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Prevalence Of Diabetes In Southeast Asia

Heart Failure In Southeast Asia: Facts And Numbers

Heart Failure In Southeast Asia: Facts And Numbers

Abstract Southeast Asia is home to a growing population of >600 million people, the majority younger than 65 years, but among whom, rapid epidemiological transition has led to high rates of premature death from non-communicable diseases (chiefly cardiovascular disease) (up to 28% in the Philippines vs. 12% in UK). There is a strikingly high prevalence of stage A heart failure (HF) risk factors in Southeast Asia, particularly hypertension (>24% in Cambodia and Laos vs. 13–15% in UK and USA), tobacco smoking (>36% in Indonesia), physical inactivity (>50% in Malaysia) and raised blood glucose (10–11% in Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand) in spite of a low prevalence of overweight/obesity (21–26% in Southeast Asia vs. 67–70% in UK and USA). Accordingly, the prevalence of symptomatic HF appears to be higher in Southeast Asian countries compared with the rest of the world. Epidemiologic trends in Singapore showed a sharp 38% increase in age-adjusted HF hospitalizations (from 85.4 per 10 000 in 1991 to 110.3 per 10 000 in 1998) with notable ethnic differences (hospitalization rates ~35% higher in Malays and Indians vs. Chinese; mortality 3.5 times higher in Malays vs. Indians and Chinese). Furthermore, Southeast Asian patients present with acute HF at a younger age (54 years) compared with USA patients (75 years) but have more severe clinical features, higher rates of mechanical ventilation, longer lengths of stay (6 vs. 4.2 days) and higher in-hospital mortality (4.8 vs. 3.0%). Finally, there is under-usage of guideline-recommended HF medical therapies (prescribed in 31–63% of patients upon discharge) and device therapies in Southeast Asia. Large gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed in Southeast Asia include the prevalence of HF with preserved ejection Continue reading >>

Latest News From Idf South-east Asia

Latest News From Idf South-east Asia

Diabetes in India is becoming common among people belonging to lower socioeconomic groups living in urban regions of the more developed... April 13 2017 One in three or 33 per cent of Indians over 30 years of age are suffering from one or more lifestyle diseases such as diabetes, high... Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Asia And The Pacific: Implications For The Global Epidemic

Diabetes In Asia And The Pacific: Implications For The Global Epidemic

The last three decades have witnessed an epidemic rise in the number of people with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, and particularly in developing countries, where more than 80% of the people with diabetes live. The rise of type 2 diabetes in South Asia is estimated to be more than 150% between 2000 and 2035. Although aging, urbanization, and associated lifestyle changes are the major determinants for the rapid increase, an adverse intrauterine environment and the resulting epigenetic changes could also contribute in many developing countries. The International Diabetes Federation estimated that there were 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, a number surpassing its earlier predictions. More than 60% of the people with diabetes live in Asia, with almost one-half in China and India combined. The Western Pacific, the world’s most populous region, has more than 138.2 million people with diabetes, and the number may rise to 201.8 million by 2035. The scenario poses huge social and economic problems to most nations in the region and could impede national and, indeed, global development. More action is required to understand the drivers of the epidemic to provide a rationale for prevention strategies to address the rising global public health “tsunami.” Unless drastic steps are taken through national prevention programs to curb the escalating trends in all of the countries, the social, economic, and health care challenges are likely to be insurmountable. Introduction Diabetes is now a disease of major concern both globally and regionally and is a leading cause of death in most countries (1). In 2013, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that ∼382 million people had diabetes worldwide, and by 2035, this was predicted to rise to 592 million. Continue reading >>

Diabetes In South-east Asia: An Update For 2013 For The Idf Diabetes Atlas

Diabetes In South-east Asia: An Update For 2013 For The Idf Diabetes Atlas

Abstract According to the recent estimates by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), South East-Asia (SEA) Region consisting of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Mauritius and Maldives, is home to more than 72 million adults with diabetes in 2013 and is expected to exceed 123 million in 2035. Nearly 95% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is relatively rare in these countries, its prevalence is also rising. Furthermore, a large number (24.3 million) of people also have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Several characteristic differences are seen in the clinical and immunological presentation of these people when compared with their European counterparts. A sharp increase in the prevalence of T2DM has been observed in the SEA Region, both in urban and rural areas, which is mostly associated with the lifestyle transitions towards urbanisation and industrialisation. Evidence suggests that a large portion of T2DM may be preventable by lifestyle modification. However, morbidity and early mortality occur as a result of inadequate healthcare facilities for early detection and initiation of therapy, as well as suboptimal management of diabetes and associated morbidities. This is largely preventable by primary prevention of diabetes and enhancing awareness about the disease among the public and the healthcare providers. There is an urgent need for concerted efforts by government and non-governmental sectors to implement national programmes aimed at prevention, management and surveillance of the disease. Continue reading >>

2015 Update On The Diabetes Market In Asia

2015 Update On The Diabetes Market In Asia

This article was also published on MedTech Intelligence. Out of the 410 million people worldwide who have been diagnosed with diabetes as of 2014, more than 60% of the cases were from Asia, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Last year China alone recorded 100 million diabetics and 1.5 million deaths from the condition, the highest number of diabetes cases and mortalities of any country. By 2030, China is predicted to have 150 million diabetics. India is close behind, with roughly 67 million cases last year, and will have an estimated 100 million diabetics by 2030, as reported by the IDF. Across Asia, the number of diabetes cases is projected to increase to more than 320 million over the next 10 years. Many studies indicate that Asians genetically have a higher chance of developing diabetes, and nowadays, their adoption of a more sedentary lifestyle combined with increased consumption of processed foods and carbohydrates is driving the rise in diabetes incidence. Left untreated or improperly managed, diabetes increases the risk for other illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and blindness, and can eventually lead to death. Governments in China, Malaysia, Singapore, Japan and India have identified diabetes as a significant disease threat and strain on their public health systems. For instance, a recent joint study by the IDF and the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) indicated that expenses related to diabetes account for approximately 13% of total medical expenditure in China. Awareness and Demand for Diabetes Treatment in Asia Many multinational companies have joined in a public sector effort to help educate Asian populations about diabetes. AstraZeneca recently announced a three-year partnership to develop a diabetes education and Continue reading >>

Southeast Asia’s Growing Diabetes Epidemic

Southeast Asia’s Growing Diabetes Epidemic

Diabetes afflicts more than 25 million Southeast Asians today. As incidence of the disease grows across the region, healthcare systems face mounting pressures. Yet interventions designed for developed countries will have little impact in emerging markets like Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. To address the problem in places like these, healthcare organizations need better sources of data and solutions purpose-built for low-resource settings. A new meta-analysis on worldwide diabetes trends published in The Lancet last week shows just how serious the problem is. The study, which was headed by the NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), found that 422 million adults around the world suffer from diabetes. In age-adjusted terms, this amounts to roughly 8.5% of the global population. Yet while some people still think of diabetes as a “Western disease,” more than three-quarters of diabetics live in low- and middle-income countries. In Southeast Asia, incidence of diabetes is comparable to that of the world at large. High incidence translates to high disease burden, particularly in Southeast Asia’s four most populous countries—Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam—which together have over 500 million people. Indonesia alone has over 10 million diabetics, according to data from the data from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), an NGO that does research and advocacy for diabetes care. According to IDF’s calculations, these numbers will grow drastically between now and 2040. Making matters worse, more than 12 million adults in Southeast Asia don’t even know even have diabetes. Early interventions can stave off progression of the disease, and sometimes even reverse it completely. Yet many patients, unaware of their condition, wait until Continue reading >>

Diabetes In South-east Asia: An Update.

Diabetes In South-east Asia: An Update.

Abstract According to the recent estimates by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), South East-Asia (SEA) Region consisting of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Mauritius and Maldives, is home to more than 72 million adults with diabetes in 2013 and is expected to exceed 123 million in 2035. Nearly 95% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is relatively rare in these countries, its prevalence is also rising. Furthermore, a large number (24.3 million) of people also have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Several characteristic differences are seen in the clinical and immunological presentation of these people when compared with their European counterparts. A sharp increase in the prevalence of T2DM has been observed in the SEA Region, both in urban and rural areas, which is mostly associated with the lifestyle transitions towards urbanisation and industrialisation. Evidence suggests that a large portion of T2DM may be preventable by lifestyle modification. However, morbidity and early mortality occur as a result of inadequate healthcare facilities for early detection and initiation of therapy, as well as suboptimal management of diabetes and associated morbidities. This is largely preventable by primary prevention of diabetes and enhancing awareness about the disease among the public and the healthcare providers. There is an urgent need for concerted efforts by government and non-governmental sectors to implement national programmes aimed at prevention, management and surveillance of the disease. KEYWORDS: Diabetes; Prevalence; Risk factors; Secular trends; South-East Asia Region Continue reading >>

Focus Issue: Thinking Outside The Box: Pathophysiology, Prediction, And Risk Prevalence And Clinical Significance Of Diabetes In Asian Versus White Patients With Heart Failure

Focus Issue: Thinking Outside The Box: Pathophysiology, Prediction, And Risk Prevalence And Clinical Significance Of Diabetes In Asian Versus White Patients With Heart Failure

Abstract The study sought to compare the prevalence, clinical correlates and prognostic impact of diabetes in Southeast Asian versus white patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. Diabetes mellitus is common in HF and is associated with impaired prognosis. Asia is home to the majority of the world’s diabetic population, yet data on the prevalence and clinical significance of diabetes in Asian patients with HF are sparse, and no studies have directly compared Asian and white patients. Two contemporary population-based HF cohorts were combined: from Singapore (n = 1,002, median [25th to 75th percentile] age 62 [54 to 70] years, 76% men, 19.5% obesity) and Sweden (n = 19,537, 77 [68 to 84] years, 60% men, 24.8% obesity). The modifying effect of ethnicity on the relationship between diabetes and clinical correlates or prognosis (HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality) was examined using interaction terms. Diabetes was present in 569 (57%) Asian patients versus 4,680 (24%) white patients (p < 0.001). Adjusting for clinical covariates, obesity was more strongly associated with diabetes in white patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86 to 4.17) than in Asian patients (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.96; pinteraction = 0.026). Diabetes was more strongly associated with increased HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality in Asian patients (hazard ratio: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.87) than in white patients (hazard ratio: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.36; pinteraction = 0.045). Diabetes was 3-fold more common in Southeast Asian compared to white patients with HF, despite younger age and less obesity, and more strongly associated with poor outcomes in Asian patients than white patients. These results underscore the importan Continue reading >>

Why Are Asians At Higher Risk?

Why Are Asians At Higher Risk?

Studies have shown that Asians are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, when compared with people of European ancestry.1 Asians are more likely to develop the disease even at a lower BMI. This means that even though some Asian populations currently have a lower prevalence of overweight and obese individuals than populations in the West, they have a disproportionately high percentage of people with diabetes.1 Currently, 60% of the world’s diabetic population is Asian.2 This higher risk may be because Asians, especially South Asians, are more likely to have less muscle and more abdominal fat, which increases insulin resistance. For example, even though Indian newborns have a lower average body weight compared to white newborns, Indian newborns have higher levels of body fat and insulin.3 Imaging technology that measures fat in humans has shown that Asians of a healthy BMI have more fat around organs and in the belly area than Europeans with the same BMI.1 If you are Asian, rather than just calculating BMI, measure the length around your waist (your waist circumference) to predict your diabetes risk more accurately.4 You can measure waist circumference by putting a tape measure around your body just above your hipbone, usually at the level of your belly button. Even if you have a normal BMI, an “apple-shaped body” (with excess fat around the waist) increases your diabetes risk. Your target measurement for waist circumference should be less than or equal to 90 cm (35.5 in) for men and 80 cm (31.5 in) for women.5 Even if you are not overweight, you can still be at high risk for diabetes. Asians are also at risk of developing diabetes due to certain diet and lifestyle trends. •Urbanization and modernization have led to less walking, less biking, and less dail Continue reading >>

Prevalence And Trends Of The Diabetes Epidemic In South Asia: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Prevalence And Trends Of The Diabetes Epidemic In South Asia: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Abstract Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. South Asians are known to have an increased predisposition for diabetes which has become an important health concern in the region. We discuss the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes in South Asia and explore the differential risk factors reported. Prevalence data were obtained by searching the Medline® database with; ‘prediabetes’ and ‘diabetes mellitus’ (MeSH major topic) and ‘Epidemology/EP’ (MeSH subheading). Search limits were articles in English, between 01/01/1980–31/12/2011, on human adults (≥19 years). The conjunction of the above results was narrowed down with country names. The most recent reported prevalence of pre-diabetes:diabetes in regional countries were; Bangladesh–4.7%:8.5% (2004–2005;Rural), India–4.6%:12.5% (2007;Rural); Maldives–3.0%:3.7% (2004;National), Nepal–19.5%:9.5% (2007;Urban), Pakistan–3.0%:7.2% (2002;Rural), Sri Lanka–11.5%:10.3% (2005–2006;National). Urban populations demonstrated a higher prevalence of diabetes. An increasing trend in prevalence of diabetes was observed in urban/rural India and rural Sri Lanka. The diabetes epidemicity index decreased with the increasing prevalence of diabetes in respective countries. A high epidemicity index was seen in Sri Lanka (2005/2006–52.8%), while for other countries, the epidemicity index was comparatively low (rural India 2007–26.9%; urban India 2002/2005–31.3%, and urban Bangladesh–33.1%). Family history, urban residency, age, higher BMI, sedentary lifestyle, hypertension and waist-hip ratio were associated with an increased risks of diabetes. A significant epidemic of diabetes is present in the South Asian region with a rapid increase in prevalence over the last two decades. He Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Hepatitis C Virus Infected Population: A Southeast Asian Study

Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Hepatitis C Virus Infected Population: A Southeast Asian Study

Copyright © 2013 Muhammad Sadik Memon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Purpose. The study was aimed to investigate the frequency of diabetes mellitus type 2 in patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus and its association with cirrhosis. Patients and Methods. This prospective case series was conducted at Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, over a period of 4 months from June 2009 to October 2009. Hepatitis C virus seropositive patients who were older than 18 years, diabetic or nondiabetic, were included. Basic demographic data collected by questionnaire and laboratory investigations including fasting blood glucose levels, serum cholesterol, and liver function tests were done. A logistic regression model was used to explore the association between diabetic and nondiabetic HCV seropositives and type 2 diabetes mellitus with cirrhosis. Results. A total of 361 patients with hepatitis C were analyzed; the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in HCV patients was 31.5%. Out of the total number of the participants, 58.4% (n = 211) were cirrhotics, while 41.6% (n = 150) were noncirrhotic HCV seropositives. In multivariate analysis, cirrhotic patients appeared significantly more likely (P = 0.01) to be diabetic as compared with noncirrhotic patients (OR = 2.005, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.43). Conclusion. Advancing age, increased weight, and HCV genotype 3 are independent predictors of type 2 diabetes in HCV seropositive patients, and there is a statistically significant association of cirrhosis observed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 1. Introduction Continue reading >>

Access This Article Online Website: Www.searo.who.int/ Publications/journals/seajph

Access This Article Online Website: Www.searo.who.int/ Publications/journals/seajph

Quick Response Code: Editorial Diabetes in South-East Asia: burden, gaps, challenges and ways forward Diabetes is not new to South-East Asia, since this condition was first described by Indian and Egyptian physicians three and a half thousand years ago.1 Diabetes is a serious, chronic disease characterized by chronic elevation of blood glucose and disturbance of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.2 Raised blood glucose, a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes, may, over time, lead to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves. Diabetes is therefore not only a disease in itself but also an intermediate stage for many other serious conditions. Diabetes appears to have been relatively rare until the second half of the 20th century, when it started to emerge as an important public health problem in high-income countries, with a subsequent accelerated rise in low- and middle-income countries in the past few decades.3 It is now one of the leading causes of blindness, heart attacks, strokes, renal failure and lower limb amputations worldwide. Ten years ago, the United Nations General Assembly recognized diabetes as a health issue affecting socioeconomic development.4 As a lifelong illness that often requires long- term medication and treatment, diabetes can also incur catastrophic health expenditure at the individual and family level, particularly among people without financial health protection. Diabetes was one of the four priority noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) targeted by world leaders in the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Non- communicable Diseases5 and the Sustainable Developmen Continue reading >>

Southeast Asia ‘exploding’ With Diabetes

Southeast Asia ‘exploding’ With Diabetes

Over 300 million people worldwide are suffering from diabetes, and the Philippines belongs to a region currently “exploding” with the disease, recent world statistics show. “An area that is also exploding with diabetes is Southeast Asia. And it is something that is very, very concerning,” Jesper Hoiland, senior vice president of Denmark-based diabetes care company and pharmaceutical Novo Nordisk, told journalists from 16 countries during a series of diabetes-related talks held recently in Copenhagen. Of the estimated 366 million diabetics as of 2011, around 90 million are in China; 50 million, Europe; 30 million, Northern America; 11 million, Japan. The preceding statistics from the International Diabetes Foundation’s Diabetes Atlas were presented by Novo Nordisk. The remaining diabetics (185 million) are located in countries belonging to what is called the “International Operations” (IO) area. The Philippines, Algeria, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey and Venezuela are among the 25 countries comprising the IO area. Projection The worldwide figure is expected to hit 552 million in 2030 and more than half of this figure (312 million) will be from the same IO area, Hoiland noted. “In 2000, we estimated that 150 million people worldwide had diabetes. That number has more than doubled today. And if we look forward: One in every 10 adults is going to be diabetic,” he added. Figures from the Department of Health show that diabetes is among the top 10 causes of mortality among Filipinos, with more than 20,000 deaths from the disease in 2006, the latest figure available. According to 2004 estimates by the American Diabetes Association, the Philippines will have some 7.8 million diabetics by 2030. Lis Continue reading >>

One-third Of Singapore's Young Face Diabetes, Rate To Double By 2030

One-third Of Singapore's Young Face Diabetes, Rate To Double By 2030

Diabetes rates rose from 8.6% in Singaporean adults in 1992 to 11.3% in 2010, and are expected to have increased further to 12.9% once last year’s figures are collated. Based on current projections, 34% of young people aged 24-35 this year can expect to become diabetic by the time they are 65, according to Chia Kee Seng, dean of the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health. Rising rates of obesity in those under 40 are due to "a big drop in physical activity​" when people start working, Professor Chia said. "It is important for those in their 20s to recognise that the dramatic lifestyle changes as they enter working life will have very significant health impact when they are in their 60s​," he added. Already having one of the highest instances of diabetes in the developed world, Singapore—along with the five other biggest economies of Asean: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam—is expected to have seen a doubling in the prevalence of diabetes between 2000 and 2030, according to World Health Organisation figures. Moreover, from an analysis of the WHO statistics conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit, Singapore has already experienced a 24% change in the number of obese adults during the period between 2010 and 2014, though this number was dwarfed by a 33% change in both Indonesia and Malaysia, and a 38% surge in Vietnam over the same period. Overweight and obesity increases an individual’s risk of non-communicable diseases such as heart disease, stroke, type-2 diabetes and some cancers.Research suggests that such diseases now account for 60% of all deaths in Southeast Asia. The EIU’s obesity findings were highlighted in a preliminary report on weight and its economic impact commissioned by the Asia Roundtable on Food Innovation for Continue reading >>

Vietnam Has Both The Highest And Fastest-growing Rate Of Diabetes In Southeast Asia: Expert

Vietnam Has Both The Highest And Fastest-growing Rate Of Diabetes In Southeast Asia: Expert

Professor Thai Hong Quang, Chairman of the Vietnam Association of Diabetes and Endocrinology (VADE), recently reported that diabetes is affecting roughly 5 million Vietnamese people. That is 5.4% of the population, up from 3.3% three years ago. Percentage-wise, Vietnam has both the highest and fastest-growing rate of diabetes in Southeast Asia. According to VietnamNet, the report was released at a recent training program set to run through 2018. The American Diabetes Association (ADA), VADE and Sanofi, a French pharmaceutical company, have teamed up to administer the training with hopes of educating medical personnel and improving the quality of patients’ lives. Diabetes is a disease of the pancreas, wherein the organ cannot produce either any insulin at all (type 1) or not enough insulin (type 2) – a hormone that regulates blood sugar. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), early detection and appropriate treatment are very important for the prevention and control of the disease. If left untreated, it can cause heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, blindness and nerve damage so severe it can lead to amputation. As of 2016, WHO reported: “In Vietnam, the prevalence of diabetes is growing at alarming rates and has almost doubled within the past 10 years. Currently, it’s estimated that one in every 20 Vietnamese adults has diabetes. In addition, the number of people with a pre-diabetic condition is three times higher than those with diabetes.” Vietnam’s situation is part of the larger tapestry of the disease across Asia. According to Asian Diabetes Prevention (ADP), 60% of the world’s diabetics are Asian. ADP lists the prevalence of white rice, low-quality cooking oils and smoking as contributing factors, in addition to sedentary lifestyles and Continue reading >>

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