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Pre Diabetes In Kids

23% Of Teens Have Diabetes Or Prediabetes

23% Of Teens Have Diabetes Or Prediabetes

The percent of U.S. teens with diabetes is on the rise, a new study suggests. Between 1999 and 2008, the percentage of adolescents ages 12 to 19 with diabetes or prediabetes increased from 9 percent to 23 percent, the study found. Prediabetes is a condition in which blood sugar levels are abnormally high, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. Both diabetes and prediabetes are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the researchers said. The researchers did not have data to say whether the children had Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. The cause of Type 1 diabetes remains unknown; the development of Type 2 diabetes has been linked with poor diet and weight gain. The study also found 50 that percent of overweight teens, and 60 percent of obese teens had at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes, borderline-high or high cholesterol levels or high blood pressure (hypertension). The findings indicate "U.S. adolescents carry a substantial burden of [cardiovascular disease] risk factors, especially those youth who are overweight or obese," said the researchers from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Studies suggests such risk factors in children can persist into adulthood, the researchers said. The researchers analyzed information from 3,383 adolescents who participated in a government survey between 1999 and 2008. Participants were interviewed and underwent a physical exam. About one-third were overweight or obese. Overall, 22 percent of participants had borderline-high or high cholesterol levels, and 15 percent had diabetes or prediabetes during the study period. About 6 percent had low levels of "good" cholesterol, and 14 percent had pre-hypertension or hypertension. While the percentage of participants who were overweight or Continue reading >>

Utility Of Hemoglobin A1c For Diagnosing Prediabetes And Diabetes In Obese Children And Adolescents

Utility Of Hemoglobin A1c For Diagnosing Prediabetes And Diabetes In Obese Children And Adolescents

OBJECTIVE Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) has emerged as a recommended diagnostic tool for identifying diabetes and subjects at risk for the disease. This recommendation is based on data in adults showing the relationship between A1C with future development of diabetes and microvascular complications. However, studies in the pediatric population are lacking. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied a multiethnic cohort of 1,156 obese children and adolescents without a diagnosis of diabetes (male, 40%/female, 60%). All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and A1C measurement. These tests were repeated after a follow-up time of ∼2 years in 218 subjects. RESULTS At baseline, subjects were stratified according to A1C categories: 77% with normal glucose tolerance (A1C <5.7%), 21% at risk for diabetes (A1C 5.7–6.4%), and 1% with diabetes (A1C >6.5%). In the at risk for diabetes category, 47% were classified with prediabetes or diabetes, and in the diabetes category, 62% were classified with type 2 diabetes by the OGTT. The area under the curve receiver operating characteristic for A1C was 0.81 (95% CI 0.70–0.92). The threshold for identifying type 2 diabetes was 5.8%, with 78% specificity and 68% sensitivity. In the subgroup with repeated measures, a multivariate analysis showed that the strongest predictors of 2-h glucose at follow-up were baseline A1C and 2-h glucose, independently of age, ethnicity, sex, fasting glucose, and follow-up time. CONCLUSIONS The American Diabetes Association suggested that an A1C of 6.5% underestimates the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes in obese children and adolescents. Given the low sensitivity and specificity, the use of A1C by itself represents a poor diagnostic tool for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in obese children Continue reading >>

Prediabetes In Children. What To Do?

Prediabetes In Children. What To Do?

Did you know that Type 2 diabetes is more aggressive in youth than in adults? Kids and teenagers start suffering from serious complications from the disease just a few years after diagnosis, new research1 has found. Prediabetes in children That’s why it’s so important to set kids up with healthy lifestyle habits, particularly those who are overweight or have prediabetes, so that full-blown Type 2 diabetes can hopefully be prevented from ever happening. The new research, coordinated by the American Diabetes Association, recruited 699 children nationwide who were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes between the ages of 10 and 17 and had had the disease on average eight months. All the children were overweight or obese. In the study, which resulted in a series of articles published in the June 2013 issue of Diabetes Care, the children received one of three treatments: The drug metformin Metformin plus intensive lifestyle changes Metformin plus another drug, rosiglitazone None of the interventions appeared to do much good. After four years, the scientists reported that: Rates of high blood pressure, or hypertension, among the children had tripled. Initial signs of kidney disease, or microalbuminuria, had almost tripled. Destruction of the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin (beta cells) had occurred at a rate nearly four times higher than in adults. The percentage of children needing cholesterol-lowering medications had more than doubled. The scientists were surprised and dismayed, thinking they were on top of treatments for the children, yet the disease still progressed at an alarming rate. Their conclusions: Preventing Type 2 diabetes by fighting obesity and prediabetes in children is essential. “The challenges in effectively treating Type 2 diabetes in youth highl Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: A Guide For Families

Type 1 Diabetes: A Guide For Families

What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is a disease caused by a lack of insulin. Insulin is needed to allow sugar to move from the bloodstream into the cells to be used for energy. Nutrients in food are changed into a sugar called glucose. People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin, and without insulin, glucose is "stuck" in the bloodstream, leading to a high level of glucose in the blood. Type 1 diabetes affects about 1 in 400 children, adolescents, and young adults under 20 years of age. Currently, once diagnosed, type 1 diabetes is a lifelong disease that cannot be cured. However, the administration of insulin is a very effective treatment for type 1 diabetes. What Causes Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is caused by the inability of the pancreas to produce insulin. Insulin is produced in special cells (called beta cells) in the pancreas, which is an organ located in the belly. In children with type 1 diabetes, the immune system "misbehaves." Normally, the immune system produces special proteins called antibodies that defend the body against infections, but in type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks its own beta cells by producing antibodies against them. This ongoing attack results in over 90% destruction of beta cells, which may occur quickly or over a period of years, and ultimately leads to an inability to produce adequate levels of insulin. Symptoms The symptoms of type 1 diabetes are largely due to the lack of energy caused by an inability to use the nutrients eaten and by the high sugar levels in the bloodstream pulling water from the body into the bloodstream and spilling into the urine, causing dehydration (lack of fluids). These symptoms include: Hunger, at times extreme, and associated with weight loss Increased thirst and increased urination – the la Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children And Teens

Diabetes In Children And Teens

Until recently, the common type of diabetes in children and teens was type 1. It was called juvenile diabetes. With Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose,or sugar, get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much sugar stays in the blood. Now younger people are also getting type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But now it is becoming more common in children and teens, due to more obesity. With Type 2 diabetes, the body does not make or use insulin well. Children have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if they are overweight or have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or are not active. Children who are African American, Hispanic, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American, or Pacific Islander also have a higher risk. To lower the risk of type 2 diabetes in children Have them maintain a healthy weight Be sure they are physically active Have them eat smaller portions of healthy foods Limit time with the TV, computer, and video Children and teens with type 1 diabetes may need to take insulin. Type 2 diabetes may be controlled with diet and exercise. If not, patients will need to take oral diabetes medicines or insulin. A blood test called the A1C can check on how you are managing your diabetes. Continue reading >>

Preschool And Pre-diabetes

Preschool And Pre-diabetes

Preschool and school age children could consume a significant portion of their daily calories in one meal. According to the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) ChooseMyPlate, a five year old involved in 30-60 minutes of activity each day needs about 1400 calories. If a five year old girl ate a commercially prepared donut, that could add up to 900 calories just for breakfast. After this one donut, the girl now needs to eat only 500 more calories in two more meals and snacks to maintain her weight. If she eats more than this, she will likely gain weight. Serving fast food for lunch at some preschools is a disturbing trend that is contributing to both obesity and diabetes in children. Some preschool directors justify this practice by stating that children like this food and will eat it. Portion sizes of processed, convenience or restaurant foods are often not adjusted for toddlers and school age children, encouraging overeating of these types of foods. When eating out, many children order from the adult menu and finish their meals. Kid’s meal toys and restaurant playgrounds make fast food even more appealing to children. Americans are now spending about 44% of their food dollars on food service away from home. Americans eat out approximately four times per week. Settings include restaurants, airports, shopping malls, supermarket cafes, institutions, and cars (dashboard eating). Portion sizes in restaurants have significantly increased over the last 25 years providing us with more calories and little nutrients. Children are learning wrong portion sizes at an early age. Many restaurants entice families with a free or discounted kid’s menu. The kid’s menu often consists of fried foods and negligible vegetables. Also, a significant amount of soda is consum Continue reading >>

How Does Type 2 Diabetes Affect Children?

How Does Type 2 Diabetes Affect Children?

Years ago, it was rare to hear about a child with type 2 diabetes. Doctors used to think kids only got type 1. It was even called juvenile diabetes for a long time. Not anymore. Now, according to the CDC, more than 208,000 people younger than 20 have this disease. That number includes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Here's what you need to know if your child is diagnosed. You've probably heard diabetes and high blood sugar mentioned together. Here's what happens. Your digestive system breaks down carbohydrates into a type of sugar called glucose. Your pancreas creates a hormone, known as insulin, that moves glucose from your blood into your cells, where it’s used for fuel. In type 2 diabetes, the cells in your child's body don’t respond to the insulin, and glucose builds up in her bloodstream. This is called insulin resistance. Eventually, the sugar levels in her body get too high for it to handle. That could lead to other conditions in the future, like heart disease, blindness, and kidney failure. Type 2 diabetes is most likely to affect kids who are: Girls Overweight Have a family history of diabetes American Indian, African-American, Asian, or Hispanic/Latino Have a problem called insulin resistance The single biggest cause of type 2 diabetes in children is extra weight. In the U.S., nearly 1 out of every 3 children is overweight. Once a child gets too heavy, she’s twice as likely to get diabetes. One or more of these things may contribute to extra weight or obesity: Unhealthy eating Family members (alive or dead) who've been overweight Rarely, a hormone problem or other medical condition As with adults, type 2 diabetes is more likely to affect children who carry extra weight around the middle. At first, there may be no symptoms. Over time, you may notice: Hun Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

With more than a third of diabetes cases in the United States occurring in people over the age of 65, diabetes is often referred to as an age-related condition. But around 208,000 children and adolescents are estimated to have diabetes, and this number is increasing. Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of the condition among children and adolescents. A 2009 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revealed that type 1 diabetes prevalence stands at 1.93 in every 1,000 children and adolescents, while type 2 diabetes affects 0.24 in every 1,000. In 2014, Medical News Today reported that, based on a study published in JAMA, rates of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have increased significantly among American children and teenagers. The study found that incidence of type 1 diabetes in children aged up to 9 years increased by 21 percent between 2001 and 2009, while incidence of type 2 diabetes among youths aged 10-19 years rose by 30.5 percent. The researchers note: "The increases in prevalence reported herein are important because such youth with diabetes will enter adulthood with several years of disease duration, difficulty in treatment, an increased risk of early complications and increased frequency of diabetes during reproductive years, which may further increase diabetes in the next generation." Contents of this article: Here are some key points about diabetes in children. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Type 1 and 2 diabetes are both increasing in the youth of America Often, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children develop over just a few weeks If type 1 diabetes is not spotted, the child can develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) What is diabetes in children? Type 1 diabetes in children, previously called juve Continue reading >>

Prediabetes

Prediabetes

Overview What is prediabetes? Before people develop type 2 diabetes, they usually have prediabetes. In people who have prediabetes, blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to say they have diabetes. Normal “fasting blood sugar” is between 70 and 99 mg per dL. Fasting blood sugar is your blood sugar level you before you have something to eat in the morning. Fasting blood sugar between 100 and 125 mg per dL suggests prediabetes. Fasting blood sugar higher than 126 mg per dL is considered diabetes. People who have prediabetes have a high risk of eventually developing diabetes. Causes Who is at risk? You are at risk for prediabetes if any of the following are true: You are overweight or obese. You have a parent, brother or sister who has diabetes. You had diabetes during pregnancy (called gestational diabetes) or had a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds at birth. You belong to any of the following ethnic groups: African American, Native American, Latin American or Asian/Pacific Islander. Your high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (“good” cholesterol) is less than 40 mg per dL (for men) or less than 50 mg per dl (for women), or your triglyceride level is higher than 250 mg per dL. Prevention If I have prediabetes, can I avoid developing diabetes? You can lower your risk of developing diabetes by making changes in your lifestyle. If you are overweight, losing weight can help. Losing weight also helps lower your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Exercise is also important. Your exercise routine should include 30 minutes of moderate physical activity (such as brisk walking or swimming) at least 5 times a week. Ask your doctor what exercise level is safe for you. Follow a healthy diet. Eat foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole gra Continue reading >>

Topic Overview

Topic Overview

What is prediabetes? Prediabetes is a warning sign that you are at risk for getting type 2 diabetes. It means that your blood sugar is higher than it should be, but not high enough to be diabetes. Prediabetes is also called impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. Most people who get type 2 diabetes have prediabetes first. What causes prediabetes? The food you eat turns into sugar, which your body uses for energy. Normally, an organ called the pancreas makes insulin, which allows the sugar in your blood to get into your body's cells.But when your body can't use insulin the right way, the sugar doesn't move into cells. It stays in your blood instead. This is called insulin resistance. The buildup of sugar in the blood causes prediabetes. People who are overweight, aren't physically active, and have a family history of diabetes are more likely to get prediabetes. Women who have had gestational diabetes are also more likely to get prediabetes. What are the symptoms? Most people with prediabetes don't have any symptoms. But if you have prediabetes, you need to watch for signs of diabetes, such as: Feeling very thirsty. Urinating more often than usual. Feeling very hungry. Having blurred vision. Losing weight without trying. How is prediabetes diagnosed? A blood test can tell if you have prediabetes. You have prediabetes if: How is it treated? The key to treating prediabetes and preventing type 2 diabetes is getting your blood sugar levels back to a normal range. You can do this by making some lifestyle changes. Watch your weight. If you are overweight, losing just a small amount of weight may help. Reducing fat around your waist is particularly important. Make healthy food choices. Limit the amount of unhealthy fat you eat, such as saturated fat and trans fat Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Print Diagnosis If diabetes is suspected, your child's doctor will likely recommend a screening test. A diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in children generally requires abnormal results from two tests taken on different days. There are several blood tests for diabetes. Fasting blood sugar test A blood sample is taken after your child fasts for at least eight hours, or overnight. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). In general: A fasting blood sugar level below 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is considered normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 7.0 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes — which indicates a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 2 diabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test Your doctor might recommend this test if your child's fasting blood sugar test results don't indicate diabetes but the doctor still suspects it. The A1C test indicates your child's average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your child's blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin your child will have with sugar attached. In general: An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal. An A1C level between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates type 2 diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test A blood sample is taken after your child fasts for at least eight hours or overnight. Then your child drinks a sugary solution, and his or her blood sugar levels are measured periodically over the next few hours. In ge Continue reading >>

Pre-diabetes And Type 1

Pre-diabetes And Type 1

Pre-Diabetes: Pre-Diabetes is a milder form of Diabetes that is sometimes called Impaired Glucose Tolerance. It can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. Symptoms: Blood sugar level is higher than normal Often there are no symptoms In certain populations (Hispanic, Native Americans and African Americans) a sign of Pre-Diabetes can be Acanthosis Nigricans, which is a skin disorder characterized by dark, thick, velvety skin in body folds and in creases Description: Likely to become Type 2 Diabetes within 10 years Ability to turn life around and keep yourself from developing Type 2 Diabetes 57 million people in the United States have Pre-Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Usually diagnosed in children, most commonly between the ages of 6-12 years and young adults, known as Juvenile Diabetes. Symptoms: Increased thirst and frequent urination Extreme hunger Weight loss despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger Fatigue: If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable Blurred vision: If your blood sugar level is too high, fluid may be pulled from your tissue. Description: Previously called Juvenile Diabetes and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Pancreas doesn’t allow insulin production needed to turn sugar into energy No cure right now, but with treatment can be managed 5-10% of people with diabetes have Type 1 Risk Factors: Decreases of the Pancreas: Injury or diseases of the pancreas, a gland located near the stomach that makes insulin, can inhibit the ability to produce insulin, which can lead to Type 1 Diabetes. Infection or Illness: A range of relatively rare infections or illnesses can damage the pancreas and cause Type 1 Diabetes. Immunosuppression or Auto Immune Response: Immunosuppression involves an act that reduces the activation or efficacy of the Continue reading >>

Tips On How To Prevent Pre-diabetes In Children

Tips On How To Prevent Pre-diabetes In Children

Diabetes is a common condition which result from excess sugar in blood system. There are two main types of diabetes that is type-1 and type-2 diabetes. Pre-diabetes on the other hand is a condition whereby the blood sugar is higher than the normal level but it cannot be classified as type 2. Pre-diabetes is a condition that gives warning of type 2 diabetes. There are various things once done they prevent pre-diabetes in children and such include: Regular Exercise Assist your child to be active each and every day. Ask the kid how they would like to be active, what fun they are interested in and what activities they feel comfortable being involved in. If the kid doesn’t have a clue or is afraid to engage in one, as a parent you can suggest one for them example they can try: riding a bike, skateboarding, rope jump, swimming, taking walks or running among others. This will help keep the child fit and healthier. The above activities form a process which should be introduced step by step for some hours. Being active helps kids to have healthier weight, feel nice and sleep good, burn calories and build muscles, stay flexible and grow stronger bones among others. Healthy snacks and meals Making snacks and meals that taste good and are healthy is another factor to prevent prediabetes in children. Kids can really eat well if they adopt eating healthy habits and when they make good choices of food. This can be achieved by teaching them about heathy food and discussing on how they think they can eat heathier. You can try making a eating list together with the child where you ensure the list includes fibre food example brown rice, vegetables, food with low saturation of trans fats such as fish, try boiled or baked food rather than fried food among others. Plenty of clean water ins Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Doctors at Hassenfeld Children’s Hospital at NYU Langone have extensive experience diagnosing type 2 diabetes in children. This chronic condition is characterized by excess blood sugar. After you eat, the body breaks down sugars and starches into glucose, the main source of energy for cells. When glucose enters the bloodstream, the pancreas releases a hormone called insulin, which signals the liver, muscles, and fat cells to remove the glucose from the blood and store it until the body needs energy. If the body becomes less responsive to the effects of insulin—a condition known as insulin resistance—the pancreas compensates and produces more insulin. With insulin resistance, the body has difficulty absorbing sugar from the bloodstream, leading to an increase in blood sugar levels, a condition known as prediabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body stops responding to the insulin signal and the pancreas can no longer make enough insulin to compensate for rising blood sugar levels. Causes and Risk Factors Once referred to as adult-onset diabetes, type 2 diabetes has become increasingly common during childhood and adolescence. This trend appears to be linked to an increase in obesity and sedentary habits among children and teens. Although the exact cause of insulin resistance is not completely understood, evidence suggests that being overweight plays an important role. This is because fat cells—especially those found in the abdomen—produce hormones and other substances that increase inflammation in the body, which can lead to insulin resistance. Being inactive, which can contribute to weight gain and lower muscle mass, may be another cause of insulin resistance. Girls with a hormone condition called polycystic ovary syndrome—which can cause facial hair and t Continue reading >>

A List Of Good Foods To Eat For Diabetic Children

A List Of Good Foods To Eat For Diabetic Children

Nutritional needs for children with diabetes are the same as children without diabetes. The difference lies in keeping blood sugar levels within a normal range, and meal planning can help. With challenges like picky eating, changing appetites, busy schedules, sports and long school days, knowledge of carbohydrate counts of foods is essential. A May 2009 article published in "Diabetes Educator" found that the diets of children with type 1 diabetes often do not meet recommended guidelines. The authors noted too much processed food and low intake of fruits, vegetables and fiber. Luckily, there is a variety of healthy foods children can eat to satisfy their appetites and nutritional needs, maintain good blood sugar control and keep them feeling like kids. Video of the Day Dairy foods such as cheese, yogurt and milk are packed with nutrients kids need, including calcium, potassium and protein. Many dairy foods are also fortified with vitamin D. Nonfat, low-fat and full-fat dairy products vary in carbohydrates, which makes label reading essential. Cheese is low in carbohydrates, with less than 1 g in a mozzarella cheese stick. An 8-ounce glass of 2 percent milk contains 13 g. Popular kids' yogurts can be high in sugar, but yogurt can be a healthy snack. Adding a child's favorite fruit to plain yogurt helps limit added sugar. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends low-fat or nonfat dairy as part of a healthy eating plan after age 2, to limit intake of saturated fats. A diet low in saturated fat is recommended for children with diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) due to an increased risk of heart disease. All fruit is good fruit and should be included in the diet of a child with diabetes. One small fruit, such as an apple, clementin Continue reading >>

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