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Prevalence Of Retinopathy In Diabetes

The Worldwide Epidemic Of Diabetic Retinopathy

The Worldwide Epidemic Of Diabetic Retinopathy

The worldwide epidemic of diabetic retinopathy 1State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore 1State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Correspondence to: Dr. Nathan Congdon, Department of Preventive Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. E-mail: [email protected] Received 2012 Jun 12; Accepted 2012 Jun 20. Copyright : Indian Journal of Ophthalmology This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major microvascular complication of diabetes, has a significant impact on the world's health systems. Globally, the number of people with DR will grow from 126.6 million in 2010 to 191.0 million by 2030, and we estimate that the number with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) will increase from 37.3 million to 56.3 million, if prompt action is not taken. Despite growing evidence documenting the effectiveness of routine DR screening and early treatment, DR frequently leads to poor visual functioning and represents the leading cause of blindness in working-age populations. DR has been neglected in health-care research and planning in many low-income countries, where access to trained eye-care professionals and tert Continue reading >>

The Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy Among Adults In The United States

The Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy Among Adults In The United States

A, Standard photograph 1. Retinopathyequal to this level in 4 quadrants would constitute level 43 (or 40) diabeticretinopathy, the lower threshold for moderate diabetic retinopathy. Retinopathyless than this photograph in any field would constitute mild retinopathy.B, Standard photograph 2. Retinopathy equal to this level in 1 quadrant withlesser retinopathy in the remaining quadrants would constitute level 43 (or40) moderate retinopathy. Retinopathy equal to this level in all 4 quadrants,venous beading in 2 quadrants, or intraretinal microvascular abnormalitiesin 1 quadrant would constitute level 53 (or 50) diabetic retinopathy, thelowest level of severe retinopathy. C, Severe diabetic retinopathy illustratingextensive blot hemorrhages, venous beading, and intraretinal microvascularabnormalities. Courtesy of the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy StudyResearch Group. A, Prevalence of diabetic retinopathyamong white subjects who have diabetes mellitus. B, Prevalence of diabeticretinopathy among Hispanic and black subjects who have diabetes mellitus.BDES indicates Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam, Wis; SAHS, San Antonio HeartStudy, San Antonio, Tex; SLVDS, San Luis Valley Diabetes Study, San Luis Valley,Colo; VER, Vision Evaluation Research, Nogales and Tucson, Ariz; and WESDR,Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy, southern Wisconsin.The Barbados Eye Study was conducted in Barbados, West Indies; all participantswere black. A, Prevalence of vision-threateningdiabetic retinopathy among white subjects who have diabetes mellitus. B, Prevalenceof vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy among Hispanic and black subjectswho have diabetes mellitus. BDES indicates Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam,Wis; BMES, Blue Mountains Eye Study, Sydney, New South Wales, Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Acute and chronic complications of diabetes Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of visual loss and blindness in working age populations in the developed world. Although everyone with a diagnosis of diabetes is at risk of developing retinopathy, only a minority progress to sight-threatening complications. These are for the most part preventable. Since the prevalence of diabetes is rising rapidly, particularly in Asian countries, and people are living longer following diagnosis, diabetic retinopathy has emerged as a major public health concern. Despite this, accurate data on its prevalence and outcome worldwide are still lacking. Almost all patients with diabetes show evidence of retinal changes over the course of time, if investigated with sufficiently sensitive techniques, and that a large minority - up to half in some populations - progress to sight-threatening variants of the condition. This proportion has fallen over time, most likely because of improved glucose control, and techniques of ophthalmic management have improved in parallel. Epidemiology has played an essential role in monitoring the impact of diabetic retinopathy at a population level, and the success or failure of public health measures designed to influence the course of this largely preventable condition. Worldwide Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy A recent pooled analysis from 35 population-based studies estimated that 93 million people worldwide have diabetic retinopathy, of whom 17 million (~18%) have proliferative DR, 21 million (~23%) have diabetic macular edema (DME), and 28 million (~20%) have sight-threatening DR [1] . Among people with diabetes, this translates to an overall prevalence of 34.6% for any DR, 7.0% for proliferative DR, 6.8% for DME, and 10.2% for sight-threatening D Continue reading >>

Djo | Digital Journal Of Ophthalmology

Djo | Digital Journal Of Ophthalmology

To estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) who attended the National Center of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG) in Jordan, and to determine the relationship between duration of DM, hyperglycemia, smoking, hypertension, age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and diabetic retinopathy. This is a cross-sectional study that investigates a sample of 1000 diabetic patients suffering from type 2 DM who attended the NCDEG between September 2006 and January 2007. Eye examination by an ophthalmologist under adequate dilatation was performed in all patients. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained. Diabetic Retinopathy was defined according to the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale adopted by American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) and the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO). Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 11.5). Out of 1000 patients; 51 percent were male, 49 percent were female. The mean age and duration of diabetes were 57.8 and 9.6 years, respectively. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients was 34.1 percent. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy was documented in 24.5 percent, while 9.6 percent had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Duration of DM and hyperglycemia, as measured by HbA1C, were statistically significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is highly prevalent among Jordanian patients with type 2 DM. Serious national efforts should be directed towards increasing primary prevention through regular ophthalmic examinations and strict glycemic control in patients with type 2 DM. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is considered to be a major health proble Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Macular Edema And Related Vision Loss

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Macular Edema And Related Vision Loss

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision-loss globally. Of an estimated 285 million people with diabetes mellitus worldwide, approximately one third have signs of DR and of these, a further one third of DR is vision-threatening DR, including diabetic macular edema (DME). The identification of established modifiable risk factors for DR such as hyperglycemia and hypertension has provided the basis for risk factor control in preventing onset and progression of DR. Additional research investigating novel risk factors has improved our understanding of multiple biological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of DR and DME, especially those involved in inflammation and oxidative stress. Variations in DR prevalence between populations have also sparked interest in genetic studies to identify loci associated with disease susceptibility. In this review, major trends in the prevalence, incidence, progression and regression of DR and DME are explored, and gaps in literature identified. Established and novel risk factors are also extensively reviewed with a focus on landmark studies and updates from the recent Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic macular edema, Epidemiology, Risk factors Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss in adults aged 2074 years [1]. From 19902010, DR ranked as the fifth most common cause of preventable blindness and fifth most common cause of moderate to severe visual impairment [2]. In 2010, of an estimated 285 million people worldwide with diabetes, over one-third have signs of DR, and a third of these are afflicted with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR), defined as severe non-proliferative DR or proliferative DR (PDR) or the presence of diabetic macular edema (DME) [3]. These estimates are expected to Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In The United States, 20052008

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In The United States, 20052008

Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 20052008 Dr. Xinzhi Zhang , MD, PhD, Dr. Jinan B. Saaddine , MD, MPH, Dr. Chiu-Fang Chou , DrPH, Dr. Mary Frances Cotch , PhD, Dr. Yiling J. Cheng , MD, PhD, Dr. Linda S. Geiss , MA, Dr. Edward W. Gregg , PhD, Dr. Ann L. Albright , PhD, RD, Dr. Barbara E. K. Klein , MD, MPH, and Dr. Ronald Klein , MD, MPH Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia (Drs Zhang, Saaddine, Chou, Cheng, Geiss, Gregg, and Albright); Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (Dr Cotch); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (Drs B. Klein and R. Klein) Corresponding Author: Xinzhi Zhang MD, PhD, Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy, NE (K-10), Atlanta, GA 30341-3727, ( [email protected] ) The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at JAMA See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. The prevalence of diabetes in the United States has increased. People with diabetes are at risk for diabetic retinopathy. No recent national population-based estimate of the prevalence and severity of diabetic retinopathy exists. To describe the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy among US adults with diabetes aged 40 years and older. Analysis of a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20052008 (N=1006). Diabetes was defined as a se Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Screening-detected Diabetes Mellitus: Results From The Gutenberg Health Study (ghs)

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Screening-detected Diabetes Mellitus: Results From The Gutenberg Health Study (ghs)

Abstract Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus may experience an asymptomatic period of hyperglycaemia, and complications may already be present at the time of diagnosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with newly diagnosed (screening-detected) type 2 diabetes. The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 and 74 years. We determined the weighted prevalence of diabetic retinopathy by assessing fundus photographs. Screening-detected type 2 diabetes was defined as an HbA1c concentration of 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol) or more, no medical diagnosis of diabetes and no intake of insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents. Of 14,948 participants, 1377 (9.2%) had diabetes mellitus. Of these, 347 (25.2%) had newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes detected by the screening. Overall, the weighted prevalence of screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 2.1%. Fundus photos were evaluable for 285 (82.1%) participants with newly diagnosed diabetes. The weighted prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 13.0%; 12% of participants had a mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.6% had a moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy was proliferative in 0.3%. No cases of severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or diabetic maculopathy were found. Thirty (14.9%) of 202 and six (7.2%) of 83 individuals with and without concomitant arterial hypertension, respectively, had diabetic retinopathy (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.06, 7.14). Visual acuity did not differ between individuals with and without diabetic retinopathy . In this large European study, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 13%. Only a very small propo Continue reading >>

Global Prevalence And Major Risk Factors Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Global Prevalence And Major Risk Factors Of Diabetic Retinopathy

OBJECTIVE To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all population-based studies in general populations or individuals with diabetes who had ascertained DR from retinal photographs. Studies provided data for DR end points, including any DR, proliferative DR, diabetic macular edema, and VTDR, and also major systemic risk factors. Pooled prevalence estimates were directly age-standardized to the 2010 World Diabetes Population aged 20–79 years. RESULTS A total of 35 studies (1980–2008) provided data from 22,896 individuals with diabetes. The overall prevalence was 34.6% (95% CI 34.5–34.8) for any DR, 6.96% (6.87–7.04) for proliferative DR, 6.81% (6.74–6.89) for diabetic macular edema, and 10.2% (10.1–10.3) for VTDR. All DR prevalence end points increased with diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure levels and were higher in people with type 1 compared with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS There are approximately 93 million people with DR, 17 million with proliferative DR, 21 million with diabetic macular edema, and 28 million with VTDR worldwide. Longer diabetes duration and poorer glycemic and blood pressure control are strongly associated with DR. These data highlight the substantial worldwide public health burden of DR and the importance of modifiable risk factors in its occurrence. This study is limited by data pooled from studies at different time points, with different methodologies and population characteristics. Diabetic retino Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014

Aim: The aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients across the nation and attempt to establish history-based risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of diabetic patients was conducted as an initiative of the All India Ophthalmological Society from 14th November to 21st November 2014. Known diabetics were evaluated voluntarily by members of the society at 194 centers using a structured protocol provided by the society for examination. The results were evaluated to ascertain the prevalence of DR in the population studied and to establish relation with gender, age, and history-based risk factors such as duration of diabetes, insulin use, and other end-organ disease using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 6218 known diabetics were screened. Totally, 5130 data entry forms were considered suitable for further evaluation. About 61.2% were males, 88.6% were between 40 and 80 years of age, almost two-thirds of the patients were from the west and south zones, and over half had diabetes more than 5 years. The data set was predominantly urban 84.7% and 46.1% had no family history. DR prevalence in the entire data set was 21.7%. Prevalence was more in males (P = 0.007), diabetics more than 5 years (P = 0.001), those above 40 years (P = 0.01), insulin users (P = 0.001), and history of vascular accidents (P = 0.0014). Significantly 22.18% of patients detected with DR had a vision of 6/18 or better in the worse eye. Conclusion: The study reiterated the findings of earlier regional studies on a pan Indian scale and put data in perspective. Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetics Study Report 2 - Sciencedirect

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetics Study Report 2 - Sciencedirect

Volume 116, Issue 2 , February 2009, Pages 311-318 Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in India: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study Report 2 Get rights and content The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in an urban Indian population older than 40 years. Five thousand nine hundred ninety-nine subjects residing in Chennai, India, were enumerated. A multistage random sampling, based on socioeconomic criteria, was followed. Identified subjects with diabetes mellitus (based on the World Health Organization criteria) underwent detailed examination at the base hospital. The fundi of all patients were photographed using 45, 4-field stereoscopic digital photography. The diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy was based on Klein's classification of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. These included age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, and correlation of prevalence with history-based risk factors. The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rate of diabetes in an urban Chennai population was 28.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.029.3), and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in general population was 3.5% (95% CI, 3.493.54). The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the population with diabetes mellitus was 18.0% (95% CI, 16.020.1). History-based variables that were significantly associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy included gender (men at greater risk; odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.041.91); use of insulin (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 2.056.02); longer duration of diabetes (>15 years; OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 3.1812.90); and subjects with known diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.725.17). Differences in the socioeconomic status did not influ Continue reading >>

Five-year Incidence And Progression Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Patients With Type Ii Diabetes In A Tertiary Care Center In Lebanon

Five-year Incidence And Progression Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Patients With Type Ii Diabetes In A Tertiary Care Center In Lebanon

Five-Year Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type II Diabetes in a Tertiary Care Center in Lebanon 1Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon 2Biostatistics Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon 3Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon 4Fouad Khoury Hospital Bikhazi Medical Group, Beirut, Lebanon 5Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA 6Fellow-Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Haytham I. S. Salti ; [email protected] Received 13 January 2017; Accepted 7 May 2017; Published 31 May 2017 Copyright 2017 Carl-Joe Mehanna et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Objective. To estimate the 5-year incidence of progression rate and regression rate and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a cohort of Lebanese patients with type II diabetes. Methods. We followed a cohort of 462 Lebanese patients with type II diabetes for over 5 years at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. Patients underwent yearly complete ophthalmic evaluation and fundus photographs and were assessed for the incidence, stage, and evolution of DR using modified Airlie House classification. Results. Among the 462 patients, 281 had no DR at baseline. The 5-year cumulative incidence of any DR was 10% (95% CI: 613), and only basel Continue reading >>

Diabetic Eye Disease: A Uk Incidence And Prevalence Study

Diabetic Eye Disease: A Uk Incidence And Prevalence Study

Diabetic eye disease: A UK Incidence and Prevalence Study Diabetic eye disease: A UK Incidence and Prevalence Study Title:Diabetic eye disease: A UK Incidence and Prevalence Study,Author:Rohini Mathur et al. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine),Publisher:RNIB,Year of Publication:2017 This research report investigates trends in prevalence and incidence of diabetic retinopathy in the UK. Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in the UK, particularly among working age people. In the UK, within 20 years of diagnosis, nearly all people with Type 1 and almost two thirds of people with Type 2 diabetes have some degree of retinopathy. Prior to this research, there were no UK-wide population-based measures of incidence and prevalence. To enhance our understanding of diabetic retinopathy in the UK, RNIB commissioned the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine to estimate the incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. The aims of the research were to analyse a large patient database with millions of records and ascertain: The prevalence and incidence of diabetic retinopathy in the UK by sub group Whether diabetic retinopathy is more or less common in specific groups of people; specifically whether incidence and prevalence varies with age, sex, geographical location, ethnicity and socio-economic status An estimated time it takes to develop visual impairment following onset of diabetic retinopathy In 2014, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 54.6% in people with Type 1 diabets and 30.0% in people with Type 2 diabetes The overall prevelance of diabetic retinopathy has been increasing steadily over the last 10 years. The increase is likely to be related to increasing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and poten Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Macular Edema And Related Vision Loss

Epidemiology Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Macular Edema And Related Vision Loss

Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema and related vision loss Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Charumathi Sabanayagam, Phone: +65 6576 7286, Email: [email protected] . Received 2015 Aug 11; Accepted 2015 Sep 1. Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. This article has been cited by other arti Continue reading >>

Incidence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Attending The Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service For Wales: Retrospective Analysis

Incidence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Attending The Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service For Wales: Retrospective Analysis

Incidence of diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service for Wales: retrospective analysis Incidence of diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service for Wales: retrospective analysis BMJ 2012; 344 doi: (Published 22 February 2012) Cite this as: BMJ 2012;344:e874 This article has corrections. Please see: F Dunstan, professor of medical statistics 2 , S Roy Chowdury, clinical research fellow 1 , R L Gibbins, retired general practitioner 6 , 1Diabetes Research Unit, Centre for Endocrine and Diabetes Sciences, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff CF14 4XW, UK 2Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff 3Diabetes Research Group, Swansea University, Swansea, UK 4Cardiff and Vale University Health Board, University Hospital of Wales 5School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University Correspondence to: D R Owens owensdr{at}cardiff.ac.uk Objectives To determine the incidence of any and referable diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending an annual screening service for retinopathy and whose first screening episode indicated no evidence of retinopathy. Setting Screenings at the community based Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service for Wales, United Kingdom. Participants 57 199 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who were diagnosed at age 30 years or older and who had no evidence of diabetic retinopathy at their first screening event between 2005 and 2009. 49 763 (87%) had at least one further screening event within the study period and were included in the analysis. Main outcome measures Annual incidence and cumulative incidence after four years of an Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy And Diabetic Macular Edema In A Primary Care-based Teleophthalmology Program For American Indians And Alaskan Natives

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy And Diabetic Macular Edema In A Primary Care-based Teleophthalmology Program For American Indians And Alaskan Natives

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in a primary care-based teleophthalmology program for American Indians and Alaskan Natives Contributed equally to this work with: Sven-Erik Bursell, Stephanie J. Fonda, Drew G. Lewis, Mark B. Horton Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Telehealth Research Institute, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America Contributed equally to this work with: Sven-Erik Bursell, Stephanie J. Fonda, Drew G. Lewis, Mark B. Horton Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Estenda Solutions, Inc., Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, United States of America Contributed equally to this work with: Sven-Erik Bursell, Stephanie J. Fonda, Drew G. Lewis, Mark B. Horton Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Validation, Writing review & editing Affiliation Estenda Solutions, Inc., Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, United States of America Contributed equally to this work with: Sven-Erik Bursell, Stephanie J. Fonda, Drew G. Lewis, Mark B. Horton Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Continue reading >>

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