Print The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that blood glucose screening for adults begin at age 45, or sooner if you are overweight and have additional risk factors for prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. There are several blood tests for prediabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test This test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. In general: An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal An A1C level between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates type 2 diabetes Certain conditions can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as if you are pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant). Fasting blood sugar test A blood sample is taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. In general: A fasting blood sugar level below 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 5.6 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — is considered normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 7.0 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. This result is sometimes called impaired fasting glucose. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 2 diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test This test is usually used to diagnose diabetes only during pregnancy. A blood sample is taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. Then you'll drink a sugary solution, and your blood sugar level will be measured again after two hours. In general: A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmo Continue reading >>
Pre-diabetes - Harvard Health
In pre-diabetes, blood sugar levels are slightly higher than normal, but still not as high as in diabetes. If diabetes is "runaway blood sugar" think of pre-diabetes as blood sugar that is "halfway out the door." People almost always develop pre-diabetes before they get type 2 diabetes. The rise in blood sugar levels that is seen in pre-diabetes starts when the body begins to develop a problem called "insulin resistance." Insulin is an important hormone that helps you to process glucose (blood sugar). If usual amounts of insulin can't trigger the body to move glucose out of the bloodstream and into your cells, then you have insulin resistance. To continue reading this article, you must login . Subscribe to Harvard Health Online for immediate access to health news and information from Harvard Medical School. Find the best treatments and procedures for you Explore options for better nutrition and exercise I'd like to receive access to Harvard Health Online for only $4.99 a month. Continue reading >>
Diagnosis | Ada
If your deductible reset on January 1, there are new programs to help you afford your insulin prescription| Learn more There are several ways to diagnose diabetes. Each way usually needs to be repeated on a second day to diagnose diabetes. Testing should be carried out in a health care setting (such as your doctors office or a lab). If your doctor determines that your blood sugarlevel is very high, or if you have classic symptoms of high blood sugar in addition to one positive test, your doctor may not require a second test to diagnose diabetes. The A1C test measures your average blood sugar for the past 2 to 3 months. The advantages of being diagnosed this way are that you don't have to fast or drink anything. Diabetes is diagnosed at an A1C of greater than or equal to 6.5% This test checks your fasting blood sugarlevels. Fasting means after not having anything to eat or drink (except water) for at least 8 hours before the test. This test is usually done first thing in the morning, before breakfast. Diabetes is diagnosed at fasting blood sugarof greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (also called the OGTT) The OGTT is a two-hour test that checks your blood sugarlevels before and 2 hours after you drink a special sweet drink. It tells the doctor how your body processes sugar. Diabetes is diagnosed at 2 hour blood sugar of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl Random (also called Casual) Plasma Glucose Test This test is a blood check at any time of the day when you have severe diabetes symptoms. Diabetes is diagnosed at blood sugarof greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl Before people develop type 2 diabetes, they almost always have "prediabetes" blood sugarlevels that are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Doctors Continue reading >>
Prediabetes & Insulin Resistance
What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. The pancreas contains clusters of cells called islets. Beta cells within the islets make insulin and release it into the blood. Insulin plays a major role in metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for energy. The digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates—sugars and starches found in many foods—into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar that enters the bloodstream. With the help of insulin, cells throughout the body absorb glucose and use it for energy. Insulin's Role in Blood Glucose Control When blood glucose levels rise after a meal, the pancreas releases insulin into the blood. Insulin and glucose then travel in the blood to cells throughout the body. Insulin helps muscle, fat, and liver cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream, lowering blood glucose levels. Insulin stimulates the liver and muscle tissue to store excess glucose. The stored form of glucose is called glycogen. Insulin also lowers blood glucose levels by reducing glucose production in the liver. In a healthy person, these functions allow blood glucose and insulin levels to remain in the normal range. What happens with insulin resistance? In insulin resistance, muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond properly to insulin and thus cannot easily absorb glucose from the bloodstream. As a result, the body needs higher levels of insulin to help glucose enter cells. The beta cells in the pancreas try to keep up with this increased demand for insulin by producing more. As long as the beta cells are able to produce enough insulin to overcome the insulin resistance, blood glucose levels stay in the healthy range. Over time, insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes and prediabetes because the bet Continue reading >>
If You Have Prediabetes, Should You Test Your Blood Sugar Level At Home?
If you’ve been diagnosed with prediabetes, you may be wondering whether you should test your blood sugar level at home. You do want to have your blood sugar levels tested by a lab at least twice a year. A hemoglobin A1c test is a simple lab test that shows your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that you discuss whether glucose testing is right for you with your doctor. You may benefit from checking your blood sugar levels at home if you are: taking insulin pregnant having trouble controlling blood sugar levels having low blood sugar having low blood sugar levels without the usual warning signs have ketones (substances usually made from fat) from high blood sugar levels What are the benefits? Tracking your blood sugar test results daily in a log will enable you to spot any major changes. By also tracking your food, diabetes medications, supplements and exercise you will see how they impact your blood glucose levels. For example, you can track which carbohydrates spike your blood sugar so you can avoid eating that food in the future. You want to eat a healthy diet that includes plenty of high-quality protein (organic), healthy fats and unprocessed carbs such as fresh veggies and fruit. Since carbs have a direct impact on your blood sugar levels, you want to eat those carbs that rank low on the Glycemic Load scale. How accurate are the test results? The current standards set by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) require 95 percent of all glucometer test results to be within 20 percent of the actual blood glucose level for results greater than 75 mg/dl and within 15 mg/dl for values below 75 mg/dl. So a blood glucose that in reality is 100 mg/dl could show on a meter as being between 80 and 1 Continue reading >>
Pre-diabetes is a condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. A person with pre-diabetes is at risk of developing type 2 diabetes . However, by making some lifestyle changes, a person with pre-diabetes can reduce his or her risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Most people with pre-diabetes have no symptoms. Because of this, many doctors recommend that overweight people age 45 or older be tested for pre-diabetes. People under age 45 who have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25 or more, as well as some risk factors for pre-diabetes, should also be tested. In addition to the danger of developing diabetes, people with pre-diabetes have an increased risk of heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease. Insulin is a protein hormone that regulates the body's blood sugar levels. In pre-diabetes as in type 2 diabetes a person's body can't use insulin effectively. This means that glucose (sugar) builds up in the blood instead of being used by the body as fuel. Risk factors that increase a person's chances of developing pre-diabetes include: Having a history of gestational diabetes , or giving birth to a baby weighing more than nine pounds Having low levels of "good" (HDL) blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels Ethnic background. People of certain races are more likely to get pre-diabetes, including African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, and Pacific Islanders. How does my doctor tell if I have pre-diabetes? Tests that check the levels of sugar (glucose) in your blood can help your doctor diagnose pre-diabetes. Two common tests include a fasting plasma glucose test and an oral glucose tolerance test. In the fasting plasma glucose test, the patient eats or drinks Continue reading >>
You’ll need to get your blood sugar tested to find out for sure if you have prediabetes or type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. Testing is simple, and results are usually available quickly. Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, and Prediabetes Your doctor will have you take one or more of the following blood tests to confirm the diagnosis: A1C Test This measures your average blood sugar level over the past 2 or 3 months. An A1C below 5.7% is normal, between 5.7 and 6.4% indicates you have prediabetes, and 6.5% or higher indicates you have diabetes. Fasting Blood Sugar Test This measures your blood sugar after an overnight fast (not eating). A fasting blood sugar level of 99 mg/dL or lower is normal, 100 to 125 mg/dL indicates you have prediabetes, and 126 mg/dL or higher indicates you have diabetes. Glucose Tolerance Test This measures your blood sugar before and after you drink a liquid that contains glucose. You’ll fast (not eat) overnight before the test and have your blood drawn to determine your fasting blood sugar level. Then you’ll drink the liquid and have your blood sugar level checked 1 hour, 2 hours, and possibly 3 hours afterward. At 2 hours, a blood sugar level of 140 mg/dL or lower is considered normal, 140 to 199 mg/dL indicates you have prediabetes, and 200 mg/dL or higher indicates you have diabetes. Random Blood Sugar Test This measures your blood sugar at the time you’re tested. You can take this test at any time and don’t need to fast (not eat) first. A blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL or higher indicates you have diabetes. Result* A1C Test Fasting Blood Sugar Test Glucose Tolerance Test Random Blood Sugar Test Normal Below 5.7% 99 mg/dL or below 140 mg/dL or below Prediabetes 5.7 – 6.4% 100 – 125 mg/dL 140 – 199 mg/dL Diabetes 6.5% or Continue reading >>
What Is Prediabetes?
If you receive a prediabetes, it means you have a higher-than-normal blood sugar level that’s not high enough to be diagnostic for diabetes. If you don’t get treatment for it, prediabetes can lead to type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), prediabetes is reversible. Treatment may include lifestyle modifications, such as diet and exercise, and medication. Type 2 diabetes can develop within 10 years if you have prediabetes and don’t make lifestyle changes, says the Mayo Clinic. The first step for managing prediabetes is understanding what a prediabetes diagnosis means. Read on to learn more about this diagnosis and what you can do. Other names Your doctor may refer to prediabetes as the following: impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), which means a higher-than-normal blood sugar after a meal impaired fasting glucose (IFG), which means a higher-than-normal blood sugar in the morning before eating insulin resistance, which means your body can’t use insulin effectively Insulin resistance leads to a buildup of sugar in the blood. Prediabetes has no clear symptoms. Some people may experience conditions that are associated with insulin resistance, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome and acanthosis nigricans, which involves the development of dark, thick, and often velvety patches of skin. This discoloration usually occurs around the: elbows knees neck armpits knuckles If you’ve been diagnosed with prediabetes, it's important to consult your doctor if you experience: These are symptoms typical of type 2 diabetes, and may indicate that your prediabetes has progressed to type 2 diabetes. A doctor can run a series of tests to confirm this. The pancreas releases a hormone called insulin when you eat so that the cells of Continue reading >>
Prediabetes And Blood Sugar Levels
How do you know if you have diabetes? Traditionally, it involves getting a test from a doctor to look at your blood sugar level, either at a specific point in time or over a period of months. However, new research shows that traditional diagnostic tools might be missing blood sugar spikes in otherwise healthy people, keeping them in the dark about a potential metabolic disorder. In a study published in the journal PLOS Biology, researchers from Stanford University fitted 57 people with continuous glucose monitors to take readings of their blood sugar at frequent points throughout the day. The data showed that even people without diabetes experienced huge shifts in their blood sugar after some meals. The findings suggest that people at risk of diabetes may be flying under the radar of tests doctors currently use to make a diagnosis. To check a patients blood sugar level, physicians typically use a glycated hemoglobin test (which shows a three-month average of blood sugar levels), or a fasting blood sugar sample. These methods dont pick up on a blood sugar spike someone might experience after a meal. Weve previously used one measurement taken at a certain point in time to assess someones risk of having prediabetes or diabetes. Whats unique here [in this study] is that were looking at peoples continuous sugar profiles, said Dr. Rekha Kumar , attending endocrinologist at New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center. The continuous glucose monitor is catching a cohort of patients who may be at risk of diabetes and might have been missed by current measurements. In addition to looking at the blood sugar responses from peoples regular meals, researchers also assessed how 30 of the participants responded to standard breakfasts: cornflakes and milk, a protein bar, and a p Continue reading >>
- World's first diabetes app will be able to check glucose levels without drawing a drop of blood and will be able to reveal what a can of coke REALLY does to sugar levels
- Blood sugar alert – Why prediabetes can be just as deadly as diabetes
- Blood sugar alert – Why prediabetes can be just as deadly as diabetes
Understanding Borderline Diabetes: Signs, Symptoms, And More
Borderline diabetes, also called prediabetes, is a condition that develops before someone gets type 2 diabetes. It’s also known as impaired fasting glucose or glucose intolerance. It basically means your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but they’re not quite high enough to be considered diabetes. During the prediabetes phase, your pancreas usually still produces enough insulin in response to ingested carbohydrates. The insulin is less effective at removing the sugar from the bloodstream, though, so your blood sugar remains high. This condition is called insulin resistance. If you have prediabetes, you should know you’re not alone. In 2015, it was estimated that 84.1 million people age 18 and older had the condition. That’s 1 in 3 Americans. Having prediabetes doesn’t mean you’ll definitely develop diabetes. It is a warning of what could lie ahead, however. People with prediabetes have a 5 to 15-fold higher risk for type 2 diabetes than someone with normal blood sugar levels. Those chances increase if you don’t make any healthy changes to your diet or activity habits. “Prediabetes is not pre-problem,” says Jill Weisenberger, MS, RD, CDE, and author of “Diabetes Weight Loss Week by Week.” Someone with insulin resistance in its early stages can develop type 2 diabetes if it continues long enough. Only 10 percent of people with prediabetes even know they have it because they don’t display any symptoms. “Often, people consider these symptoms part of their normal day, so they’re ignored,” says Toby Smithson, RDN, CDE, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and co-author of “Diabetes Meal Planning and Nutrition for Dummies.” Any of these risk factors can increase your chances of developing prediabetes: being inacti Continue reading >>
Here Are Some Recommendations For Building Your Prediabetes Plan.
Learning you have prediabetes can be frightening. But if you make a few basic diet and exercise changes, you can get your blood sugar levels back down to normal and prevent the progression to type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are elevated, but not high enough to qualify as type 2 diabetes. To be diagnosed with prediabetes, you must have: A fasting blood glucose—a measure of how much sugar (or glucose) is in your blood after a period of fasting—of 100 to125 mg/dL A two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) blood glucose of 140 to 199 mg/dL; this test gauges how your body breaks down sugar while drinking a sugar-based beverage over a two-hour period. Hemoglobin A1C of 5.7 to 6.4 percent; this is a measure of your average blood sugar level over three months. Twenty-five percent of people with prediabetes will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within three to five years, and that percentage continues to rise with time. But making a few simple tweaks to your diet, getting regular physical activity and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight (which the first two should help with) can not only prevent the progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes, it can also drop elevated blood sugar levels back to normal. In fact, the American Diabetes Association estimates that you can cut your risk for type 2 diabetes by nearly 60 percent by simply incorporating 30 minutes of moderate exercise five days a week and by losing 7 percent of your body weight (that’s only 14 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds). Fight prediabetes with a two-pronged approach: Exercise There are two main forms of exercise, and both help with prediabetes. Make sure to incorporate aerobic exercises, such as brisk walking, swimming, water aerobics, and even seasonal ac Continue reading >>
Prediabetes? What Does It Mean For Your Kidneys?
Prediabetes describes the condition of someone who is on their way to developing diabetes. Before having diabetes, people usually have “pre-diabetes.” This is a new name for a condition in which blood glucose (sugar) levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. A person with prediabetes cannot handle sugar as well as they should. Even though diabetes is not full blown, high sugar levels in prediabetes can be causing problems throughout the body. One of the main organs that can be damaged is the kidney. People with prediabetes often have unrecognized chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to new research. In this large study, more than one third of the people with prediabetes were found to have two signs of kidney disease: protein in the urine (called albuminuria). Albuminuria is not normal. reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This is a measure of how well the kidneys work; the eGFR tells the stage of kidney disease. In the people with prediabetes, the stage of chronic kidney disease was just as advanced as people with diabetes. Many people with either prediabetes or diabetes were found to have stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease. There are 5 stages of chronic kidney disease. When the disease reaches stage 5, the person will need kidney replacement therapy, either transplantation or dialysis. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that about one in four U.S. adults aged 20 years or older—or 57 million people—have pre—diabetes. Without patients and their doctors taking action, prediabetes is likely to become type 2 diabetes in 10 years or less. People with prediabetes should know that the long—term damage to their body—especially to the heart, kidneys and blood vessels — may alread Continue reading >>
The Right Diet For Prediabetes
A prediabetes diagnosis can be alarming. This condition is marked by abnormally high blood sugar (glucose) most often due to insulin resistance. This is a condition in which the body doesn’t use insulin properly. It’s often a precursor to type 2 diabetes. According to the Mayo Clinic, people with prediabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years. With prediabetes, you may also be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, a prediabetes diagnosis doesn’t mean you will definitely get type 2 diabetes. The key is early intervention; to get your blood sugar out of the prediabetes range. Your diet is important, and you need to know the right kind of foods to eat. How diet relates to prediabetes There are many factors that increase your risk for prediabetes. Genetics can play a role, especially if diabetes runs in your family. Excess body fat and a sedentary lifestyle are other potential risk factors. In prediabetes, sugar from food begins to build up in your bloodstream because insulin can’t easily move it into your cells. Eating carbohydrates doesn’t cause prediabetes. But a diet filled with carbohydrates that digest quickly can lead to blood sugar spikes. For most people with prediabetes, your body has a difficult time lowering blood sugar levels after meals. Avoiding blood sugar spikes can help. When you eat more calories than your body needs, they get stored as fat. This can cause you to gain weight. Body fat, especially around the belly, is linked to insulin resistance. This explains why many people with prediabetes are also overweight. You can’t control all risk factors for prediabetes, but some can be mitigated. Lifestyle changes can help you maintain balanced blood sugar levels as well as a healthy weight. Watch carbs with Continue reading >>
Prediabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis
What is prediabetes? About 41 million Americans between the ages of 40 and 74 have "prediabetes." Prediabetes is a condition that can be considered an early, yet potentially reversible stage of the development of type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is sometimes called impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IGT/IFG), depending upon the test that yielded the abnormal result. In prediabetes, a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are slightly higher than the normal range, but not high enough for a true diagnosis of diabetes. People with prediabetes have a significant risk of developing full-blown diabetes. In the Diabetes Prevention Program study, about 11% of people with prediabetes developed type II diabetes each year during the three year follow-up time of the study. Importantly, people with prediabetes generally have no symptoms of the condition. Testing for Pre Diabetes Doctors generally use one of two different blood tests to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. One is called the fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) in which a person's blood glucose level is measured first thing in the morning before breakfast. The normal fasting blood glucose level is below 100 mg/dl. A person with prediabetes has a fasting blood glucose level between 100 and 125 mg/dl. If the fasting blood glucose level is to 126 mg/dl or above, a person is considered to have diabetes. The second test used in the diagnosis of diabetes is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), although this test is no longer commonly used as in the past. This test may be used to diagnose gestational diabetes in pregnant women. In this test, a person's blood glucose is measured in the morning after fasting overnight and again two hours after drinking a glucose-rich beverage. The normal value for blood glucose Continue reading >>
Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes
According to the latest American Heart Association's Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, about 8 million people 18 years and older in the United States have type 2 diabetes and do not know it. Often type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed until symptoms become severe and hospitalization is required. Left untreated, diabetes can cause a number of health complications. That's why it's so important to both know what warning signs to look for and to see a health care provider regularly for routine wellness screenings. Symptoms In incidences of prediabetes, there are no symptoms. People may not be aware that they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes because they have no symptoms or because the symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed for quite some time. However, some individuals do experience warning signs, so it's important to be familiar with them. Prediabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes No symptoms Increased or extreme thirst Increased thirst Increased appetite Increased appetite Increased fatigue Fatigue Increased or frequent urination Increased urination, especially at night Unusual weight loss Weight loss Blurred vision Blurred vision Fruity odor or breath Sores that do not heal In some cases, no symptoms In some cases, no symptoms If you have any of these symptoms, see your health care provider right away. Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your healthcare provider. Who should be tested for prediabetes and diabetes? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are: If your blood glucose levels are in normal range, testing should be done about every three years. If you have prediabetes, you should be checked for diabetes every one to two years after diagnosis. Tests for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes There are three ty Continue reading >>