Prediabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis
What is prediabetes? About 41 million Americans between the ages of 40 and 74 have "prediabetes." Prediabetes is a condition that can be considered an early, yet potentially reversible stage of the development of type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is sometimes called impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IGT/IFG), depending upon the test that yielded the abnormal result. In prediabetes, a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are slightly higher than the normal range, but not high enough for a true diagnosis of diabetes. People with prediabetes have a significant risk of developing full-blown diabetes. In the Diabetes Prevention Program study, about 11% of people with prediabetes developed type II diabetes each year during the three year follow-up time of the study. Importantly, people with prediabetes generally have no symptoms of the condition. Testing for Pre Diabetes Doctors generally use one of two different blood tests to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. One is called the fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) in which a person's blood glucose level is measured first thing in the morning before breakfast. The normal fasting blood glucose level is below 100 mg/dl. A person with prediabetes has a fasting blood glucose level between 100 and 125 mg/dl. If the fasting blood glucose level is to 126 mg/dl or above, a person is considered to have diabetes. The second test used in the diagnosis of diabetes is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), although this test is no longer commonly used as in the past. This test may be used to diagnose gestational diabetes in pregnant women. In this test, a person's blood glucose is measured in the morning after fasting overnight and again two hours after drinking a glucose-rich beverage. The normal value for blood glucose Continue reading >>
What Is Prediabetes? Prediabetes is a “pre-diagnosis” of diabetes—you can think of it as a warning sign. It’s when your blood glucose level (blood sugar level) is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough to be considered diabetes. Prediabetes is an indication that you could develop type 2 diabetes if you don’t make some lifestyle changes. But here's the good news: . Eating healthy food, losing weight and staying at a healthy weight, and being physically active can help you bring your blood glucose level back into the normal range. Diabetes develops very gradually, so when you’re in the prediabetes stage—when your blood glucose level is higher than it should be—you may not have any symptoms at all. You may, however, notice that: you’re hungrier than normal you’re losing weight, despite eating more you’re thirstier than normal you have to go to the bathroom more frequently you’re more tired than usual All of those are typical symptoms associated with diabetes, so if you’re in the early stages of diabetes, you may notice them. Prediabetes develops when your body begins to have trouble using the hormone insulin. Insulin is necessary to transport glucose—what your body uses for energy—into the cells via the bloodstream. In pre-diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or it doesn’t use it well (that’s called insulin resistance). If you don’t have enough insulin or if you’re insulin resistant, you can build up too much glucose in your blood, leading to a higher-than-normal blood glucose level and perhaps prediabetes. Researchers aren’t sure what exactly causes the insulin process to go awry in some people. There are several risk factors, though, that make it more likely that you’ll develop pre-diabetes. These are Continue reading >>
If You Have Prediabetes, Should You Test Your Blood Sugar Level At Home?
If you’ve been diagnosed with prediabetes, you may be wondering whether you should test your blood sugar level at home. You do want to have your blood sugar levels tested by a lab at least twice a year. A hemoglobin A1c test is a simple lab test that shows your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that you discuss whether glucose testing is right for you with your doctor. You may benefit from checking your blood sugar levels at home if you are: taking insulin pregnant having trouble controlling blood sugar levels having low blood sugar having low blood sugar levels without the usual warning signs have ketones (substances usually made from fat) from high blood sugar levels What are the benefits? Tracking your blood sugar test results daily in a log will enable you to spot any major changes. By also tracking your food, diabetes medications, supplements and exercise you will see how they impact your blood glucose levels. For example, you can track which carbohydrates spike your blood sugar so you can avoid eating that food in the future. You want to eat a healthy diet that includes plenty of high-quality protein (organic), healthy fats and unprocessed carbs such as fresh veggies and fruit. Since carbs have a direct impact on your blood sugar levels, you want to eat those carbs that rank low on the Glycemic Load scale. How accurate are the test results? The current standards set by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) require 95 percent of all glucometer test results to be within 20 percent of the actual blood glucose level for results greater than 75 mg/dl and within 15 mg/dl for values below 75 mg/dl. So a blood glucose that in reality is 100 mg/dl could show on a meter as being between 80 and 1 Continue reading >>
Prediabetes is the precursor stage before diabetes mellitus in which not all of the symptoms required to diagnose diabetes are present, but blood sugar is abnormally high. This stage is often referred to as the "grey area." It is not a disease; the American Diabetes Association says, "Prediabetes should not be viewed as a clinical entity in its own right but rather as an increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prediabetes is associated with obesity (especially abdominal or visceral obesity), dyslipidemia with high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension." It is thus a metabolic diathesis or syndrome, and it usually involves no symptoms and only high blood sugar as the sole sign. Impaired fasting blood sugar and impaired glucose tolerance are two forms of prediabetes that are similar in clinical definition (glucose levels too high for their context) but are physiologically distinct. Insulin resistance, the insulin resistance syndrome (metabolic syndrome or syndrome X), and prediabetes are closely related to one another and have overlapping aspects. Classification Impaired fasting glucose Main article: Impaired fasting glycaemia Impaired fasting glycaemia or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) refers to a condition in which the fasting blood glucose or the 3-month average blood glucose (A1C) is elevated above what is considered normal levels but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes mellitus. It is considered a pre-diabetic state, associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology, although of lesser risk than impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). IFG sometimes progresses to type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a 50% risk over 10 years of progressing to overt diabetes. Many newl Continue reading >>
The Right Diet For Prediabetes
A prediabetes diagnosis can be alarming. This condition is marked by abnormally high blood sugar (glucose) most often due to insulin resistance. This is a condition in which the body doesn’t use insulin properly. It’s often a precursor to type 2 diabetes. According to the Mayo Clinic, people with prediabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years. With prediabetes, you may also be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, a prediabetes diagnosis doesn’t mean you will definitely get type 2 diabetes. The key is early intervention; to get your blood sugar out of the prediabetes range. Your diet is important, and you need to know the right kind of foods to eat. How diet relates to prediabetes There are many factors that increase your risk for prediabetes. Genetics can play a role, especially if diabetes runs in your family. Excess body fat and a sedentary lifestyle are other potential risk factors. In prediabetes, sugar from food begins to build up in your bloodstream because insulin can’t easily move it into your cells. Eating carbohydrates doesn’t cause prediabetes. But a diet filled with carbohydrates that digest quickly can lead to blood sugar spikes. For most people with prediabetes, your body has a difficult time lowering blood sugar levels after meals. Avoiding blood sugar spikes can help. When you eat more calories than your body needs, they get stored as fat. This can cause you to gain weight. Body fat, especially around the belly, is linked to insulin resistance. This explains why many people with prediabetes are also overweight. You can’t control all risk factors for prediabetes, but some can be mitigated. Lifestyle changes can help you maintain balanced blood sugar levels as well as a healthy weight. Watch carbs with Continue reading >>
Understanding Borderline Diabetes: Signs, Symptoms, And More
Borderline diabetes, also called prediabetes, is a condition that develops before someone gets type 2 diabetes. It’s also known as impaired fasting glucose or glucose intolerance. It basically means your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but they’re not quite high enough to be considered diabetes. During the prediabetes phase, your pancreas usually still produces enough insulin in response to ingested carbohydrates. The insulin is less effective at removing the sugar from the bloodstream, though, so your blood sugar remains high. This condition is called insulin resistance. If you have prediabetes, you should know you’re not alone. In 2015, it was estimated that 84.1 million people age 18 and older had the condition. That’s 1 in 3 Americans. Having prediabetes doesn’t mean you’ll definitely develop diabetes. It is a warning of what could lie ahead, however. People with prediabetes have a 5 to 15-fold higher risk for type 2 diabetes than someone with normal blood sugar levels. Those chances increase if you don’t make any healthy changes to your diet or activity habits. “Prediabetes is not pre-problem,” says Jill Weisenberger, MS, RD, CDE, and author of “Diabetes Weight Loss Week by Week.” Someone with insulin resistance in its early stages can develop type 2 diabetes if it continues long enough. Only 10 percent of people with prediabetes even know they have it because they don’t display any symptoms. “Often, people consider these symptoms part of their normal day, so they’re ignored,” says Toby Smithson, RDN, CDE, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and co-author of “Diabetes Meal Planning and Nutrition for Dummies.” Any of these risk factors can increase your chances of developing prediabetes: being inacti Continue reading >>
A condition in which blood glucose levels are elevated, but not yet within the diabetic range. Prediabetes is also known as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The new term was inaugurated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in March 2002 to promote public understanding of this increasingly widespread problem. According to HHS, nearly 57 million Americans have prediabetes. Studies have shown that most people with blood glucose levels in the prediabetes range go on to develop Type 2 diabetes within 10 years; the condition also raises the risk of having a heart attack or stroke by 50%. Prediabetes can be controlled, and in many cases even reversed, through lifestyle changes. Prediabetes can be detected by either of the two standard tests currently used to diagnose diabetes. In the fasting plasma glucose test (FPG), a person fasts overnight and then has blood drawn for testing first thing in the morning, before he eats. Until recently, a normal fasting blood glucose level under 110 mg/dl was considered to be normal and fasting blood glucose in the range of 110 to 125 mg/dl indicated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or prediabetes. In late 2003, an international expert panel recommended that the cutoff be lowered to 100 mg/dl, so now people with a fasting blood glucose level of 100 to 125 mg/dl are considered to have prediabetes. A fasting blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl indicates diabetes. (A second test must be done on a subsequent day to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes.) In the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a person’s blood glucose is tested once after an overnight fast and again two hours after he has consumed a special, glucose-rich drink. A normal blood glucose Continue reading >>
Here Are Some Recommendations For Building Your Prediabetes Plan.
Learning you have prediabetes can be frightening. But if you make a few basic diet and exercise changes, you can get your blood sugar levels back down to normal and prevent the progression to type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are elevated, but not high enough to qualify as type 2 diabetes. To be diagnosed with prediabetes, you must have: A fasting blood glucose—a measure of how much sugar (or glucose) is in your blood after a period of fasting—of 100 to125 mg/dL A two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) blood glucose of 140 to 199 mg/dL; this test gauges how your body breaks down sugar while drinking a sugar-based beverage over a two-hour period. Hemoglobin A1C of 5.7 to 6.4 percent; this is a measure of your average blood sugar level over three months. Twenty-five percent of people with prediabetes will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within three to five years, and that percentage continues to rise with time. But making a few simple tweaks to your diet, getting regular physical activity and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight (which the first two should help with) can not only prevent the progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes, it can also drop elevated blood sugar levels back to normal. In fact, the American Diabetes Association estimates that you can cut your risk for type 2 diabetes by nearly 60 percent by simply incorporating 30 minutes of moderate exercise five days a week and by losing 7 percent of your body weight (that’s only 14 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds). Fight prediabetes with a two-pronged approach: Exercise There are two main forms of exercise, and both help with prediabetes. Make sure to incorporate aerobic exercises, such as brisk walking, swimming, water aerobics, and even seasonal ac Continue reading >>
8 Actions To Take If You Have Prediabetes
Changing the Path to Type 2 A whopping 86 million Americans have prediabetes. That’s according to the latest statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) -- that's 37 percent of American adults over age 20 and 51 percent of adults over age 65. Research shows about 70 percent of people with prediabetes will develop type 2 diabetes over time. Despite these scary stats, only 11 percent of people who have prediabtes know it. The good news is you can prevent or slow the progression of prediabetes to type 2. Numerous research studies conducted over the last 30 years show that early and aggressive management with continued vigilance over time is what prevents or delays type 2 diabetes. And the earlier you detect it and put your plan into action, the better. Here are eight ways to manage prediabetes. 1. Get Tested to Know for Sure. Do you have family -- parents or siblings -- with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes? Are you carrying extra weight around your middle? Don't get enough exercise? These are a few of the risk factors for prediabetes. A good first step to see if you are at high risk is to use the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test. You can take the test by visiting diabetes.org/risk. If you’re at high risk, schedule an appointment with your health care provider to get a check of your blood glucose level -- or, better yet, your A1C (an average of your blood glucose over two to three months). See the blood test results to diagnose prediabetes on the next page. 2. Max Out Your Insulin-Making Reserves. It's well known that at the center of the storm of the slow and steady onset of prediabetes is insulin resistance -- the body's inability, due to excess weight and genetic risk factors, to effectively use the insulin th Continue reading >>
Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes
According to the latest American Heart Association's Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, about 8 million people 18 years and older in the United States have type 2 diabetes and do not know it. Often type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed until symptoms become severe and hospitalization is required. Left untreated, diabetes can cause a number of health complications. That's why it's so important to both know what warning signs to look for and to see a health care provider regularly for routine wellness screenings. Symptoms In incidences of prediabetes, there are no symptoms. People may not be aware that they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes because they have no symptoms or because the symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed for quite some time. However, some individuals do experience warning signs, so it's important to be familiar with them. Prediabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes No symptoms Increased or extreme thirst Increased thirst Increased appetite Increased appetite Increased fatigue Fatigue Increased or frequent urination Increased urination, especially at night Unusual weight loss Weight loss Blurred vision Blurred vision Fruity odor or breath Sores that do not heal In some cases, no symptoms In some cases, no symptoms If you have any of these symptoms, see your health care provider right away. Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your healthcare provider. Who should be tested for prediabetes and diabetes? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are: If your blood glucose levels are in normal range, testing should be done about every three years. If you have prediabetes, you should be checked for diabetes every one to two years after diagnosis. Tests for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes There are three ty Continue reading >>
What Is Pre-diabetes?
What Should I Do If I Have It? Are you one of the estimated 54 million people in this country who have pre-diabetes? If you have pre-diabetes, you are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and also are at increased risk of developing heart disease. Pre-diabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as full-blown diabetes. Those with pre-diabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes within a decade unless they adopt a healthier lifestyle that includes weight loss and more physical activity. First, let's define what "pre-diabetes" is and is not. Diabetes is defined as having a fasting plasma blood glucose level of 126 mg/dl or greater on two separate occasions. If diabetes symptoms exist and you have a casual blood glucose taken at any time that is equal to or greater than 200 mg/dl, and a second test shows the same high blood glucose level, then you have diabetes. In general, people who have a fasting plasma blood glucose in the 100-125 mg/dl range are defined as having impaired fasting glucose. If your doctor gives you an oral glucose tolerance test, and at two-hours your blood glucose is 140-199 mg/dl, you have "impaired glucose tolerance". Either of these is medical terminology for what your doctor is probably referring to when he says you have "pre-diabetes." Be sure to ask your doctor what your exact blood sugar test results are when he tells you that you have "pre-diabetes." Some physicians are not as familiar as they should be with the new national guidelines for diagnosing diabetes. They may be telling you that you have pre-diabetes, when in fact you have actual diabetes. Among those who should be screened for pre-diabetes include overweight adults age 45 and older and those u Continue reading >>
Prediabetes? What Does It Mean For Your Kidneys?
Prediabetes describes the condition of someone who is on their way to developing diabetes. Before having diabetes, people usually have “pre-diabetes.” This is a new name for a condition in which blood glucose (sugar) levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. A person with prediabetes cannot handle sugar as well as they should. Even though diabetes is not full blown, high sugar levels in prediabetes can be causing problems throughout the body. One of the main organs that can be damaged is the kidney. People with prediabetes often have unrecognized chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to new research. In this large study, more than one third of the people with prediabetes were found to have two signs of kidney disease: protein in the urine (called albuminuria). Albuminuria is not normal. reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This is a measure of how well the kidneys work; the eGFR tells the stage of kidney disease. In the people with prediabetes, the stage of chronic kidney disease was just as advanced as people with diabetes. Many people with either prediabetes or diabetes were found to have stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease. There are 5 stages of chronic kidney disease. When the disease reaches stage 5, the person will need kidney replacement therapy, either transplantation or dialysis. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that about one in four U.S. adults aged 20 years or older—or 57 million people—have pre—diabetes. Without patients and their doctors taking action, prediabetes is likely to become type 2 diabetes in 10 years or less. People with prediabetes should know that the long—term damage to their body—especially to the heart, kidneys and blood vessels — may alread Continue reading >>
Print The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that blood glucose screening for adults begin at age 45, or sooner if you are overweight and have additional risk factors for prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. There are several blood tests for prediabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test This test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. In general: An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal An A1C level between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates type 2 diabetes Certain conditions can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as if you are pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant). Fasting blood sugar test A blood sample is taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. In general: A fasting blood sugar level below 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 5.6 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — is considered normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 7.0 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. This result is sometimes called impaired fasting glucose. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 2 diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test This test is usually used to diagnose diabetes only during pregnancy. A blood sample is taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. Then you'll drink a sugary solution, and your blood sugar level will be measured again after two hours. In general: A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmo Continue reading >>
What Is Prediabetes?
Prediabetes is a wake-up call that you’re on the path to diabetes. But it’s not too late to turn things around. If you have it (like 86 million other Americans), your blood sugar (glucose) level is higher than it should be, but not in the diabetes range. People used to call it "borderline" diabetes. Normally, your body makes a hormone called insulin to help control your blood sugar. When you have prediabetes, that system doesn't work as well as it should. You might not be able to make enough insulin after eating, or your body might not respond to insulin properly. Prediabetes makes you more likely to get heart disease or have a stroke. But you can take action to lower those risks. Your doctor will give you one of three simple blood tests: Fasting plasma glucose test. You won't eat for 8 hours before taking this blood test. The results are: Normal if your blood sugar is less than 100 Prediabetes if your blood sugar is 100-125 Diabetes if your blood sugar is 126 or higher Oral glucose tolerance test. First, you'll take the fasting glucose test. Then you'll drink a sugary solution. Two hours after that, you'll take another blood test. The results are: Normal if your blood sugar is less than 140 after the second test Prediabetes if your blood sugar is 140-199 after the second test Diabetes if your blood sugar is 200 or higher after the second test Hemoglobin A1C (or average blood sugar) test. This blood test shows your average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months. Doctors can use it to diagnose prediabetes or diabetes or, if you already know you have diabetes, it helps show whether it's under control. The results are: Normal: 5.6% or less Prediabetes: 5.7 to 6.4% Diabetes: 6.5% or above You may need to take the test again to confirm the results. Lifestyle change Continue reading >>
Five Things You Should Know About Prediabetes
After announcing the expansion of Diabetes Stops Here and asking you which topics you’d like covered, we received a specific request for more information about prediabetes. A staggering 79 million Americans deal with this condition, and while it can lead to crippling health consequences, it can be avoided. Here are five things you should know about prediabetes: 1. What is prediabetes? Before people develop type 2 diabetes, they almost always have prediabetes, a health condition where your blood glucose is higher than normal but not as high as if you had diabetes. 2. How can I find out if I have it? Your doctor can give you a blood test to tell if you have prediabetes (the same test that’s used to test for diabetes). At your next doctor visit, ask if you should be tested for prediabetes. 3. What can I do if I have prediabetes? If you have prediabetes, there are important steps you can, and should, take. Early intervention can turn back the clock and return elevated blood glucose levels to the normal range. Losing weight is an important step for most people with prediabetes, and the amount doesn’t have to be huge to make a difference. A weight loss of just 10 to 15 pounds can really stack the odds in your favor. Coupled with 30 minutes of exercise each day and healthy food choices, you’ll be on your way. Talk with your doctor and visit our website to learn more about other ways you can prevent or reverse the condition. 4. Does this mean I’m going to develop type 2 diabetes? Prediabetes can lead to type 2 diabetes…but it doesn’t have to. Scientific studies show taking the above steps can often halt or at least slow down the progression of prediabetes so it doesn’t take a turn for the worse. 5. Where can I find help? You are not alone. It’s never too late Continue reading >>