all cases, the cause of diabetes insipidus is unknown. Hereditary factors may play a role in some cases. Damage to the pituitary gland from a head injury, a hypothalmic tumor, or inflammation, radiation therapy, or surgery may lead to diabetes insipidus. The most frequent cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is therapy with lithium. Tuberculosis Blockage in an artery leading to the brain Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus Frequent and excessive urination (output may be as high as 25 to 35 quarts within 24 hours and may be as frequent as every 30 minutes, even at night) Extreme thirst Dry skin Constipation Emergency symptoms of dehydration, including dizziness, weakness, and unconsciousness Prevention of Diabetes Insipidus There is no known way to prevent diabetes insipidus. Diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus Physical examination and patient history are performed. Diagnosis of diabete Continue reading >>

How To Prevent Diabetes Insipidus In Children

How To Prevent Diabetes Insipidus In Children

Diabetes insipidus has several features which makes it different from the regular types of diabetes. In comparison to the involvement of production and response of insulin in regular diabetic patients, ADH or anti-diuretic hormone is responsible for triggering off the signs and symptoms of Diabetes insipidus. Children suffering from the signs of Diabetes insipidus have low or negligible production of this hormone. In certain cases the body’s response to ADH becomes comparatively weaker and does not allow the kidney to function normally. This leads to the situation where the kidney starts expelling hydration at a faster speed, leading to more frequent urges for urination and thirst. The child should be made to consult a doctor immediately to diagnose the stage of Diabetes insipidus and take timely remedial measures. The treatment of the two types of Diabetes insipidus varies and the processes are dependent on whether the diagnosed symptoms relate to central diabetes insipidus or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Prevention of Diabetes Insipidus in Children Drinking Plenty of Water Precaution is always better than cure and all the more when it is connected to the health and well being of young children. All patients suffering from the symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus should drink plenty of water to replenish the lost quantities. As Diabetes Insipidus leads to frequent visits to the toilet and the urge to drink plenty of water, it is important to keep serving the child with glasses of water at regular intervals. According to experts the child should be administered equivalent or more quantities of water than what is lost across the day. Medical Intervention Prescription medicines recommended by medical experts for managing the levels of urine production, help in bringing the Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Insipidus

What Is Diabetes Insipidus

For many people, the word “diabetes” often brings thoughts of either Type I or Type II diabetes. There are actually several forms of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is the most disease with this name and is what most people think about. Diabetes insipidus is actually a hormonal disorder that directly affects the kidneys. Some of the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are the same, but the most common symptom is an increased thirst that is almost insatiable. People with diabetes insipidus tend to always feel thirsty and will urinate much more than usual because of how many fluids they are pushing. It is an uncommon disorder, but one that requires treatment. Women who are pregnant can also develop a specific gestational form of this disease. By knowing what causes this disease and how to respond to it, a proper diagnosis can be obtained. If you’re ready to discover what your body might be telling you when you’re excessively thirsty all of the time, then you are ready to discover if diabetes insipidus could be behind the bothersome symptoms that are being experienced right now. What Causes Diabetes Insipidus? The kidneys are the filtering system of the body. One of the things that they filter are the extra fluids that are within the body’s bloodstream. When there is too much water, then these extra fluids are stored in the bladder and become urine. When the kidneys are working properly, the amount of urine that is created will rise or fall based on the fluid levels that are placed within the body. This means that if a person were to run a mile on a treadmill, then hormone levels rise in the body to prevent fluid loss. When the human body is at rest in a cool environment, then hormone levels will fall because there is less of a need to keep Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

On this page: What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person's kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid—dilute and odorless. In most people, the kidneys pass about 1 to 2 quarts of urine a day. In people with diabetes insipidus, the kidneys can pass 3 to 20 quarts of urine a day. As a result, a person with diabetes insipidus may feel the need to drink large amounts of liquids. Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus—which includes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes—are unrelated, although both conditions cause frequent urination and constant thirst. Diabetes mellitus causes high blood glucose, or blood sugar, resulting from the body's inability to use blood glucose for energy. People with diabetes insipidus have normal blood glucose levels; however, their kidneys cannot balance fluid in the body. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the kidneys normally filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluid. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder. How is fluid regulated in the body? A person's body regulates fluid by balancing liquid intake and removing extra fluid. Thirst usually controls a person’s rate of liquid intake, while urination removes most fluid, although people also lose fluid through sweating, breathing, or diarrhea. The hormone vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone, con Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus Cure - Prevention And Treatment

Diabetes Insipidus Cure - Prevention And Treatment

1. Diabetes Insipidus Cure - Prevention and TreatmentDiabetes insipidus, not to be confused with the more common diabetes mellitus,is a relatively rare disorder resulting from a failure to produce sufficient amountsof vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Vasopressin,produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland,helps the kidneys to reabsorb water and maintain proper fluid balance. If thepituitary fails to produce enough ADH, water is not conserved bur simply passedthrough the kidneys and excreted, typically in very large quantities. More rarely,the kidneys fail to respond properly to ADH; this is known as nephrogenicdiabetes insipidus. Dehydration is the primary health risk associated with eitherform. Diabetes insipidus affects both sexes equally. With proper treatment,overall prognosis is good. PreventionThere is no known way to prevent diabetes insipidus from the traditionalstandpoint. The TreatmentCombining conventional and alternative therapy is one of the surest way indiabetes insipidus cure, prevention and treatment.  Vasopressin (synthetic ADH) may be administered (either in a nasal spray, as a pill, or by injection) to replace or supplement the bodys ADH production. Such hormone therapy is usually necessary for a lifetime, 2. although if diabetes insipidus is caused by a head injury or surgery, it may possible to discontinue treatment. To treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, your doctor may advise a low salt diet to reduce thirst and slow the excretion of water. Certain diuretics may also be prescribed. (Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus does not respond to ADH treatment.) Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Consume plenty of high fiber foods and fruit juices to prevent or treat constipation. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the body loses too much fluid through urination, causing a significant risk of dangerous dehydration as well as a range of illnesses and conditions. There are two forms of the disease: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and central diabetes insipidus (also known as neurogenic diabetes insipidus). A number of factors have been linked to the development of diabetes insipidus, which may also occur in pregnancy or with the use of certain medications. Establishing the cause of the problem can help determine the most appropriate treatment to support the regulation of water balance in the body. Diabetes insipidus is a condition that can be managed successfully. Contents of this article: What is diabetes insipidus? An uncommon condition, diabetes insipidus is a disorder affecting the regulation of body fluid levels. Two key symptoms resemble those of the more common forms of diabetes that affect blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2).1-5 People with diabetes insipidus produce excessive amounts of urine (polyuria), resulting in frequent urination and, in turn, thirst (polydipsia). However, the underlying cause of these two symptoms is quite different from the causes in types 1 and 2 diabetes. In diabetes mellitus, elevated blood sugar prompts the production of large volumes of urine to help remove the excess sugar from the body. In diabetes insipidus, it is the body's water balance system itself that is not working properly. Here are some key points about diabetes insipidus. More detail and supporting information is in the body of this article. Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the body fails to properly control water balance, resulting in excessive urination. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by low or absent secretion of t Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print Since the signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus can be caused by other conditions, your doctor will perform a number of tests. If your doctor determines you have diabetes insipidus, he or she will need to determine which type of diabetes insipidus you have, because the treatment is different for each form of the disease. Some of the tests doctors commonly use to diagnose and determine the type of diabetes insipidus and in some cases, its cause, include: Water deprivation test. This test confirms the diagnosis and helps determine the cause of diabetes insipidus. Under medical supervision, you'll be asked to stop drinking fluids for a time so that your doctor can measure changes in your body weight, urine output and the concentration of your urine and blood when fluids are withheld. Your doctor may also measure blood levels of ADH or administer synthetic ADH during this test. The water deprivation test is performed under close supervision in children and pregnant women to make sure no more than 5 percent of body weight is lost during the test. Urinalysis. Urinalysis is the physical and chemical examination of urine. If your urine is less concentrated — meaning the amount of water is high relative to other excreted substances — it could be due to diabetes insipidus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI of the head is a noninvasive procedure that uses a powerful magnetic field and radio waves to construct detailed pictures of brain tissues. Your doctor may want to perform an MRI to look for abnormalities in or near the pituitary gland. Genetic screening If your doctor suspects an inherited form of diabetes insipidus, he or she will look at your family history of polyuria and may suggest genetic screening. Treatment Treatment of diabetes insipidus depends on Continue reading >>

Lithium-induced Diabetes Insipidus: Prevention And Management

Lithium-induced Diabetes Insipidus: Prevention And Management

Lithium-induced diabetes insipidus: Prevention and management Current Psychiatry. 2013 July;12(7):42-45 John Gideon Searle Professor of Clinical and Translational Pharmacy University of Michigan College of Pharmacy and School of Medicine 1. Ecelbarger CA. Lithium treatment and remodeling of the collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291(1):F37-38. 2. Christensen BM, Kim YH, Kwon TH, et al. Lithium treatment induces a marked proliferation of primarily principal cells in rat kidney inner medullary collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291(1):F39-48. 3. Francis SG, Gardner DG. Basic and clinical endocrinology. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2003:154-158. 4. Stone KA. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1999;12(1):43-47. 5. Grnfeld JP, Rossier BC. Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2009;5(5):270-276. 6. Wesche D, Deen PM, Knoers NV. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: the current state of affairs. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012;27(12):2183-2204. 7. Rose BD, Post TW. Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001:754-759,782-783. 8. Batlle DC, von Riotte AB, Gaviria M, et al. Amelioration of polyuria by amiloride in patients receiving long-term lithium therapy. N Engl J Med. 1985;312(7):408-414. 9. Earley LE, Orloff J. The mechanism of antidiuresis associated with the administration of hydrochlorothiazide to patients with vasopressin-resistant diabetes insipidus. J Clin Invest. 1962;41(11):1988-1997. 10. Kim GH, Lee JW, Oh YK, et al. Antidiuretic effect of hydrochlorothiazide in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is associated with upregulation of aquaporin-2, Na-Cl co-transporter, and epithelial sodium channel. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;1 Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus Primary Prevention

Diabetes Insipidus Primary Prevention

Diabetes insipidus Microchapters Home Patient Information Overview Historical Perspective Classification Pathophysiology Causes Differentiating Diabetes insipidus from other Diseases Epidemiology and Demographics Risk Factors Screening Natural History, Complications and Prognosis Diagnosis History and Symptoms Physical Examination Laboratory Findings Electrocardiogram Chest X Ray CT MRI Echocardiography or Ultrasound Other Imaging Findings Other Diagnostic Studies Treatment Medical Therapy Surgery Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy Future or Investigational Therapies Case Studies Case #1 Diabetes insipidus primary prevention On the Web Most recent articles Most cited articles Review articles CME Programs Powerpoint slides Images American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Diabetes insipidus primary prevention All Images X-rays Echo & Ultrasound CT Images MRI Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov US National Guidelines Clearinghouse NICE Guidance FDA on Diabetes insipidus primary prevention CDC on Diabetes insipidus primary prevention Diabetes insipidus primary prevention in the news Blogs on Diabetes insipidus primary prevention Directions to Hospitals Treating Diabetes insipidus Risk calculators and risk factors for Diabetes insipidus primary prevention Effective measures for the primary prevention of diabetes insipidus include reduction of salt intake, avoidance of lithium and other drugs that can cause the harmful effects on the kidney and staying hydrated. Effective measures for the primary prevention of diabetes insipidus include:[1] Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus has several causes. In some people, a part of the brain (called the hypothalamus) doesn’t make enough ADH. ADH helps your body balance water in the urine and blood. In other cases, the pituitary gland (responsible for releasing ADH into the body) doesn’t release enough of the hormone. Damage to either the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland can cause diabetes insipidus. This can occur after a head injury, during brain surgery, or when a tumor grows on the glands. Abnormalities in the kidneys can also cause diabetes insipidus. If the kidneys are abnormal, it can affect the way they process ADH. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by some medicines, such as lithium. About 30% of the time, doctors can’t find the cause. To check for diabetes insipidus, your doctor may order a urine test. This will show how much water is in your urine. It can rule out type 1 or type 2 diabetes (if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, there will be excess sugar in your urine). Your doctor might do a blood test to check for high sodium levels. This is another indication of diabetes insipidus. Your doctor may also order a water deprivation test. During this test, you aren’t allowed to drink any liquids. The staff will weigh you and check your urine and blood every hour for several hours. The results of this test may show that you have diabetes insipidus. If so, you will probably need more tests. Your doctor will likely order pictures of your brain using an MRI (magnetic resonance image) scan. The scans can show problems or tumors in the brain that could be causing your diabetes insipidus. If your symptoms are mild, you might not need treatment. However, your doctor will want to check on you more often. You should make sure you always have something to drink. This will ens Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus - Central

Diabetes Insipidus - Central

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon condition in which the kidneys are unable to prevent the excretion of water. Diabetes insipidus is a different disease than diabetes, though both share common symptoms excessive urination and thirst. Central diabetes insipidus is a form of DI that occurs when the body has a lower than normal amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is also called vasopressin. ADH is produced in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. It is then stored and released from the pituitary gland. This is a small gland at the base of the brain. ADH controls the amount of water excreted in urine. Without ADH, the kidneys do not work properly to keep enough water in the body. The result is a rapid loss of water from the body in the form of dilute urine. This results in the need to drink large amounts of water due to extreme thirst and to make up for excessive water loss in the urine (as much as 4 gallons or 15 liters a day). The reduced level of ADH may be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. This damage may be due to surgery, infection, inflammation, tumor, or injury to the brain. Sometimes the cause is unknown. In rare cases, central diabetes insipidus is caused by a genetic problem. Continue reading >>

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