diabetestalk.net

Pre Diabetes Hyperglycemia

Faster Cognitive Decline Tied To Hyperglycemia

Faster Cognitive Decline Tied To Hyperglycemia

Faster Cognitive Decline Tied to Hyperglycemia Link was seen in those with diabetes and prediabetes by Kristen Monaco, Staff Writer, MedPage Today This article is a collaboration between MedPage Today and: Note that this longitudinal study found that diabetes and prediabetes were associated with more rapid subsequent cognitive decline. Be aware that cognitive decline was assessed via standard instruments; clinical diagnoses of dementia were not evaluated. Diabetes may speed up cognitive decline over time, a new study reported. Both prediabetes (-0.012 SD/year, 95% CI -0.022 to -0.002) and diabetes (-0.031 SD/year, -0.046 to -0.015) were tied to a faster rate of global cognitive decline over time when compared with people with normoglycemia, according to Fanfan Zheng, PhD, of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing and University College London, and colleagues (P-trend <0.001, for both). In the study, published online in Diabetologia , those with prediabetes and diabetes also showed a similarly fast trend of cognitive decline versus those with normoglycemia, as reported in memory, executive function, and orientation cognitive tests. The results also showed that a 2.2% increase in HbA1c (1 mmol/mol) was directly associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline over time, in a fully adjusted model: Global cognitive z-scores: -0.0009 SD/year (95% CI -0.0014 to -0.0003) (P=0.002) Memory: -0.0005 SD/year (-0.0009 to -0.0001) (P=0.025) Executive function: -0.0008 SD/year (-0.0013 to -0.0004) (P<0.001) "Dementia is one of the most prevalent psychiatric conditions strongly associated with poor quality of later life," the study's senior author, Wuxiang Xie, PhD, of Imperial College London and Peking University Health Science Center in Beijing, told MedPage Today via ema Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Whether you have type 1 diabetes, are a caregiver or loved one of a person with type 1 diabetes, or just want to learn more, the following page provides an overview of type 1 diabetes. New to type 1 diabetes? Check out "Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics," which answers some of the basic questions about type 1 diabetes: what is type 1 diabetes, what are its symptoms, how is it treated, and many more! Want to learn a bit more? See our “Helpful Links” page below, which provides links to diaTribe articles focused on type 1 diabetes. These pages provide helpful tips for living with type 1 diabetes, our patient-perspective column by Adam Brown, drug and device overviews, information about diabetes complications, and some extra pages we hope you’ll find useful! Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics What is the risk of developing type 1 diabetes if it runs in my family? What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is disease in which the body can no longer produce insulin. Insulin is normally needed to convert sugar (also called glucose) and other food sources into energy for the body’s cells. It is believed that in people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s own immune system attacks and kills the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot control blood sugar, and people can suffer from dangerously high blood sugar levels (called hyperglycemia). To control their blood glucose levels, people with type 1 diabetes take insulin injections. Before the discovery of insulin, type 1 diabetes was a death sentence (and it still is for patients with poor access to insulin). Can Type 1 Diabetes Be Prevented? Unfortunately, the genetic and environmental triggers for the immune attack that causes type 1 diabetes are not well understood, althoug Continue reading >>

Prediabetes Diagnosis And Treatment: A Review

Prediabetes Diagnosis And Treatment: A Review

Go to: Abstract Prediabetes is an intermediate state of hyperglycemia with glycemic parameters above normal but below the diabetes threshold. While, the diagnostic criteria of prediabetes are not uniform across various international professional organizations, it remains a state of high risk for developing diabetes with yearly conversion rate of 5%-10%. Observational evidence suggests as association between prediabetes and complications of diabetes such early nephropathy, small fiber neuropathy, early retinopathy and risk of macrovascular disease. Several studies have shown efficacy of lifestyle interventions with regards to diabetes prevention with a relative risk reduction of 40%-70% in adults with prediabetes. While there is increasing evidence to prove the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in prevention of diabetes in adults with prediabetes, pharmaceutical treatment options other than metformin are associated with adverse effects that limit their use for prediabetes. There are no reports of systematic evaluation of health outcomes related to prediabetes in children. The effects of pharmacotherapy of prediabetes on growth and pubertal development in children remains unknown. Secondary intervention with pharmacotherapy with metformin is advocated for high-risk individuals but criteria for such consideration benefit of early intervention, long term cost effectiveness of such interventions and the end point of therapy remain unclear. Pharmacotherapy must be used with caution in children with prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition defined as having blood glucose levels above normal but below the defined threshold of diabetes. It is considered to be an at risk state, with high chances of developing diabetes. While, prediabetes is commonly an asymptomatic condition, there is a Continue reading >>

Difference Between Diabetes & Hyperglycemia

Difference Between Diabetes & Hyperglycemia

The rate of diabetes in the United States increased nearly 167 percent between 1980 and 2011. Understanding the basics of diabetes is crucial for individuals who are interested in keeping this dangerous condition in check. Both diabetes and hyperglycemia are characterized by high blood sugar -- in fact, people with diabetes may occasionally become hyperglycemic -- but the causes and treatments for each condition are somewhat different. Video of the Day Diabetes is a disorder characterized by high amounts of sugar in the bloodstream that occurs as a result of a lack of insulin or insulin insensitivity -- and while there are a number of ways in which diabetes can be diagnosed, the use of the standardized blood tests are especially popular. Individuals who have an A1c level equal to or greater than 6.5 percent, a fasting plasma glucose level equal to or greater than 126 milligrams per deciliter or an oral glucose tolerance test level equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL after two hours of drinking a sweetened beverage -- or a random plasma glucose level of equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL -- may be diagnosed with diabetes. In most cases, tests will be performed at least twice to confirm the findings, notes the American Diabetes Association. As with diabetes, hyperglycemia is characterized by high amounts of sugar in the bloodstream -- and in fact, most healthy adults will experience a slight increase in blood sugar levels to greater than 100 mg/dL shortly after eating a meal. Unlike diabetes, however, hyperglycemia may not always be related to a lack of insulin or insulin sensitivity; instead, it can occur as the result of stress, chronic or acute illness, prescription or illegal medication use and even pregnancy. People who have been diagnosed with diabetes will likely ex Continue reading >>

Prediabetes

Prediabetes

Prediabetes is the precursor stage before diabetes mellitus in which not all of the symptoms required to diagnose diabetes are present, but blood sugar is abnormally high. This stage is often referred to as the "grey area."[1] It is not a disease; the American Diabetes Association says,[2] "Prediabetes should not be viewed as a clinical entity in its own right but rather as an increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prediabetes is associated with obesity (especially abdominal or visceral obesity), dyslipidemia with high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension."[2] It is thus a metabolic diathesis or syndrome, and it usually involves no symptoms and only high blood sugar as the sole sign. Impaired fasting blood sugar and impaired glucose tolerance are two forms of prediabetes that are similar in clinical definition (glucose levels too high for their context) but are physiologically distinct.[3] Insulin resistance, the insulin resistance syndrome (metabolic syndrome or syndrome X), and prediabetes are closely related to one another and have overlapping aspects. Classification[edit] Impaired fasting glucose[edit] Main article: Impaired fasting glycaemia Impaired fasting glycaemia or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) refers to a condition in which the fasting blood glucose or the 3-month average blood glucose (A1C) is elevated above what is considered normal levels but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes mellitus. It is considered a pre-diabetic state, associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology, although of lesser risk than impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). IFG sometimes progresses to type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a 50% risk over 10 years of progressing to overt diabetes. Many newl Continue reading >>

Pathogenesis Of Prediabetes: Role Of The Liver In Isolated Fasting Hyperglycemia And Combined Fasting And Postprandial Hyperglycemia

Pathogenesis Of Prediabetes: Role Of The Liver In Isolated Fasting Hyperglycemia And Combined Fasting And Postprandial Hyperglycemia

Glucose production, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and glucose disappearance were measured before and during a hyperinsulinemic clamp using [6,6-2H2]glucose and the deuterated water method corrected for transaldolase exchange. Fasting glucose production was higher (P < .0001) in subjects with IFG/NGT than in those with NFG/NGT because of increased rates of gluconeogenesis (P = .003). On the other hand, insulin-induced suppression of glucose production, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and stimulation of glucose disappearance all were normal. Although fasting glucose production also was increased (P = .0002) in subjects with IFG/IGT, insulin-induced suppression of glucose production, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis and stimulation of glucose disappearance were impaired (P = .005). Fasting hyperglycemia is due to excessive glucose production in people with either IFG/NGT or IFG/IGT. Both insulin action and postprandial glucose concentrations are normal in IFG/NGT but abnormal in IFG/IGT. This finding suggests that hepatic and extrahepatic insulin resistance causes or exacerbates postprandial glucose intolerance in IFG/IGT. Elevated gluconeogenesis in the fasting state in IFG/NGT and impaired insulin-induced suppression of both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in IFG/IGT suggest that alteration in the regulation of these pathways occurs early in the evolution of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to examine the adiponectin axis in type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D is an autoimmune inflammatory disease resulting from pancreatic β-cell destruction, in which insulin resistance associates with progression to disease. We measured circulating adiponectin and adiponectin receptor expression on blood-immune cells from 108 matched healthy, T1D, and type 2 diabetic subjects. We te Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Print Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication. It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. Symptoms Hyperglycemia doesn't cause symptoms until glucose values are significantly elevated — above 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Symptoms of hyperglycemia develop slowly over several days or weeks. The longer blood sugar levels stay high, the more serious the symptoms become. However, some people who've had type 2 diabetes for a long time may not show any symptoms despite elevated blood sugars. Early signs and symptoms Recognizing early symptoms of hyperglycemia can help you treat the condition promptly. Watch for: Frequent urination Increased thirst Blurred vision Fatigue Headache Later signs and symptoms If hyperglycemia goes untreated, it can cause toxic acids (ketones) to build up in your blood and urine (ketoacidosis). Signs and symptoms include: Fruity-smelling breath Nausea and vomiting Shortness of breath Dry mouth Weakness Confusion Coma Abdominal pain When to see a doctor Call 911 or emergency medical assistance if: You're sick and can't keep any food or fluids down, and Your blood glucose levels are persistently above 240 mg/dL (13 mmol/L) and you have ketones in your urine Make an appointment with your Continue reading >>

How Are Hyperglycemia And Diabetes Connected?

How Are Hyperglycemia And Diabetes Connected?

The term used to describe high blood glucose or blood sugar is hyperglycemia. When we eat food, the carbohydrate in food breaks down into sugar and goes into the bloodstream. The pancreas releases insulin when this happens. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that "unlocks" the body's cells, allowing the sugar go from the blood and into the cells. The cells in the body use this sugar for energy. When the body does not make any or enough insulin, or when the cells are unable to use the insulin correctly, blood sugar levels go up. Contents of this article: Hyperglycemia and diabetes Hyperglycemia is common in people with diabetes. People with prediabetes are also at an increased risk. Prediabetes refers to blood sugar levels that are higher than normal but are not as high as they are for diabetes. Diabetes causes high blood sugar levels two main ways. Either there is a lack of insulin, as is the case with type 1 diabetes, or the body doesn't respond properly to insulin. In prediabetes, it is usually due to the cells not responding correctly. In type 2 diabetes, it is usually a combination. Causes of hyperglycemia There are several causes of hyperglycemia that are related to diabetes: Though many causes are related to diabetes, there are additional factors that can contribute to hyperglycemia: Certain medications such as steroids Other pancreatic diseases Illness and stress can trigger hyperglycemia because the hormones that are produced to combat illness or stress can also cause blood sugar to rise. People do not have to have full-blown diabetes to develop hyperglycemia due to a severe illness. People with diabetes may need to take extra diabetes medication to keep their blood sugar levels stable during illness or stress. Symptoms of hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia Continue reading >>

Prediabetes

Prediabetes

Prediabetes means you have blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels that are higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Too much glucose in your blood can damage your body over time. If you have prediabetes, you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Most people with prediabetes don't have any symptoms. Your doctor can use an A1C test or another blood test to find out if your blood glucose levels are higher than normal. If you are 45 years old or older, your doctor may recommend that you be tested for prediabetes, especially if you are overweight. Losing weight - at least 5 to 10 percent of your starting weight - can prevent or delay diabetes or even reverse prediabetes. That's 10 to 20 pounds for someone who weighs 200 pounds. You can lose weight by cutting down on the amount of calories and fat you eat and being physically active at least 30 minutes a day. Being physically active makes your body's insulin work better. Your doctor may also prescribe medicine to help control the amount of glucose in your blood. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar, Hyperglycemia Causes | Prediabetes

High Blood Sugar, Hyperglycemia Causes | Prediabetes

About Glucose Your Bodys Energy Source Three of the many important parts that make up your body are cells, tissues, and organs. All three of these things need fluid, oxygen and energy to sustain life. Cells get energy from food we eat that contains protein, fat, and carbohydrates. But before our bodies can use the foods we eat it, food must be broken down and converted into glucose, a form of sugar our bodies can use for energy. and then be able to get that usable energy into cells, tissues and organs. The way the body moves energy from food (that has been converted into blood glucose) into cells and tissues is through a hormone called insulin. Insulin makes cells receptive to receiving glucose; acting like a key to open cells so that they can be nourished. If a person does not make enough insulin, or their bodies resist the affect of insulin, they may begin to suffer from an abnormally high level of glucose in the blood stream (hyperglycemia) because cells cannot get glucose from the blood stream. People who have type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin on their own. This is why all people with type 1 diabetes (and many people with type 2 diabetes) must take insulin each day to live. Without insulin, no matter how much you ate, cells in your body would begin to die. About Glucose (Sugar) in Your Bloodstream The main form of energy used by your body is called glucose. Some people simply refer to glucose in the body as sugar. For example, you may hear a person with diabetes say they are testing their blood sugar or, that their blood sugar is too high. What they are really referring to is blood glucose levels. Glucose is just one a many forms of sugar. It is not the same thing as the granulated sugar you buy in stores, which is another form of sugar called sucrose. But lik Continue reading >>

What Is Prediabetes? Learn More About Causes & Symptoms Of Prediabetes

What Is Prediabetes? Learn More About Causes & Symptoms Of Prediabetes

Prediabetes is a condition defined by the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) that has not yet reached the threshold for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D); the metabolic syndrome is also considered a prediabetes equivalent (1,2). Prediabetes raises short-term absolute risk of T2D by 3- to 10-fold (2). In the United States, 86 million people, or 37% of the US population, have prediabetes, and it is estimated that up to 70% of people with prediabetes may develop T2D during their lifetimes (3,4). According to a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted in 2010, while one-third of US residents have prediabetes, only 11% have received a formal diagnosis from a physician (5). In a 2006 NHANES study, no patients reported receiving oral antihyperglycemic agents, while the percentage who received a physician recommendation for exercise or diet was 31.7% and 33.4%, respectively. Furthermore, among those diagnosed with prediabetes, 68% had tried to lose or control their weight, 60% had reduced dietary fat or calories, 55% had increased their physical activity or exercise, and 42% had engaged in all 3 activities (6). Prediabetes is a state of abnormal glucose homeostasis characterized by the presence of IFG, IGT, or both. This abnormal glucose homeostasis is a result of both beta-cell failure and insulin resistance (2,7-9). Prediabetes and subsequent T2D likely develop as a result of polygenic defects that predispose affected individuals to the disease. Environmental factors such as a sedentary lifestyle and a high-fat diet can exacerbate defects in both insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells and insulin action in muscle and adipose tissues. The modest hyperglycemia characteristic of the prediabetic state Continue reading >>

What Is Hyperglycemia?

What Is Hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemia, a high level of sugar in the blood, is a hallmark of diabetes. Your blood sugar levels fluctuate over the course of a day: Levels are higher right after meals, as carbohydrates are broken down into glucose (sugar), and lower after exercise, when glucose has been burned to fuel the activity. In someone who doesn't have diabetes, blood sugar levels stay within a narrow range. Between meals, the concentration of sugar in the blood ranges from about 60 to 100 mg/dl (milligrams per deciliter). After meals it may reach 120 to 130 mg/dl, but rarely goes higher than 140 mg/dl. But if you have type 2 diabetes, blood sugar levels can go much higher — to 200, 300, or even 400 mg/dl and beyond — and will go much higher unless you take the necessary steps to bring them down. Hyperglycemia Symptoms High blood sugar doesn't always produce symptoms, so it's important to check your blood sugar regularly, as indicated by your doctor. Hyperglycemia symptoms include: Frequent urination Extreme thirst Feeling tired and weak Blurry vision Feeling hungry, even after eating Causes of Hyperglycemia If you've been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, a treatment plan is put in place to lower blood sugar and keep it as close to the normal range as possible. But even after you start treatment, you may still develop hyperglycemia at times. When you have diabetes, it's almost impossible not to have hyperglycemia — and high blood sugar can happen for no identifiable reason. Some of the reasons blood sugar may go too high include: Missing prescribed medicines or taking medication at the wrong times or in the wrong amounts High food intake or larger consumptions of carbohydrate than expected or intended Lack of sleep Emotional stress Intense exercise Illness is another important — and Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: Screening And Diagnosis

Diabetes Mellitus: Screening And Diagnosis

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diagnoses made by family physicians. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to blindness, limb amputation, kidney failure, and vascular and heart disease. Screening patients before signs and symptoms develop leads to earlier diagnosis and treatment, but may not reduce rates of end-organ damage. Randomized trials show that screening for type 2 diabetes does not reduce mortality after 10 years, although some data suggest mortality benefits after 23 to 30 years. Lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions decrease progression to diabetes in patients with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Screening for type 1 diabetes is not recommended. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for abnormal blood glucose and type 2 diabetes in adults 40 to 70 years of age who are overweight or obese, and repeating testing every three years if results are normal. Individuals at higher risk should be considered for earlier and more frequent screening. The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for type 2 diabetes annually in patients 45 years and older, or in patients younger than 45 years with major risk factors. The diagnosis can be made with a fasting plasma glucose level of 126 mg per dL or greater; an A1C level of 6.5% or greater; a random plasma glucose level of 200 mg per dL or greater; or a 75-g two-hour oral glucose tolerance test with a plasma glucose level of 200 mg per dL or greater. Results should be confirmed with repeat testing on a subsequent day; however, a single random plasma glucose level of 200 mg per dL or greater with typical signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia likely indicates diabetes. Additional testing to determine the etiology of diabetes is not routinely recommended. Clinical r Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia Symptoms

Hyperglycemia Symptoms

The basic defect in all patients with diabetes is the decreased ability of insulin to induce cells of the body to remove glucose (sugar) molecules from the blood. Whether this decreased insulin activity is due to a decreased amount of insulin produced (type 1 diabetes), or from the insensitivity of the cells to a normal amount of insulin (type 2 diabetes), the results are the same: blood glucose levels which are too high. This is termed "hyperglycemia" which means "high glucose in the blood." hyper = high, glyc = glucose, and emia = of the blood. What happens when you have hyperglycemia? Common Symptoms of Hyperglycemia The Classic Symptoms Polyphagia (frequently hungry) Polyuria (frequently urinating) Polydipsia (frequently thirsty) Other Symptoms Might Include Blurred vision Fatigue Weight loss Poor wound healing (cuts, scrapes, etc.) Dry mouth Dry or itchy skin Impotence (male) Recurrent infections such as vaginal yeast infections, groin rash, or external ear infections (swimmers ear) It is important to remember that not everyone with diabetes will have all these symptoms. In fact, many people with type 2 diabetes may not have any of them. Who can develop hyperglycemia? To learn about other diabetes complications and how to prevent them, see our type 1 diabetes complications and type 2 diabetes complications articles. The classic symptom of being hungry frequently stems from the fact that a person with diabetes cannot utilize glucose well as an energy source within cells. The glucose is circulating in the blood, but the cells can't absorb it to use it as a fuel. The excess blood sugar molecules also "spill" into the urine, meaning that as the blood filters through the kidneys, some of the sugar comes out of the blood and is not reabsorbed. The extra sugar which is no Continue reading >>

More in diabetes