diabetestalk.net

Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes In China

The Dynamics Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence And Management Rates Among Rural Population In Henan Province, China

The Dynamics Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence And Management Rates Among Rural Population In Henan Province, China

Journal of Diabetes Research Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9092759, 9 pages 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China 2Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China Academic Editor: Andrea Flex Copyright © 2017 Xiaotian Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The aim of this study was to estimate the dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence and management rates based on a rural cohort study in Henan Province of China. The rural prospective study was conducted for 20194 Chinese population ≥18 years in 2007-2008 and followed during 2013-2014. A total of 14009 individuals were recruited for the prospective analysis ultimately. Over 5.74 years of follow-up, the age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM increased from 6.18%, 44.41%, 34.39%, and 19.08% at baseline to 7.87%, 59.64%, 52.17%, and 26.52% at follow-up in total population, respectively. Similar changes were found in men and women except the age-standardized control in men. The four parameters of T2DM were higher among various factors at follow-up than those at baseline. There was no statistical difference in awareness () and treatment () in the newly diagnosed T2DM compared with the rates at baseline. The current study indicated that the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM displayed chronological increasing Continue reading >>

One In Three Of World’s Adults With Diabetes Is In China, Who Reports

One In Three Of World’s Adults With Diabetes Is In China, Who Reports

Nearly one in three adult diabetes sufferers in the world is in China, where there has been an explosion in the numbers affected in the past quarter-century, a new World Health Organisation report shows. While China accounts for 19 per cent of the world’s population, it had more than 30 per cent of adult diabetes cases in 2014. Of the 422 million adults with the chronic disease, an estimated 129.3 million were in China, the Global Report on Diabetes, published on Wednesday, said. The prevalence of diabetes in Chinese adults has increased from less than 1 per cent in 1980 to 9.4 per cent in 2014. Globally, the prevalence of diabetes has also increased, but at a slower rate: from 4.7 per cent in 1980 to 8.5 per cent in 2014. Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body either does not make enough insulin to break down the sugar in foods or uses insulin inefficiently. It can cause early death or serious complications like blindness, stroke, kidney disease, amputation and heart disease. Part of the increase in the prevalence of the disease both in China and worldwide was down to population growth and ageing, according to Dr Hai-rim Shin, a coordinator for non-communicable diseases and health promotion at the WHO’s regional office for the Western Pacific in Manila. But Shin said risk factors for diabetes, such as being overweight or obese and being physically inactive, had also increased. “There has been a significant increase [in the prevalence of diabetes in China] that has occurred during a short period of time, which has been driven largely by unhealthy habits: sedentary lifestyles and unhealthy diets,” Shin said. According to the WHO’s country profiles, released alongside the global report, in China 35.4 per cent of adults are overweight, 7.3 per cent are Continue reading >>

Diabetes In China

Diabetes In China

Tweet The number of people with diabetes in China is estimated to be 1 in 10 out of Chinese adult. Compared with the UK, where diabetes affects about 1 in 20 adults, the state of diabetes in China is alarming. During the 21st Century millions of new cases of diabetes are occurring each year. However, an accurate figure for diabetes in China is hard to estimate, as many cases are thought to be undiagnosed. China is thought to have edged ahead of India, becoming the country with the highest population of diabetes in the world. Like many other countries, the principal pre-cursor to the development of type 2 diabetes is obesity. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why people with diabetes are advised to avoid sources of dietary sugar. The good news is for very many people with type 2 diabetes this is all they have to do to stay well. If you can keep your blood sugar lower by avoiding dietary sugar, likely you will never need long-term medication. Type 2 diabetes was formerly known as non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes due to its occurrence mainly in people over 40. However, type 2 diabetes is now becoming more common in young adults, teens and children and accounts for roughly 90% of all diabetes cas Continue reading >>

Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Control Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Risk Factors In Chinese Rural Population: The Ruraldiab Study

Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Control Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Risk Factors In Chinese Rural Population: The Ruraldiab Study

Article | Open Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors in Chinese rural population: the RuralDiab study Scientific Reports volume 6, Articlenumber:31426 (2016) The study aimed to investigate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore potential risk factors in rural areas of China. A total of 16413 individuals aged 1874 years in rural districts were recruited from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study for the epidemiological research. Meanwhile, a meta-analysis including 7 published studies was conducted to validate the result of the cross-sectional study. The rates of crude and age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM were 12.19%, 67.00%, 62.35%, 22.20% and 6.98%, 60.11%, 54.85%, 18.77%, respectively. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM displayed increased trends with age (Ptrend < 0.01) and were strongly associated with education, drinking, more vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, family history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI). The results of this meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China countryside were 7.3% (5.39.4%), 57.3% (36.977.6%), 48.4% (32.464.5%) and 21.0% (9.932.1%), respectively. The prevalence of T2DM was high with inadequate awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China rural areas. Healthy lifestyles should be advocated to reduce prevalence and improve awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM in Chinese rural residents. As the third leading cause of mortality, diabetes seriously threatens to human health worldwide 1 , 2 , and it has caused large disease burden to the patients, their families and the society, Continue reading >>

The Looming Public Health Crises Threatening To Take Down China’s Health Care System

The Looming Public Health Crises Threatening To Take Down China’s Health Care System

The slender, steel needle pierced Mary Shi’s pudgy belly. The sharp point pricked her skin and as her thumb pushed down on the syringe, cloudy insulin began to swim in her bloodstream. Shi was running out of places to inject herself: her stomach, arms and legs all bore the bruising from regular shots. More importantly, she was tired of having to forgo wearing T-shirts and skirts for clothes that would strategically cover her body when she went out for afternoon tea with her girlfriends in Shanghai. “When you can stand the psychosocial burden of diabetes and social discrimination, injections are really a piece of cake,” said Shi, a 30-year-old app developer. Shi was diagnosed as a diabetic when she was 18. She had been studying for the highly competitive gaokao college entrance exam when she fainted at school. An emergency doctor explained that Shi had diabetes and if the illness was left unregulated, she’d be blind within five years. Her bewildered parents became depressed and Shi came to resent the disease and the rules it imposed on her lifestyle, hiding her illness from her friends for several years. Shi is one of millions of people caught in China’s diabetes epidemic. In the 1980s diabetes was a rarity affecting just one percent of China’s population. Now, due to rapid economic development, and the subsequent growth in availability of high-calorie diets, cars and sedentary lifestyles, China has the highest number of diabetics in the world, totaling 109 million people in 2015—roughly 11 percent of the population. That makes China home to a third of the world’s diabetic population. The scale of this public health problem is huge, particularly because it comes at a time when the country’s health system as a whole is under reform, moving from a rudimen Continue reading >>

Increasing Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Chinese Adults In Shanghai

Increasing Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Chinese Adults In Shanghai

OBJECTIVE Our objective was to determine the secular trend in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Shanghai, China. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two consecutive population-based surveys for type 2 diabetes were conducted in randomly selected adults aged 35–74 years in Shanghai in 2002–2003 (n = 12,329) and in 2009 (n = 7,423). Diagnosed type 2 diabetes was determined based on self-report, whereas those undiagnosed were identified by measured fasting and postload glucose according to 2009 American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS Age-standardized prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes increased from 5.1 and 4.6% in 2002–2003 to 7.4 and 5.2% in 2009. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased with age and was higher among men and in urban residents in both surveys (P < 0.001). Between the two surveys, the increase in the prevalence was more evident in the rural population (P < 0.001) and appeared more rapid in younger birth cohorts (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that Shanghai has experienced an increasing burden of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a major global health problem that affects over 285 million individuals worldwide (1). Over past decades, a continuous increase in prevalence of type 2 diabetes, which parallels a marked lifestyle transition and a worldwide epidemic of obesity, has been observed in both developed and developing countries (2). Unlike the gradual transition in most Western countries, these changes in China have occurred over a very short time (3). This may have led to a more rapidly increasing burden of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the trend of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults using the data derived from two population-based surveys in Shanghai. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the 2002–200 Continue reading >>

China: The Not-so-sweet Rise Of Type Ii Diabetes

China: The Not-so-sweet Rise Of Type Ii Diabetes

BY MICHAEL MARCEL In 1987, KFC brought its signature fried chicken to Beijing, becoming the first Western fast food chain to open its doors in Mainland China. By 2011, the number of KFCs in China had grown to over 3,000 across 650 cities, with one new restaurant opened per day.1 McDonalds, Pizza Hut, and other American fast food joints are now ubiquitous in many Chinese cities and are one of the many signs of the rapid economic development that has occurred over the past several decades. However, recent changes in diet and lifestyle have also brought about a sharp increase in the prevalence of many chronic diseases. As the country with the world’s largest population (over 1.3 billion), such changes have serious financial and structural implications. The meteoric rise in the prevalence of type II diabetes in China is particularly striking. While only 1% of the population was reported to have type II diabetes in 1980, the prevalence rose to 11.6% as of 2010; China now has the largest number of individuals with diabetes in the world.2 Alarmingly, 50.1% of the population is estimated to have prediabetes – a veritable ticking-time bomb without intervention.2 Over the course of China’s transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy, the country has had extraordinary successes in health system reforms, especially in the fields of infectious disease, child and maternal mortality, and infrastructure. However, efforts to curb the rise of diabetes and other non-communicable diseases have been relatively slow. Alarmingly, representative samples suggest only 30.1% of those with diabetes are diagnosed and are aware that they have the disease.3 Furthermore, while type II diabetes continues to affect the growing elderly population, it is increasingly affecting yo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Prevalence In Chinese Adults, Effects Of Secondary Prevention Examined In Two Studies

Diabetes Prevalence In Chinese Adults, Effects Of Secondary Prevention Examined In Two Studies

Diabetes Prevalence in Chinese Adults, Effects of Secondary Prevention Examined in Two Studies An estimated 10.9 percent of the adult population in China suffers from diabetes, while nearly 36 percent are affected by prediabetes, according to research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) . An international trial published in Circulation , exploring intensive risk factor modification, suggests that significant opportunities exist to improve secondary prevention among patients with diabetes and a history of cardiovascular disease. Such intervention could lead to a reduction in risk for cardiovascular events, particularly in populations with high concentrations of individuals with diabetes and prediabetes, as exhibited in China. Over recent years, studies have shown a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes in China, which now houses the world's largest diabetes epidemic. Analyzing data from a nationally representative 2013 survey of 170,287 participants in mainland China, study authors Limin Wang, MPH, et al., found that, among Chinese adults with diabetes, 36.5 percent were aware of their diagnosis, while only 32.2 percent were treated. In a separate study, published in Circulation, Neha J. Pagidipati, MD, MPH, et al., evaluated secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. They measured the attainment of five parametersaspirin use, lipid control, blood pressure control, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use and non-smoking statusamong 13,616 patients with diabetes and a known history of cardiovascular disease from 38 countries. "Appropriate secondary prevention can improve cardiovascular disease outcomes in adults with diabetes," write the study authors. "Inten Continue reading >>

High Prevalence Of Diabetes, Prediabetes In China

High Prevalence Of Diabetes, Prediabetes In China

Media Advisory: To contact Linhong Wang, Ph.D., email [email protected]; to contact Yonghua Hu, M.D., email [email protected] To place an electronic embedded link to this study in your story This link will be live at the embargo time: JAMA A large, nationally representative survey in 2013 of adults in China finds that the estimated overall prevalence of diabetes was about 11 percent and that of prediabetes was nearly 36 percent, according to a study published by JAMA. Previous studies have shown increasing prevalence of diabetes in China, which now has the world’s largest diabetes epidemic. To provide more recent estimates of the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes, Linhong Wang, Ph.D., of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, and Yonghua Hu, M.D., of Peking University, Beijing, and colleagues analyzed data from a nationally representative survey conducted in 2013 in mainland China, which included 170,287 participants. Fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were measured for all participants. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria. Among the findings: The estimated prevalence of total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes was 10.9 percent; that of diagnosed diabetes, 4 percent; and that of prediabetes, 35.7 percent. Among persons with diabetes, 36.5 percent were aware of their diagnosis and 32.2 percent were treated; 49.2 percent of patients treated had adequate glycemic control. Tibetan and Muslim Chinese had significantly lower prevalence of diabetes than Han participants (14.7 percent for Han, 4.3 percent for Tibetan, and 10.6 percent for Muslim). The authors write that the prevalence of diabetes of 10.9 percent was only slightly lower than the prevalence of total Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence In Chinese: Contributions Of Overweight And Obesity.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence In Chinese: Contributions Of Overweight And Obesity.

Abstract AIMS: To estimate the incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the number of those with T2DM attributable to overweight and obesity in China. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study among 15680 participants (46.4%, men) aged 35-74 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 8.0 years. We examined the relationship between overweight, obesity and risk of T2DM by Cox proportional hazards models. Population attributable risk (PAR) of overweight and obesity was also calculated. Moreover, we estimated the number of T2DM events attributed to overweight and obesity using PAR, incidence of T2DM and the population size of China in 2010. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 8.0 years, the age-standardized incidence of T2DM was 9.5 per 1000 person-years in men and 9.2 in women. Overweight accounted for 28.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.1, 36.2) of incident T2DM among men and 31.3% (95% CI: 25.5, 36.9) among women. The corresponding PAR of obesity was 10.1% (95% CI: 6.0, 14.2) among men and 16.8% (95% CI: 12.0, 21.6) among women. Approximately 3.32 million (95% CI: 2.47, 4.24) incident T2DM were attributable to overweight and obesity in Chinese adults who were 35 to 74 years in 2010. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that incident T2DM is mainly attributable to overweight and obesity in China. It is extremely important to advocate healthy lifestyle and prevent excessive weight gain for reducing T2DM burden in China. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Urban And Rural Chinese Populations In Qingdao, China.

Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Urban And Rural Chinese Populations In Qingdao, China.

Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in urban and rural Chinese populations in Qingdao, China. Dong Y(1), Gao W, Nan H, Yu H, Li F, Duan W, Wang Y, Sun B, Qian R, Tuomilehto J,Qiao Q. (1)Qingdao Endocrinology and Diabetes Institute, Qingdao, China. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of diabetes in the Chinese adult population in rural and urban areas of Qingdao city.METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study of diabetes was performed in 12436 (5346 men) Chinese adults (20-74 years old) from 2001 to 2002. Fastingcapillary whole blood glucose test (FCG) was performed in all participants and a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in those with FCG > or = 6.1 mmol/lfollowing initial screening. The 1999 World Health Organization diagnosticcriteria for diabetes were used.RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.1% (4.1% forundiagnosed and 2.1% for previously known diabetes) in adults aged 20-74 years.Diabetes prevalence increased with age up to the oldest age group (70-74); insubjects over 50 years of age, the prevalence reached 10%. Men tended to have ahigher prevalence of known diabetes than women, whereas the prevalence ofundiagnosed diabetes was lower in men than in women (4.6% vs. 3.3%, d.f. = 1, P =0.001). Diabetes was more prevalent in the urban than in the rural population(6.9% vs. 5.6%, d.f. = 1, P < 0.001). However, the proportion of undiagnoseddiabetes was higher in the rural than in the urban areas (70.5% vs. 58.0%, d.f. =1, P < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Qingdao city is moderatelyhigh, but much higher than reported in 1996. The large proportion of undiagnosed cases of diabetes indicates the lack of public awareness of diabetes and shortageof medical facilities. In view of the huge population in China, the results of Continue reading >>

Socioeconomic Status And Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Mainland China, Hong Kong And Taiwan: A Systematic Review.

Socioeconomic Status And Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Mainland China, Hong Kong And Taiwan: A Systematic Review.

China is estimated to have had the largest number of people with diabetes in the world in 2015, with extrapolation of existing data suggesting that this situation will continue until at least 2030. Type 2 diabetes has been reported to be more prevalent among people with low socioeconomic status (SES) in high-income countries, whereas the opposite pattern has been found in studies from low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a systematic review to describe the cross-sectional association between SES and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Chinese in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan.We conducted a systematic literature search in Medline, Embase and Global Health electronic databases for English language studies reporting prevalence or odds ratio for type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population for different SES groups measured by education, income and occupation. We appraised the quality of included studies using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Heterogeneity of studies precluded meta-analyses, therefore we summarized study results using a narrative synthesis.Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. The association between education, income and occupation and type 2 diabetes was reported by 27, 19 and 12 studies, respectively. Most, but not all, studies reported an inverse association between education and type 2 diabetes, with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) ranging from 0.39 (CI not reported) to 1.52 (95% CI 0.91 - 2.54) for the highest compared to the lowest education level. The association between income and type 2 diabetes was inconsistent between studies. Only a small number of studies identified a significant association between occupation and type 2 diabetes. Retired people and people worki Continue reading >>

High Prevalence Of Diabetes, Prediabetes In China

High Prevalence Of Diabetes, Prediabetes In China

A large, nationally representative survey in 2013 of adults in China finds that the estimated overall prevalence of diabetes was about 11 percent and that of prediabetes was nearly 36 percent, according to a study published by JAMA. Previous studies have shown increasing prevalence of diabetes in China, which now has the world's largest diabetes epidemic. To provide more recent estimates of the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes, Linhong Wang, Ph.D., of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, and Yonghua Hu, M.D., of Peking University, Beijing, and colleagues analyzed data from a nationally representative survey conducted in 2013 in mainland China, which included 170,287 participants. Fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were measured for all participants. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria. Among the findings: The estimated prevalence of total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes was 10.9 percent; that of diagnosed diabetes, 4 percent; and that of prediabetes, 35.7 percent. Among persons with diabetes, 36.5 percent were aware of their diagnosis and 32.2 percent were treated; 49.2 percent of patients treated had adequate glycemic control. Tibetan and Muslim Chinese had significantly lower prevalence of diabetes than Han participants (14.7 percent for Han, 4.3 percent for Tibetan, and 10.6 percent for Muslim). The authors write that the prevalence of diabetes of 10.9 percent was only slightly lower than the prevalence of total diabetes in the U.S. population (12-14 percent) in 2011-2012. The estimated prevalence of prediabetes in China (35.7 percent) was similar to the U.S. (36.5 percent in 2011-2012). Overall, 47 percent of the Chinese adult population was estimated to Continue reading >>

Rate Of Diabetes In China “explosive”

Rate Of Diabetes In China “explosive”

Healthy diet and exercise key to turning the tide BEIJING, 6 April 2016 - Almost 10% of all adults in China – about 110 million people – currently live with diabetes. Without urgent action to reduce lifestyle risk factors like unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity, that number is expected to increase to 150 million by 2040 – with major health, social and economic consequences. The theme of this year’s World Health Day is ‘Beat Diabetes’. This provides an opportunity to reflect on the causes of the increasing prevalence of the disease in China, as well as to discuss what can be done to stem the tide. Type 1 diabetes (sometimes called juvenile diabetes) is characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin. The cause of Type 1 diabetes is unknown. Type 2 diabetes results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Type 2 diabetes comprises 90% of people with diabetes around the world, and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity. “Rates of Type 2 diabetes in China have exploded in the last couple of decades. In 1980, less than 5% of Chinese men had diabetes. Now, more than 10% do. This increase has been largely driven by unhealthy lifestyles – diets that are too high in sugar and fat, and people not getting enough physical activity,” said Dr Bernhard Schwartländer, WHO Representative in China. Even more startling is the fact that almost half of all adults in China – close to 500 million people – have prediabetes. Not only does this pose a risk factor for developing Type 2 diabetes, but also for other conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Unhealthy diets and lack of physical activity are driving increasing rates of overweight and obesity in China – which are themselves Continue reading >>

Increasing Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Chinese Adults In Shanghai

Increasing Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Chinese Adults In Shanghai

Go to: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the 2002–2003 survey, representative samples of permanent residents, for at least 5 years, of both urban and rural Shanghai between the ages of 15–74 years were randomly selected through a multistage sampling process (4). Of a total of 17,526 eligible subjects, 14,401 (82.17%) participated the survey. The 2009 survey adopted a similar sampling process and similar inclusion and exclusion criteria, except that only those aged 35–74 years were eligible. Among 11,844 eligible adults, 7,964 (67.24%) were interviewed. After excluding subjects younger than age 35 years from the 2002–2003 study and those in both studies with an incomplete questionnaire, the final analysis included 12,329 subjects (5,050 men and 7,279 women; 8,177 urban and 4,152 rural residents) in the 2002–2003 survey and 7,423 subjects (3,461 men and 3,962 women; 5,357 urban and 2,066 rural residents) in the 2009 survey. The urban/rural split in the samples matched those in Shanghai population of the year. The institutional review board at Shanghai Municipal Center of Disease Control and Prevention approved the study. Informed consent was obtained from each participant before data collection. Data collection Although the questionnaire used in 2009 included more questions, for the purposes of this article, we only considered the following information: demographic characteristics, a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes among first-degree relatives. Diagnosed diabetes was identified by a positive response to the question: “Have you ever been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes by a doctor?” At the interview, body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were obtained using a standardized protocol. After an overnight fast of at least 10 h, a Continue reading >>

More in diabetes