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Prevalence Of Diabetes In India-who Report

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014

Aim: The aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients across the nation and attempt to establish history-based risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of diabetic patients was conducted as an initiative of the All India Ophthalmological Society from 14th November to 21st November 2014. Known diabetics were evaluated voluntarily by members of the society at 194 centers using a structured protocol provided by the society for examination. The results were evaluated to ascertain the prevalence of DR in the population studied and to establish relation with gender, age, and history-based risk factors such as duration of diabetes, insulin use, and other end-organ disease using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 6218 known diabetics were screened. Totally, 5130 data entry forms were considered suitable for further evaluation. About 61.2% were males, 88.6% were between 40 and 80 years of age, almost two-thirds of the patients were from the west and south zones, and over half had diabetes more than 5 years. The data set was predominantly urban 84.7% and 46.1% had no family history. DR prevalence in the entire data set was 21.7%. Prevalence was more in males (P = 0.007), diabetics more than 5 years (P = 0.001), those above 40 years (P = 0.01), insulin users (P = 0.001), and history of vascular accidents (P = 0.0014). Significantly 22.18% of patients detected with DR had a vision of 6/18 or better in the worse eye. Conclusion: The study reiterated the findings of earlier regional studies on a pan Indian scale and put data in perspective. Continue reading >>

100% Growth In Diabetes Patients In India In The Last 15 Years

100% Growth In Diabetes Patients In India In The Last 15 Years

Diabetes mellitus is a kind of metabolic ailment wherein either the body is incapable of producing insulin or the cells are not able to respond to insulin efficiently, leading to high blood glucose in the body. Obesity is one of the main causes of diabetes apart from other lifestyle factors. What was once majorly perceived as a western phenomenon has now crept deep into Asian lifestyles. "Diabetes, perhaps more than any other disease, is strongly associated with the western diet, as it was uncommon in cultures consuming a 'primitive diet'. However as cultures switch from their native diets, to the foods of commerce; their rate of diabetes increases eventually reaching the proportions seen in the western societies. However, what's alarming is the fact that India is home to 63 million diabetics and the number is estimated to be 100 million by 2030," noted weight management, fitness and nutrition expert, Shilpa Arora. According the official WHO estimates, the total global diabetic population in the year 2000 stood at 171,000,000 which is estimated to spike up to a whopping 366,000,000. India had an estimated 31,705,000 diabetics in the millennium year which is estimated to grow by over 100% to 79,441,000 by 2030. According to the International Diabetes Federation Atlas 2015, an estimated 69.2 million Indians are diabetic, which as per the WHO assessment, stood at 63 million in the year 2013. The estimates depict that diabetes prevalence has alarmingly doubled and so far has grown by over 100% in the past 15 years. Ahead of the World Health Day, WHO has urged all South Asian countries to take "vigorous and concerted" actions to battle the ever increasing prevalence of diabetes in the region. According to the global health organization, diabetes has the potential to become o Continue reading >>

The Current State Of Diabetes Mellitus In India

The Current State Of Diabetes Mellitus In India

Diabetes is fast gaining the status of a potential epidemic in India with more than 62 million diabetic individuals currently diagnosed with the disease.1,2 In 2000, India (31.7 million) topped the world with the highest number of people with diabetes mellitus followed by China (20.8 million) with the United States (17.7 million) in second and third place respectively. According to Wild et al.3 the prevalence of diabetes is predicted to double globally from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030 with a maximum increase in India. It is predicted that by 2030 diabetes mellitus may afflict up to 79.4 million individuals in India, while China (42.3 million) and the United States (30.3 million) will also see significant increases in those affected by the disease.3,4 India currently faces an uncertain future in relation to the potential burden that diabetes may impose upon the country. Many influences affect the prevalence of disease throughout a country, and identification of those factors is necessary to facilitate change when facing health challenges. So what are the factors currently affecting diabetes in India that are making this problem so extreme? The aetiology of diabetes in India is multifactorial and includes genetic factors coupled with environmental influences such as obesity associated with rising living standards, steady urban migration, and lifestyle changes. Yet despite the incidence of diabetes within India, there are no nationwide and few multi-centric studies conducted on the prevalence of diabetes and its complications. The studies that have been undertaken are also prone to potential error as the heterogeneity of the Indian population with respect to culture, ethnicity, socio- economic conditions, mean that the extrapolation of regional results may g Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Prevalence (per 1,000 inhabitants) of diabetes worldwide in 2000 - world average was 2.8%. no data ≤ 7.5 7.5–15 15–22.5 22.5–30 30–37.5 37.5–45 45–52.5 52.5–60 60–67.5 67.5–75 75–82.5 ≥ 82.5 Disability-adjusted life year for diabetes mellitus per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 No data <100 100–200 200–300 300–400 400–500 500–600 600–700 700–800 800–900 900–1,000 1,000–1,500 >1,500 Globally, an estimated 422 million adults are living with diabetes mellitus, according to the latest 2016 data from the World Health Organization (WHO).[1] Diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly; previous 2013 estimates from the International Diabetes Federation put the number at 381 million people having diabetes.[2] The number is projected to almost double by 2030.[3] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 85-90% of all cases.[4][5] Increases in the overall diabetes prevalence rates largely reflect an increase in risk factors for type 2, notably greater longevity and being overweight or obese.[1] Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in the more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, occurring in low- and middle-income countries[1] including in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030.[3] The increase in incidence in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, including increasingly sedentary lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the global nutrition transition, marked by increased intake of foods that are high energy-dense but nutrient-poor (often high in sugar and saturated fats, sometimes referred to as the Western pattern diet).[1][3] The risk of getting type 2 diabetes has been widely found to be associat Continue reading >>

Sharp Increase In Number Of Diabetics, Underweight In India, Says Report

Sharp Increase In Number Of Diabetics, Underweight In India, Says Report

Between 1980 and 2014 the number of adults with diabetes in the world increased four-fold from 108 million to 422 million. The increase has particularly been sharp in low and middle-income countries. In 2014, 50 per cent of adults with diabetes lived in five countries — China, India, the U.S. Brazil and Indonesia, notes a paper published today (April 6) in The Lancet. The paper is based on data from 751 studies totalling 4.4 million adults from 200 countries. The prevalence of diabetes in adults (after adjusting for age) more than doubled for men in India and China (3.7 to 9.1 per cent in India; 3.5 to 9.9 per cent in China) but increased by 80 per cent among women in India (4.6 to 8.3 per cent) but only 50 per cent in women in China (5 to 7.6 per cent). The absolute number of adults with diabetes in India increased from 11.9 million in 1980 to 64.5 million in 2014. In the case of China, the increase was from 20.4 million in 1980 to 102.9 million in 2014. While India contributed 15.3 per cent of global share of adults with diabetes in 2014, it was 24.4 per cent in the case of China. In the case of the U.S., the absolute increase in the number of diabetics was from 8.1 million in 1980 to 22.4 million in 2014. However, global share of adults with diabetes in the case of the U.S. reduced from 7.5 per cent in 1980 to 5.3 per cent in 2014. China, India and the U.S. have maintained their number one, two and three positions in 1980 and 2014. Indonesia and Pakistan moved up in the world ranking from 12th and 13th position in 1980 (with 2.1 million and 1.7 million diabetics respectively) to fifth and sixth position in 2014 (with 11.7 and 11 million diabetics respectively). In the case of Western Europe, though there has been an increase in overall rates of diabetes in many cou Continue reading >>

The Burden Of Diabetes In India

The Burden Of Diabetes In India

India, the second most populous country of the world, has been severely affected by the global diabetes epidemic. As per the International Diabetes Federation (2013), approximately 50% of all people with diabetes live in just three countries: China (98.4 million), India (65.1 million) and the USA (24.4 million)[1]. There is clear evidence to show that diabetes prevalence is rapidly increasing, especially in urban India. The conventional risk factors of urbanization, unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity, coupled with inherent genetic attributes and differences in body composition are propelling the increase in cases of diabetes. Accordingly, diabetes related complications are also on the rise and contribute significantly to overall morbidity and mortality. The low levels of education and poor awareness of the disease in the country are enhancing its impact on health of the population. While communicable diseases are slowly getting controlled in low and middle income countries (LMIC), such as India, there is a significant increase in the burden of non communicable diseases, including but not restricted to diabetes. Going by the model of four phases of health transition, India is currently in the age of man-made and degenerative diseases. This age is characterised by a life expectancy close to 50-60 years and unhealthy lifestyles which promote diseases like cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Prevalence/ incidence While comprehensive data are not available, smaller studies have been performed in various states of India to study the prevalence of diabetes. Based on these studies, the highest prevalence reported is from Ernakulum in Kerala (19.5%) and the lowest from Kashmir valley (6.1%). Most other areas have prevalence above 10%. While most prevalence stud Continue reading >>

Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Diabetes In A Large Community-based Study In North India: Results From A Steps Survey In Punjab, India

Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Diabetes In A Large Community-based Study In North India: Results From A Steps Survey In Punjab, India

Abstract India is the diabetes capital with home to 69.1 million people with DM, the second highest number of cases after China. Recent epidemiological evidence indicates a rising DM epidemic across all classes, both affluent and the poor in India. This article reports on the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the North Indian state of Punjab as part of a large household NCD Risk Factor Survey. A household NCD STEPS survey was done in the state of Punjab, India in a multistage stratified sample of 5127 individuals. All the subjects were administered the WHO STEPS questionnaire, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Every alternate respondent in the sample (n = 2499) was assayed for blood parameters. Overall prevalence of DM among the study participants was found out to be 8.3% (95% CI 7.3–9.4%) whereas prevalence of prediabetes was 6.3% (5.4–7.3%). Age group (45–69 years), marital status, hypertension, obesity and family history of DM were found to be the risk factors significantly associated with DM. Out of all persons with DM, only 18% were known case of DM or on treatment, among whom only about one-third had controlled blood glucose status. The study reported high prevalence of diabetes, especially of undiagnosed cases amongst the adult population, most of whom have uncontrolled blood sugar levels. This indicates the need for systematic screening and awareness program to identify the undiagnosed cases in the community and offer early treatment and regular follow up. Background According to International Diabetes Federation estimates, around 415 million people had DM in 2015 and this number is expected to rise to 642 million by 2040 [1]. Around 75% of subjects with DM live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In financial terms, the glo Continue reading >>

Contents Acronyms ................................................................................................................................... 2

Contents Acronyms ................................................................................................................................... 2

1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 3 1.1 Prevention and treatment of diabetes ............................................................................... 5 2 Magnitude of the problem........................................................................................................ 6 2.1 Global burden of diabetes ................................................................................................ 6 2.2 Burden of diabetes in India .............................................................................................. 7 2.3 Socioeconomic burden..................................................................................................... 7 2.4 Diabetes in the elderly.....................................................................................................10 3 Management of diabetes .......................................................................................................11 3.1 Diagnosis of diabetes .......................................................................................................11 3.2 Treatment of diabetes ......................................................................................................13 3.3 Treatment of diabetes in the elderly ................................................................................14 4 Health system response to diabetes in India .........................................................................16 4.1 Health-care system ..........................................................................................................16 4.2 Human resource capacity .................................................................................... Continue reading >>

Incidence Data On Diabetes From India

Incidence Data On Diabetes From India

Editorial Knowledge of incidence and prevalence of a disease is vital in Community Medicine to control a disease. It is important in Internal Medicine for clinical diagnosis and presumptive treatment on a probability model. Prevalence informs the total case load at a given time. Incidence yields a pointer to extent of attention required and choice of measures. Incidence of a disease or condition measured over time gives a trend line. It may help to understand causality; e.g., Exposure to asbestos and pleural epithelioma or else, metabolic syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes. It may also measure efficacy of an intervention towards prevention; e.g. Routine Pap smears and Cancer Cervix prevented. It is interesting to observe how the combinations may alter strategy or approach to a disease by magic of numbers as under: There are two main types of epidemiological studies – cross-sectional and longitudinal.1,2 Cross-sectional studies allow us to see a 'snapshot or still photograph' of the number of people with a particular illness at any one point in time. It tells us how widespread the disease is. For example, a cross-sectional study could allow us to count all the people with diabetes (that is, the prevalence of diabetes) at any one point in time. Prevalence is calculated as the number of people with the characteristic in question divided by the total population at risk for that characteristic. On the other hand, a longitudinal study involves at least two time points and allows us to view a 'motion picture' to observe the change occuring in the population during the intervening time. Thus allows us to examine change over time. It also allows us to look at the incidence of an illness, which means the number of new cases that develop within a particular period. Incidence tells us Continue reading >>

Global Prevalence Of Diabetes

Global Prevalence Of Diabetes

Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030 Abstract OBJECTIVE—The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations’ population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. RESULTS—The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. CONCLUSIONS—These findings indicate that the “diabetes epidemic” will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence. The number of people with diabetes is increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Quantifying the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people affected by diabetes, now and in the future, is important to allow rational planning and allocation of resources. Estimates of current and future diabetes prevalence have been published previously Continue reading >>

Percentage Of Diabetics In The Global Adult Population In 2017 And 2045

Percentage Of Diabetics In The Global Adult Population In 2017 And 2045

Premium Statistics on "Diabetes" Related Studies: Available to Download in PDF or PPTX Format Everything On "Diabetes" in One Document: Edited and Divided into Handy Chapters. Including Detailed References. Statista for Your Company: The Research and Analysis Tool Further Content: Statistics, Studies, and Topic Pages Our Business Solutions: Save Time and Money * All products require an annual contract. Prices do not include sales tax (New York residents only). Continue reading >>

Number Of Diabetes Patients Doubles In 13 Years In India: Who

Number Of Diabetes Patients Doubles In 13 Years In India: Who

Diabetic patients are at greater risk of developing brain diseases.AlishaV/Flickr The number of diabetes patients is likely to rise to 101 million in India by 2030, estimates the World Health Organisation (WHO). The number doubled to 63 million in 2013 from 32 million in 2000 in the country. The states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat had the highest prevalence of diabetes in India, the Times of India reported. Nearly 8.2 percent of the adult male population in India suffered from diabetes whereas 6.8 percent of adult women were diabetic. The number of diabetic deaths stood at 75,900 for Indian men aged between 30-69 years as against 51,700 women in the same age group. Diabetes, although not as fatal as other non-communicable diseases as cancer and heart diseases, digs a bigger hole in pocket due to the treatment costs involved and the reduced productivity of patients in the later years of the disease. The WHO urged South-East Asian countries to take concrete action for prevention and treatment of diabetes. The organisation reports South-East Asia had a diabetic population of 46,903,000 which is expected to reach 119,541,000 by 2030. "Diabetes rarely makes headlines, and yet it will be the world's seventh largest killer by 2030 unless intense and focused efforts are made by governments, communities and individuals," Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, regional director, WHO South-East Asia, said in a statement. She added that diabetes is of particular concern in South East Asia, where one out of every four of the 3.7 million globally-reported diabetes-related deaths occurs. The WHO has urged governments to regulate the marketing of unhealthy foods and tax sugary beverages. "The governments must also increase access to health care and promote educational campaigns regarding self Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetes And Prediabetes In 15 States Of India: Results From The Icmr–indiab Population-based Cross-sectional Study

Prevalence Of Diabetes And Prediabetes In 15 States Of India: Results From The Icmr–indiab Population-based Cross-sectional Study

Summary Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research–INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state. We used a stratified multistage design to obtain a community-based sample of 57 117 individuals aged 20 years or older. The sample population represented 14 of India's 28 states (eight from the mainland and six from the northeast of the country) and one union territory. States were sampled in a phased manner: phase I included Tamil Nadu, Chandigarh, Jharkhand, and Maharashtra, sampled between Nov 17, 2008, and April 16, 2010; phase II included Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Punjab, sampled between Sept 24, 2012, and July 26, 2013; and the northeastern phase included Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, and Meghalaya, with sampling done between Jan 5, 2012, and July 3, 2015. Capillary oral glucose tolerance tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in accordance with WHO criteria. Our methods did not allow us to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in different states was assessed in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals and the per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) of each state. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the association of various factors with the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes. The overall prevalence of diabetes in all 15 states of India was 7·3% (95% CI 7·0–7·5). The prevalence of diabetes varied from 4·3% in Bihar (95% CI 3·7–5·0) to 10·0% (8·7–11·2) in Punjab and was higher in urban areas (11·2%, 10 Continue reading >>

Review Diabetes Care In India

Review Diabetes Care In India

Abstract Diabetes has become a major health care problem in India with an estimated 66.8 million people suffering from the condition, representing the largest number of any country in the world. The rising burden of diabetes has greatly affected the health care sector and economy in India. The goal of health care experts in India is to transform India into a diabetes care capital in the world. An expert detailed review of the medical literature with an Asian Indian context was performed. Recent epidemiologic studies from India point to a great burden from diabetes. Diabetes control in India is far from ideal with a mean hemoglobin A1c of 9.0%—at least 2.0% higher than suggested by international bodies. Nearly half of people with diabetes remain undetected, accounting for complications at the time of diagnosis. Screening can differentiate an asymptomatic individual at high risk from one at low risk for diabetes. Despite the large number of people with diabetes in India, awareness is low and needs to be addressed. Other challenges include balancing the need for glycemic control with risk reduction due to overly tight control, especially in high-risk groups and taking into account health care professional expertise, attitudes, and perceptions. Pharmacologic care should be individualized with early consideration of combination therapy. Regular exercise, yoga, mindful eating, and stress management form a cornerstone in the management of diabetes. Considering the high cost incurred at various steps of screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and management, it is important to realize the cost-effective measures of diabetes care that are necessary to implement. Result-oriented organized programs involving patient education, as well as updating the medical fraternity on various deve Continue reading >>

Prevalence And Risk Factors For Diabetic Retinopathy In Rural India. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetic Study Iii (sn-dreams Iii), Report No 2

Prevalence And Risk Factors For Diabetic Retinopathy In Rural India. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetic Study Iii (sn-dreams Iii), Report No 2

Objective The study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in a rural population of South India. Methods A multistage cluster sampling method was used. All eligible participants underwent comprehensive eye examination. The fundi of all patients were photographed using 45°, four-field stereoscopic digital photography, and an additional 30° seven-field stereo digital pairs were taken for participants with diabetic retinopathy. The diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy was based on Klein's classification. Main outcome measures Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors. Results The prevalence of diabetes in the rural Indian population was 10.4% (95% CI 10.39% to 10.42%); the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, among patients with diabetes mellitus, was 10.3% (95% CI 8.53% to 11.97%). Statistically significant variables, on multivariate analysis, associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy were: gender (men at greater risk; OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.29), use of insulin (OR 3.59; 95% CI 1.41 to 9.14), longer duration of diabetes (15 years; OR 6.01; 95% CI 2.63 to 13.75), systolic hypertension (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.20 to 3.82), and participants with poor glycemic control (OR 3.37; 95% CI 2.13 to 5.34). Conclusions Nearly 1 of 10 individuals in rural South India, above the age of 40 years, showed evidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Likewise, among participants with diabetes, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was around 10%; the strongest predictor being the duration of diabetes. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon Continue reading >>

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