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Prevalence Of Diabetes In India-who Report

The Burden Of Diabetes In India

The Burden Of Diabetes In India

India, the second most populous country of the world, has been severely affected by the global diabetes epidemic. As per the International Diabetes Federation (2013), approximately 50% of all people with diabetes live in just three countries: China (98.4 million), India (65.1 million) and the USA (24.4 million)[1]. There is clear evidence to show that diabetes prevalence is rapidly increasing, especially in urban India. The conventional risk factors of urbanization, unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity, coupled with inherent genetic attributes and differences in body composition are propelling the increase in cases of diabetes. Accordingly, diabetes related complications are also on the rise and contribute significantly to overall morbidity and mortality. The low levels of education and poor awareness of the disease in the country are enhancing its impact on health of the population. While communicable diseases are slowly getting controlled in low and middle income countries (LMIC), such as India, there is a significant increase in the burden of non communicable diseases, including but not restricted to diabetes. Going by the model of four phases of health transition, India is currently in the age of man-made and degenerative diseases. This age is characterised by a life expectancy close to 50-60 years and unhealthy lifestyles which promote diseases like cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Prevalence/ incidence While comprehensive data are not available, smaller studies have been performed in various states of India to study the prevalence of diabetes. Based on these studies, the highest prevalence reported is from Ernakulum in Kerala (19.5%) and the lowest from Kashmir valley (6.1%). Most other areas have prevalence above 10%. While most prevalence stud Continue reading >>

World Health Day: India Among Top 3 Countries With High Diabetic Population

World Health Day: India Among Top 3 Countries With High Diabetic Population

After tightening laws on tobacco and alcohol, experts now want a high tax on sugary drinks as they cause a sugar high that leads to insulin resistance. Ahead of World Health Day (April 7), the Lancet study (to be published online late tonight) said there is a fourfold rise in the number of diabetics – from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 and half of them live in India, China, USA, Brazil and Indonesia. According to the Lancet study, China, India and USA are among the top three countries with a high number of diabetic population. While the numbers climbed from 20.4 million in China in 1980 to 102.9 million in 2014, the rise has been equally dramatic in India from 11.9 million in 1980 to 64.5 million in India. Prevalence of diabetes has more than doubled for men in India and China (3.7 per cent to 9.1 per cent in India and 3.5 per cent to 9.9 per cent in China). It has also increased by 50 per cent among women in China (5.0 per cent to 7.6 per cent) and 80 per cent among women in India (4.6 per cent to 8.3 per cent). Dietary patterns must change, with more fibre and protein and less of sugar and starches in the diet. A high tax on sugary drinks is needed, as they cause a sugar high that leads to insulin resistance, Dr K Srinath Reddy, President of Public Health Foundation of India told The Indian Express. The government launched an adult screening programme for diabetes and hypertension in some districts, but it has had an inadequate response. Unless early detection and effective treatment become a part of routinely available primary health services, we will fail in protecting persons with diabetes from having serious complications. Urban planning must support safe and pleasurable physical activity, especially active commuting. Public education on the prevent Continue reading >>

The Global Prevalence Of Diabetes

The Global Prevalence Of Diabetes

Common health risks, associated symptoms, and impact on healthcare costs Diabetes, a disease affecting blood glucose control, is a growing issue worldwide. From 1980 to 2014, the number of people affected by diabetes almost quadrupled from 108 million to 422 million worldwide, or a growth in diabetes prevalence of 4.7% to 8.5%.1 This growth trend is not estimated to stop or slow in the future, according to the IDF Diabetes Atlas, by 2040 the number of worldwide diabetics are expected to grow to 642 million, representing a potential future healthcare crisis for patients and providers alike.2 The healthcare costs are also expected to balloon. In the years between 2007 and 2012, the total healthcare costs associated with diabetes rose from $174 billion to $245 billion, or 41% in just a 5-year period.3 The majority of diabetes cases occur in developing countries, representing a high proportion of the disease’s economic burden. Prevalence of diabetes in Asian countries is particularly high and expected to increase.4 In fact, 60% of the world’s diabetic population are concentrated in Asian countries, with socio-economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization being three of the most common factors associated with increased prevalence of the disease.4 Diabetes is also growing in potentially epidemic proportions in India where over 62 million people are affected.5,6 Genetic factors, improved living standards, and rising levels of obesity are some of the many reasons associated diabetes is growing in this geographic region.7 Diabetes: health effects The short- and long-term health effects associated with diabetes are many, and each of these health effects worsen with poor glycemic control. Managing diabetes appropriately with prescribed therapies, diet, and lifestyle cha Continue reading >>

The Economic Burden Of Diabetes In India: A Review Of The Literature

The Economic Burden Of Diabetes In India: A Review Of The Literature

Go to: Abstract Diabetes and its complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is on the rise. This calls for an assessment of the economic burden of the disease. Objective To conduct a critical review of the literature on cost of illness studies of diabetes and its complications in India. A comprehensive literature review addressing the study objective was conducted. An extraction table and a scoring system to assess the quality of the studies reviewed were developed. Results A total of nineteen articles from different regions of India met the study inclusion criteria. The third party payer perspective was the most common study design (17 articles) while fewer articles (n =2) reported on costs from a health system or societal perspective. All the articles included direct costs and only a few (n =4) provided estimates for indirect costs based on income loss for patients and carers. Drug costs proved to be a significant cost component in several studies (n =12). While middle and high-income groups had higher expenditure in absolute terms, costs constituted a higher proportion of income for the poor. The economic burden was highest among urban groups. The overall quality of the studies is low due to a number of methodological weaknesses. The most frequent epidemiological approach employed was the prevalence-based one (n =18) while costs were mainly estimated using a bottom up approach (n =15). The body of literature on the costs of diabetes and its complications in India provides a fragmented picture that has mostly concentrated on the direct costs borne by individuals rather than the healthcare system. There is a need to develop a robust methodology to perform methodologically rigorous and transparent cost of i Continue reading >>

Review Diabetes Care In India

Review Diabetes Care In India

Abstract Diabetes has become a major health care problem in India with an estimated 66.8 million people suffering from the condition, representing the largest number of any country in the world. The rising burden of diabetes has greatly affected the health care sector and economy in India. The goal of health care experts in India is to transform India into a diabetes care capital in the world. An expert detailed review of the medical literature with an Asian Indian context was performed. Recent epidemiologic studies from India point to a great burden from diabetes. Diabetes control in India is far from ideal with a mean hemoglobin A1c of 9.0%—at least 2.0% higher than suggested by international bodies. Nearly half of people with diabetes remain undetected, accounting for complications at the time of diagnosis. Screening can differentiate an asymptomatic individual at high risk from one at low risk for diabetes. Despite the large number of people with diabetes in India, awareness is low and needs to be addressed. Other challenges include balancing the need for glycemic control with risk reduction due to overly tight control, especially in high-risk groups and taking into account health care professional expertise, attitudes, and perceptions. Pharmacologic care should be individualized with early consideration of combination therapy. Regular exercise, yoga, mindful eating, and stress management form a cornerstone in the management of diabetes. Considering the high cost incurred at various steps of screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and management, it is important to realize the cost-effective measures of diabetes care that are necessary to implement. Result-oriented organized programs involving patient education, as well as updating the medical fraternity on various deve Continue reading >>

Childhood And Adolescent Onset Type 1 Diabetes In India 1anandakumar Amutha, 2thai Kalpana, 3viswanathan Mohan

Childhood And Adolescent Onset Type 1 Diabetes In India 1anandakumar Amutha, 2thai Kalpana, 3viswanathan Mohan

Anandakumar Amutha et al MGMJMS ABSTRACT According to International Diabetes Federation, there are 382 million people with diabetes globally. While the majority of this is constituted by type 2 diabetes, numbers of type 1 diabetes are also increasing. This paper reviews the clinical and epide- miological features and management issues in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Keywords: Type 1 diabetes, Children and adolescents, Management, Complications, Epidemiology, India. How to cite this article: Amutha A, Kalpana T, Mohan V. Childhood and Adolescent Onset Type 1 Diabetes in India. MGM J Med Sci 2014;1(2):76-83. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared InTRODuCTIOn Recently, physicians and pediatricians are facing fresh challenges due to new epidemics affecting children’s physi cal and mental health. Earlier, infectious diseases like viral infec tions, mumps, chicken pox, pneumonia, diarrhea, nutri tional deficiencies dominated childhood diseases. Today these are being replaced by noncommunicable diseases like overweight/obesity and diabetes.1Â3 Diabetes mellitus is one of the commonest endocrine and meta bolic diseases of childhood. Till recently, diabetes in children (defined as onset below 12 years) and adolescents (defined as onset between 12 and 19 years) was almost exclu sively type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and this has changed, as there is increased recognition of a number of different forms of ‘nontype 1 diabetes’ in the young. This includes type 2 diabetes (T2DM), maturity onset diabetes of young (MODY), fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) and diabetes due to genetic disorders. This review will focus exclusively on the epidemiology, clinical profile, manage ment and complications of childhood onset type 1 Continue reading >>

Global Prevalence Of Diabetes

Global Prevalence Of Diabetes

Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030 Abstract OBJECTIVE—The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations’ population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. RESULTS—The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. CONCLUSIONS—These findings indicate that the “diabetes epidemic” will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence. The number of people with diabetes is increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Quantifying the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people affected by diabetes, now and in the future, is important to allow rational planning and allocation of resources. Estimates of current and future diabetes prevalence have been published previously Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014

Aim: The aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients across the nation and attempt to establish history-based risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of diabetic patients was conducted as an initiative of the All India Ophthalmological Society from 14th November to 21st November 2014. Known diabetics were evaluated voluntarily by members of the society at 194 centers using a structured protocol provided by the society for examination. The results were evaluated to ascertain the prevalence of DR in the population studied and to establish relation with gender, age, and history-based risk factors such as duration of diabetes, insulin use, and other end-organ disease using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 6218 known diabetics were screened. Totally, 5130 data entry forms were considered suitable for further evaluation. About 61.2% were males, 88.6% were between 40 and 80 years of age, almost two-thirds of the patients were from the west and south zones, and over half had diabetes more than 5 years. The data set was predominantly urban 84.7% and 46.1% had no family history. DR prevalence in the entire data set was 21.7%. Prevalence was more in males (P = 0.007), diabetics more than 5 years (P = 0.001), those above 40 years (P = 0.01), insulin users (P = 0.001), and history of vascular accidents (P = 0.0014). Significantly 22.18% of patients detected with DR had a vision of 6/18 or better in the worse eye. Conclusion: The study reiterated the findings of earlier regional studies on a pan Indian scale and put data in perspective. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications In India

Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications In India

India is one of the epicentres of the global diabetes mellitus pandemic. Rapid socioeconomic development and demographic changes, along with increased susceptibility for Indian individuals, have led to the explosive increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in India over the past four decades. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian Indian people is characterized by a young age of onset and occurrence at low levels of BMI. Available data also suggest that the susceptibility of Asian Indian people to the complications of diabetes mellitus differs from that of white populations. Management of this disease in India faces multiple challenges, such as low levels of awareness, paucity of trained medical and paramedical staff and unaffordability of medications and services. Novel interventions using readily available resources and technology promise to revolutionise the care of patients with diabetes mellitus in India. As many of these challenges are common to most developing countries of the world, the lessons learnt from India's experience with diabetes mellitus are likely to be of immense global relevance. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology of diabetes mellitus and its complications in India and outline the advances made in the country to ensure adequate care. We make specific references to novel, cost-effective interventions, which might be of relevance to other low-income and middle-income countries of the world. Anjana, R. M. et al. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in urban and rural India: phase I results of the Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study. Diabetologia 54, 3022–3027 (2011). Deepa, M., Anjana, R. M., Manjula, D., Narayan, K. M. & Mohan, V. Convergence Continue reading >>

Prevalence And Risk Factors For Diabetic Retinopathy In Rural India. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetic Study Iii (sn-dreams Iii), Report No 2

Prevalence And Risk Factors For Diabetic Retinopathy In Rural India. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetic Study Iii (sn-dreams Iii), Report No 2

Objective The study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in a rural population of South India. Methods A multistage cluster sampling method was used. All eligible participants underwent comprehensive eye examination. The fundi of all patients were photographed using 45°, four-field stereoscopic digital photography, and an additional 30° seven-field stereo digital pairs were taken for participants with diabetic retinopathy. The diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy was based on Klein's classification. Main outcome measures Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors. Results The prevalence of diabetes in the rural Indian population was 10.4% (95% CI 10.39% to 10.42%); the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, among patients with diabetes mellitus, was 10.3% (95% CI 8.53% to 11.97%). Statistically significant variables, on multivariate analysis, associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy were: gender (men at greater risk; OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.29), use of insulin (OR 3.59; 95% CI 1.41 to 9.14), longer duration of diabetes (15 years; OR 6.01; 95% CI 2.63 to 13.75), systolic hypertension (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.20 to 3.82), and participants with poor glycemic control (OR 3.37; 95% CI 2.13 to 5.34). Conclusions Nearly 1 of 10 individuals in rural South India, above the age of 40 years, showed evidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Likewise, among participants with diabetes, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was around 10%; the strongest predictor being the duration of diabetes. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diagnosed Diabetes And Associated Risk Factors: Evidence From The Large-scale Surveys In India

Prevalence Of Diagnosed Diabetes And Associated Risk Factors: Evidence From The Large-scale Surveys In India

Context: India has observed the most devastating increases in the burden of diabetes in the contemporary era. However, so far, the comparable prevalence of diabetes is only available for limited geography. Aims: The present paper provides comparable estimates of diabetes prevalence in states and districts of India and examines the associated risk factors with newly diagnosed and self-reported diabetes. Setting and Design: The study uses clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical data from District Level Household and Facility Survey (2012–2013) and Annual Health Survey (2014). Subjects and Methods: The paper analyses the information on glucose level of the blood sample and defines diabetes as per the World Health Organization (1999) criteria. It applies multinomial logistic regression to identify the risk factors of diabetes. Results: The study estimates 7% adults with diabetes in India, with a higher level in urban (9.8%) than in the rural area (5.7%), a higher proportion of males (7.1%) than females (6.8%). Widowed, older persons, and persons with high blood pressure have very high risk of both diagnosed and self-reported diabetes. Comparing to Hindus, Muslims and Christians have higher, and Sikhs have less risk of diabetes. Further, corresponding to general caste, scheduled castes, and other backward classes have a high risk of newly diagnosed but the lower risk of self-reported diabetes. Conclusions: The list of districts and states with alarming diabetes prevalence is the valuable information for further programs and research. A significant population with undiagnosed diabetes reflects an urgent need to strengthen the diagnostics at the local level and for those who need them most. Table 2: Sample size distribution by key background variables, District Level House Continue reading >>

100% Growth In Diabetes Patients In India In The Last 15 Years

100% Growth In Diabetes Patients In India In The Last 15 Years

Diabetes mellitus is a kind of metabolic ailment wherein either the body is incapable of producing insulin or the cells are not able to respond to insulin efficiently, leading to high blood glucose in the body. Obesity is one of the main causes of diabetes apart from other lifestyle factors. What was once majorly perceived as a western phenomenon has now crept deep into Asian lifestyles. "Diabetes, perhaps more than any other disease, is strongly associated with the western diet, as it was uncommon in cultures consuming a 'primitive diet'. However as cultures switch from their native diets, to the foods of commerce; their rate of diabetes increases eventually reaching the proportions seen in the western societies. However, what's alarming is the fact that India is home to 63 million diabetics and the number is estimated to be 100 million by 2030," noted weight management, fitness and nutrition expert, Shilpa Arora. According the official WHO estimates, the total global diabetic population in the year 2000 stood at 171,000,000 which is estimated to spike up to a whopping 366,000,000. India had an estimated 31,705,000 diabetics in the millennium year which is estimated to grow by over 100% to 79,441,000 by 2030. According to the International Diabetes Federation Atlas 2015, an estimated 69.2 million Indians are diabetic, which as per the WHO assessment, stood at 63 million in the year 2013. The estimates depict that diabetes prevalence has alarmingly doubled and so far has grown by over 100% in the past 15 years. Ahead of the World Health Day, WHO has urged all South Asian countries to take "vigorous and concerted" actions to battle the ever increasing prevalence of diabetes in the region. According to the global health organization, diabetes has the potential to become o Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetes And Prediabetes In 15 States Of India: Results From The Icmr–indiab Population-based Cross-sectional Study

Prevalence Of Diabetes And Prediabetes In 15 States Of India: Results From The Icmr–indiab Population-based Cross-sectional Study

Summary Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research–INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state. We used a stratified multistage design to obtain a community-based sample of 57 117 individuals aged 20 years or older. The sample population represented 14 of India's 28 states (eight from the mainland and six from the northeast of the country) and one union territory. States were sampled in a phased manner: phase I included Tamil Nadu, Chandigarh, Jharkhand, and Maharashtra, sampled between Nov 17, 2008, and April 16, 2010; phase II included Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Punjab, sampled between Sept 24, 2012, and July 26, 2013; and the northeastern phase included Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, and Meghalaya, with sampling done between Jan 5, 2012, and July 3, 2015. Capillary oral glucose tolerance tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in accordance with WHO criteria. Our methods did not allow us to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in different states was assessed in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals and the per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) of each state. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the association of various factors with the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes. The overall prevalence of diabetes in all 15 states of India was 7·3% (95% CI 7·0–7·5). The prevalence of diabetes varied from 4·3% in Bihar (95% CI 3·7–5·0) to 10·0% (8·7–11·2) in Punjab and was higher in urban areas (11·2%, 10 Continue reading >>

Number Of Diabetes Patients Doubles In 13 Years In India: Who

Number Of Diabetes Patients Doubles In 13 Years In India: Who

Diabetic patients are at greater risk of developing brain diseases.AlishaV/Flickr The number of diabetes patients is likely to rise to 101 million in India by 2030, estimates the World Health Organisation (WHO). The number doubled to 63 million in 2013 from 32 million in 2000 in the country. The states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat had the highest prevalence of diabetes in India, the Times of India reported. Nearly 8.2 percent of the adult male population in India suffered from diabetes whereas 6.8 percent of adult women were diabetic. The number of diabetic deaths stood at 75,900 for Indian men aged between 30-69 years as against 51,700 women in the same age group. Diabetes, although not as fatal as other non-communicable diseases as cancer and heart diseases, digs a bigger hole in pocket due to the treatment costs involved and the reduced productivity of patients in the later years of the disease. The WHO urged South-East Asian countries to take concrete action for prevention and treatment of diabetes. The organisation reports South-East Asia had a diabetic population of 46,903,000 which is expected to reach 119,541,000 by 2030. "Diabetes rarely makes headlines, and yet it will be the world's seventh largest killer by 2030 unless intense and focused efforts are made by governments, communities and individuals," Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, regional director, WHO South-East Asia, said in a statement. She added that diabetes is of particular concern in South East Asia, where one out of every four of the 3.7 million globally-reported diabetes-related deaths occurs. The WHO has urged governments to regulate the marketing of unhealthy foods and tax sugary beverages. "The governments must also increase access to health care and promote educational campaigns regarding self Continue reading >>

Diabetes In India Rising, With Women At A Particular Disadvantage

Diabetes In India Rising, With Women At A Particular Disadvantage

KS Harikrishnan IPS, part of the Guardian development network The disease itself may not discriminate on the basis of gender, but when it comes to healthcare for patients with diabetes, women in India find themselves at a disadvantage compared with men. This is the conclusion of a study, Impact of Gender on Care of Type 2 Diabetes in Varkala, Kerala, which analysed gender roles, norms and values in a household and found women patients to be more vulnerable. This vulnerability influences all phases of diabetic care, according to the paper by Dr Mini P Mani at the Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies (AMCHSS) in Thiruvananthapuram, the capital of the southern state of Kerala. Even when they suffer from diabetes, women cannot abandon the "caretaker role" in the family and have to continue to prioritise the health of other family members above their own, the study found. Inequitable access to resources prevents early diagnosis of the disease in women. Women pay more attention to the health of the men and children in the family, leaving them with less time to devote to their own wellbeing, said Rosy Raphy, who teaches at a school in Munambam, near the central Kerala town of Kochi. "As someone who has lived with diabetes for 26 years," Raphy told IPS, "I can say that I was not aware of the disease and did not take due care because I was preoccupied with matters of the family. As a result, my case got aggravated." Of particular concern to women and gynaecologists in the country is gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a form of the disease that affects pregnant women. The incidence of GDM has grown fourfold in the past 10 years, according to Dr B Rajkumar, a doctor of Indian systems of medicine at the Keezhariyoor government ayurveda dispensary in the state's norther Continue reading >>

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