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Prevalence Of Diabetes In India-who Report

Review Diabetes Care In India

Review Diabetes Care In India

Abstract Diabetes has become a major health care problem in India with an estimated 66.8 million people suffering from the condition, representing the largest number of any country in the world. The rising burden of diabetes has greatly affected the health care sector and economy in India. The goal of health care experts in India is to transform India into a diabetes care capital in the world. An expert detailed review of the medical literature with an Asian Indian context was performed. Recent epidemiologic studies from India point to a great burden from diabetes. Diabetes control in India is far from ideal with a mean hemoglobin A1c of 9.0%—at least 2.0% higher than suggested by international bodies. Nearly half of people with diabetes remain undetected, accounting for complications at the time of diagnosis. Screening can differentiate an asymptomatic individual at high risk from one at low risk for diabetes. Despite the large number of people with diabetes in India, awareness is low and needs to be addressed. Other challenges include balancing the need for glycemic control with risk reduction due to overly tight control, especially in high-risk groups and taking into account health care professional expertise, attitudes, and perceptions. Pharmacologic care should be individualized with early consideration of combination therapy. Regular exercise, yoga, mindful eating, and stress management form a cornerstone in the management of diabetes. Considering the high cost incurred at various steps of screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and management, it is important to realize the cost-effective measures of diabetes care that are necessary to implement. Result-oriented organized programs involving patient education, as well as updating the medical fraternity on various deve Continue reading >>

Number Of Diabetes Patients Doubles In 13 Years In India: Who

Number Of Diabetes Patients Doubles In 13 Years In India: Who

Diabetic patients are at greater risk of developing brain diseases.AlishaV/Flickr The number of diabetes patients is likely to rise to 101 million in India by 2030, estimates the World Health Organisation (WHO). The number doubled to 63 million in 2013 from 32 million in 2000 in the country. The states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat had the highest prevalence of diabetes in India, the Times of India reported. Nearly 8.2 percent of the adult male population in India suffered from diabetes whereas 6.8 percent of adult women were diabetic. The number of diabetic deaths stood at 75,900 for Indian men aged between 30-69 years as against 51,700 women in the same age group. Diabetes, although not as fatal as other non-communicable diseases as cancer and heart diseases, digs a bigger hole in pocket due to the treatment costs involved and the reduced productivity of patients in the later years of the disease. The WHO urged South-East Asian countries to take concrete action for prevention and treatment of diabetes. The organisation reports South-East Asia had a diabetic population of 46,903,000 which is expected to reach 119,541,000 by 2030. "Diabetes rarely makes headlines, and yet it will be the world's seventh largest killer by 2030 unless intense and focused efforts are made by governments, communities and individuals," Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, regional director, WHO South-East Asia, said in a statement. She added that diabetes is of particular concern in South East Asia, where one out of every four of the 3.7 million globally-reported diabetes-related deaths occurs. The WHO has urged governments to regulate the marketing of unhealthy foods and tax sugary beverages. "The governments must also increase access to health care and promote educational campaigns regarding self Continue reading >>

Current Scenario Of Diabetes In India

Current Scenario Of Diabetes In India

Abstract India, a country experiencing rapid socioeconomic progress and urbanization, carries a considerable share of the global diabetes burden. Studies in different parts of India have demonstrated an escalating prevalence of diabetes not only in urban populations, but also in rural populations as a result of the urbanization of lifestyle parameters. The prevalence of prediabetes is also high. Recent studies have shown a rapid conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in the southern states of India, where the prevalence of diabetes among adults has reached approximately 20% in urban populations and approximately 10% in rural populations. Because of the considerable disparity in the availability and affordability of diabetes care, as well as low awareness of the disease, the glycemic outcome in treated patients is far from ideal. Lower age at onset and a lack of good glycemic control are likely to increase the occurrence of vascular complications. The economic burden of treating diabetes and its complications is considerable. It is appropriate that the Indian Government has initiated a national program for the management and prevention of diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification is an effective tool for the primary prevention of diabetes in Asian Indians. The primary prevention of diabetes is urgently needed in India to curb the rising burden of diabetes. Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Prevalence (per 1,000 inhabitants) of diabetes worldwide in 2000 - world average was 2.8%. no data ≤ 7.5 7.5–15 15–22.5 22.5–30 30–37.5 37.5–45 45–52.5 52.5–60 60–67.5 67.5–75 75–82.5 ≥ 82.5 Disability-adjusted life year for diabetes mellitus per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 No data <100 100–200 200–300 300–400 400–500 500–600 600–700 700–800 800–900 900–1,000 1,000–1,500 >1,500 Globally, an estimated 422 million adults are living with diabetes mellitus, according to the latest 2016 data from the World Health Organization (WHO).[1] Diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly; previous 2013 estimates from the International Diabetes Federation put the number at 381 million people having diabetes.[2] The number is projected to almost double by 2030.[3] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 85-90% of all cases.[4][5] Increases in the overall diabetes prevalence rates largely reflect an increase in risk factors for type 2, notably greater longevity and being overweight or obese.[1] Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in the more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, occurring in low- and middle-income countries[1] including in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030.[3] The increase in incidence in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, including increasingly sedentary lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the global nutrition transition, marked by increased intake of foods that are high energy-dense but nutrient-poor (often high in sugar and saturated fats, sometimes referred to as the Western pattern diet).[1][3] The risk of getting type 2 diabetes has been widely found to be associat Continue reading >>

India Must Tackle High Rate Of Obesity, Diabetes: Global Nutrition Report Of 2016

India Must Tackle High Rate Of Obesity, Diabetes: Global Nutrition Report Of 2016

Report highlights the grim progress made by India in fighting obesity and non-communicable diseases The Global Nutrition Report of 2016 (Report) focuses on what it will take to end malnutrition in all its forms by the year 2030 and assesses progress made by countries from 2015. The Report notes that obesity and overweight are now a staggering global burden and are approaching the scale of other forms of malnutrition. The prevalence of adult and children overweight and obesity along with Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in every region and nearly every country. The extent of grimness of the situation can be seen from the fact that only 30 per cent of nations have started setting targets relating to obesity, diabetes and salt reduction into their national NCD plans. How is India performing compared with the best and the worst? India received a positive mention in the report for focus shown by the state of Maharashtra on nutrition and consequent improvements in the situation on stunting. However, it was highlighted that like all countries, India must pay attention to its growing rate of overweight, and in particular, high rate of diabetes. Further, India’s state nutrition missions were criticised for not having clear, measurable targets for nutritional outcomes, not aligning targets with global nutrition targets and relying on very old studies to set targets. The report ranks countries on crucial parameters and this is how India fared: Under 5 Obesity Prevalence Lowest North Korea (0%) Highest (126th) Albania (23.4%) India (11th) 1.9% Adult Overweight & Obesity Prevalence Lowest Timor-Leste (14.5%) Highest (190th) Palau (79.3%) India (21st) 22% Adult Diabetes Prevalence Lowest Belgium (5.1%) Highest (190th) Tonga (26%) India (104th) 9.5% Economic Burden of NCDs Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetes In India

Prevalence Of Diabetes In India

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), diabetes is currently one of the biggest health concerns that the world is faced with. WHO defines diabetes as “a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces”. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. A common effect of diabetes is Hyperglycemia or increased blood sugar. Diabetes causes some serious health issues including blindness, kidney failure, stroke and heart diseases. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body produces insufficient quantities of insulin. It is usually detected more in children. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body does not effectively use the insulin produced. This is very frequently due to lack of physical activity, obesity, or incorrect dietary habits. Gestational diabetes occurs among pregnant women. In about 90 percent of cases, it is Type 2 diabetes that people are suffering from. The occurrence of Type 2 diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus may be prevented or delayed by adopting a healthy lifestyle. Diabetes can be identified by telltale symptoms – frequent urination, unusual thirst, excessive fatigue and hunger, weight loss, and wounds that take long to heal. Type 2 diabetes, however, may remain unnoticed and patients may not display any signs for years. Prevalence of Diabetes in India According to statistics from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), India has more diabetics than any other nation of the world. Current estimates peg the number of diabetics in the country at about 62 million – an increase of over 10 million from 2011 when estimates suggested that about 50.8 million people in the country were suffering from the disease. If you think the disease has already reac Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Dyslipidemia In Urban And Rural India: The Icmr–indiab Study

Prevalence Of Dyslipidemia In Urban And Rural India: The Icmr–indiab Study

Abstract Methods Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research–India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study was conducted in a representative population of three states of India [Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand] and one Union Territory [Chandigarh], and covered a population of 213 million people using stratified multistage sampling design to recruit individuals ≥20 years of age. All the study subjects (n = 16,607) underwent anthropometric measurements and oral glucose tolerance tests were done using capillary blood (except in self-reported diabetes). In addition, in every 5th subject (n = 2042), a fasting venous sample was collected and assayed for lipids. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed using National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) guidelines. Results Of the subjects studied, 13.9% had hypercholesterolemia, 29.5% had hypertriglyceridemia, 72.3% had low HDL-C, 11.8% had high LDL-C levels and 79% had abnormalities in one of the lipid parameters. Regional disparity exists with the highest rates of hypercholesterolemia observed in Tamilnadu (18.3%), highest rates of hypertriglyceridemia in Chandigarh (38.6%), highest rates of low HDL-C in Jharkhand (76.8%) and highest rates of high LDL-C in Tamilnadu (15.8%). Except for low HDL-C and in the state of Maharashtra, in all other states, urban residents had the highest prevalence of lipid abnormalities compared to rural residents. Low HDL-C was the most common lipid abnormality (72.3%) in all the four regions studied; in 44.9% of subjects, it was present as an isolated abnormality. Common significant risk factors for dyslipidemia included obesity, diabetes, and dysglycemia. Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetes And Prediabetes In 15 States Of India: Results From The Icmr–indiab Population-based Cross-sectional Study

Prevalence Of Diabetes And Prediabetes In 15 States Of India: Results From The Icmr–indiab Population-based Cross-sectional Study

Summary Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research–INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state. We used a stratified multistage design to obtain a community-based sample of 57 117 individuals aged 20 years or older. The sample population represented 14 of India's 28 states (eight from the mainland and six from the northeast of the country) and one union territory. States were sampled in a phased manner: phase I included Tamil Nadu, Chandigarh, Jharkhand, and Maharashtra, sampled between Nov 17, 2008, and April 16, 2010; phase II included Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Punjab, sampled between Sept 24, 2012, and July 26, 2013; and the northeastern phase included Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, and Meghalaya, with sampling done between Jan 5, 2012, and July 3, 2015. Capillary oral glucose tolerance tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in accordance with WHO criteria. Our methods did not allow us to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in different states was assessed in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals and the per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) of each state. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the association of various factors with the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes. The overall prevalence of diabetes in all 15 states of India was 7·3% (95% CI 7·0–7·5). The prevalence of diabetes varied from 4·3% in Bihar (95% CI 3·7–5·0) to 10·0% (8·7–11·2) in Punjab and was higher in urban areas (11·2%, 10 Continue reading >>

Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Diabetes In A Large Community-based Study In North India: Results From A Steps Survey In Punjab, India

Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Diabetes In A Large Community-based Study In North India: Results From A Steps Survey In Punjab, India

Abstract India is the diabetes capital with home to 69.1 million people with DM, the second highest number of cases after China. Recent epidemiological evidence indicates a rising DM epidemic across all classes, both affluent and the poor in India. This article reports on the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the North Indian state of Punjab as part of a large household NCD Risk Factor Survey. A household NCD STEPS survey was done in the state of Punjab, India in a multistage stratified sample of 5127 individuals. All the subjects were administered the WHO STEPS questionnaire, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Every alternate respondent in the sample (n = 2499) was assayed for blood parameters. Overall prevalence of DM among the study participants was found out to be 8.3% (95% CI 7.3–9.4%) whereas prevalence of prediabetes was 6.3% (5.4–7.3%). Age group (45–69 years), marital status, hypertension, obesity and family history of DM were found to be the risk factors significantly associated with DM. Out of all persons with DM, only 18% were known case of DM or on treatment, among whom only about one-third had controlled blood glucose status. The study reported high prevalence of diabetes, especially of undiagnosed cases amongst the adult population, most of whom have uncontrolled blood sugar levels. This indicates the need for systematic screening and awareness program to identify the undiagnosed cases in the community and offer early treatment and regular follow up. Background According to International Diabetes Federation estimates, around 415 million people had DM in 2015 and this number is expected to rise to 642 million by 2040 [1]. Around 75% of subjects with DM live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In financial terms, the glo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications In India

Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications In India

India is one of the epicentres of the global diabetes mellitus pandemic. Rapid socioeconomic development and demographic changes, along with increased susceptibility for Indian individuals, have led to the explosive increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in India over the past four decades. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian Indian people is characterized by a young age of onset and occurrence at low levels of BMI. Available data also suggest that the susceptibility of Asian Indian people to the complications of diabetes mellitus differs from that of white populations. Management of this disease in India faces multiple challenges, such as low levels of awareness, paucity of trained medical and paramedical staff and unaffordability of medications and services. Novel interventions using readily available resources and technology promise to revolutionise the care of patients with diabetes mellitus in India. As many of these challenges are common to most developing countries of the world, the lessons learnt from India's experience with diabetes mellitus are likely to be of immense global relevance. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology of diabetes mellitus and its complications in India and outline the advances made in the country to ensure adequate care. We make specific references to novel, cost-effective interventions, which might be of relevance to other low-income and middle-income countries of the world. Anjana, R. M. et al. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in urban and rural India: phase I results of the Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study. Diabetologia 54, 3022–3027 (2011). Deepa, M., Anjana, R. M., Manjula, D., Narayan, K. M. & Mohan, V. Convergence Continue reading >>

The Current State Of Diabetes Mellitus In India

The Current State Of Diabetes Mellitus In India

Diabetes is fast gaining the status of a potential epidemic in India with more than 62 million diabetic individuals currently diagnosed with the disease.1,2 In 2000, India (31.7 million) topped the world with the highest number of people with diabetes mellitus followed by China (20.8 million) with the United States (17.7 million) in second and third place respectively. According to Wild et al.3 the prevalence of diabetes is predicted to double globally from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030 with a maximum increase in India. It is predicted that by 2030 diabetes mellitus may afflict up to 79.4 million individuals in India, while China (42.3 million) and the United States (30.3 million) will also see significant increases in those affected by the disease.3,4 India currently faces an uncertain future in relation to the potential burden that diabetes may impose upon the country. Many influences affect the prevalence of disease throughout a country, and identification of those factors is necessary to facilitate change when facing health challenges. So what are the factors currently affecting diabetes in India that are making this problem so extreme? The aetiology of diabetes in India is multifactorial and includes genetic factors coupled with environmental influences such as obesity associated with rising living standards, steady urban migration, and lifestyle changes. Yet despite the incidence of diabetes within India, there are no nationwide and few multi-centric studies conducted on the prevalence of diabetes and its complications. The studies that have been undertaken are also prone to potential error as the heterogeneity of the Indian population with respect to culture, ethnicity, socio- economic conditions, mean that the extrapolation of regional results may g Continue reading >>

World Health Day: India Among Top 3 Countries With High Diabetic Population

World Health Day: India Among Top 3 Countries With High Diabetic Population

After tightening laws on tobacco and alcohol, experts now want a high tax on sugary drinks as they cause a sugar high that leads to insulin resistance. Ahead of World Health Day (April 7), the Lancet study (to be published online late tonight) said there is a fourfold rise in the number of diabetics – from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 and half of them live in India, China, USA, Brazil and Indonesia. According to the Lancet study, China, India and USA are among the top three countries with a high number of diabetic population. While the numbers climbed from 20.4 million in China in 1980 to 102.9 million in 2014, the rise has been equally dramatic in India from 11.9 million in 1980 to 64.5 million in India. Prevalence of diabetes has more than doubled for men in India and China (3.7 per cent to 9.1 per cent in India and 3.5 per cent to 9.9 per cent in China). It has also increased by 50 per cent among women in China (5.0 per cent to 7.6 per cent) and 80 per cent among women in India (4.6 per cent to 8.3 per cent). Dietary patterns must change, with more fibre and protein and less of sugar and starches in the diet. A high tax on sugary drinks is needed, as they cause a sugar high that leads to insulin resistance, Dr K Srinath Reddy, President of Public Health Foundation of India told The Indian Express. The government launched an adult screening programme for diabetes and hypertension in some districts, but it has had an inadequate response. Unless early detection and effective treatment become a part of routinely available primary health services, we will fail in protecting persons with diabetes from having serious complications. Urban planning must support safe and pleasurable physical activity, especially active commuting. Public education on the prevent Continue reading >>

Global Prevalence Of Diabetes

Global Prevalence Of Diabetes

Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030 Abstract OBJECTIVE—The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations’ population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. RESULTS—The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. CONCLUSIONS—These findings indicate that the “diabetes epidemic” will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence. The number of people with diabetes is increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Quantifying the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people affected by diabetes, now and in the future, is important to allow rational planning and allocation of resources. Estimates of current and future diabetes prevalence have been published previously Continue reading >>

Prevalence And Risk Factors For Diabetic Retinopathy In Rural India. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetic Study Iii (sn-dreams Iii), Report No 2

Prevalence And Risk Factors For Diabetic Retinopathy In Rural India. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetic Study Iii (sn-dreams Iii), Report No 2

Objective The study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in a rural population of South India. Methods A multistage cluster sampling method was used. All eligible participants underwent comprehensive eye examination. The fundi of all patients were photographed using 45°, four-field stereoscopic digital photography, and an additional 30° seven-field stereo digital pairs were taken for participants with diabetic retinopathy. The diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy was based on Klein's classification. Main outcome measures Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors. Results The prevalence of diabetes in the rural Indian population was 10.4% (95% CI 10.39% to 10.42%); the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, among patients with diabetes mellitus, was 10.3% (95% CI 8.53% to 11.97%). Statistically significant variables, on multivariate analysis, associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy were: gender (men at greater risk; OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.29), use of insulin (OR 3.59; 95% CI 1.41 to 9.14), longer duration of diabetes (15 years; OR 6.01; 95% CI 2.63 to 13.75), systolic hypertension (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.20 to 3.82), and participants with poor glycemic control (OR 3.37; 95% CI 2.13 to 5.34). Conclusions Nearly 1 of 10 individuals in rural South India, above the age of 40 years, showed evidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Likewise, among participants with diabetes, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was around 10%; the strongest predictor being the duration of diabetes. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon Continue reading >>

Percentage Of Diabetics In The Global Adult Population In 2017 And 2045

Percentage Of Diabetics In The Global Adult Population In 2017 And 2045

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