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Performing Blood Glucose Testing Quizlet

Ch.9 Phlebotomy/glucose Testing

Ch.9 Phlebotomy/glucose Testing

Fasting Glucose (FPG), Glucose Tolerance Test(GTT),Gestational Screen,Postprandial Glucose Test, Two hour post glucose drink usually first test tried. If FPG level greater than 126 mg/dl,pt. is diabetic.Prediabetes is greater than or equal to 100mg.dl but less than 126 mg/dl.A normal level is less than 100mg/dl. for borderline detection.Measure's patient's ability to dispose of a large oral intake of glucose.Pt. should omit meds/3 days of unrestricted diet and activities/no coffe cigarettes/test preformed in morning after 8 to 16 hour fast. alternative to fasting glucose test.Overnight fasting.fast draw collected, then glucose drink given,drink ingested after 5 min, then timing starts. Glucose level checked 2 hours after drinking glucose. Diagnosed by two tests. Gestational screen at 24 and 26 weeks. If needed, a glucose tolerance is ordered.Takes 3 hours-100 grams glucose given and blood drawn at 1,2, and 3 hours. drawn 2 hours after a meal. healthy patient's blood glucose is NOT elevated two hours after a meal. Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood Glucose Monitoring

What 3 things do Blood Glucose Test results direct for patient care? What when/time of day are blood glucose tests usually performed? Why should BGL be assessed before a meal (ac)? Blood Glucose levels will rise after a meal.Monitoring your blood glucose before meals gives you a baseline reading of your blood glucose before you eat. If BGL reading is less than <70 on a patient what should a nursing student do? Intervene IMMEDIATELY! Don't wait on clinical instructor to come to you. Find her or another RN. Inability of pancreas to either produce enough insulin or body's inability to utilize insulin it has. What is insulin and which cells produce it? Insulin is the substance/hormone that converts glucose to a form that is usable by the body. Produced by the beta cells located in the pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans). What is glucagon and which cells produce it? Glucagon is the substance/hormone that raises blood glucose levels. Produced by alpha cells located in the pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans) What are the signs/symptoms of Hypoglycemia? Sweating,Tachycardia (>100bpm),Palpations(heart flutters), Nervousness,Tremors,Weakness,Mental Confusion,Fatigue, Headache. What are the signs/symptoms of Hyperglycemia? Thirst,Polyuria (excessive urination),Polyphagia (excessive hunger),Weakness,Fatigue,Headache, Blurred Vision,Nausea,Vomitting,Abdominal Cramps What are complications of Abnormal Blood Glucose? Heart Attack,Cerebrovascular accident (stroke),Kidney Dysfunction,Blindness, Nerve Damage What should the normal Fasting Glucose number be? What is the goal number, and when is intervention needed? What should the normal Postparandial (after eating) glucose number be? What is the goal, and when is intervention needed? What should the normal bedtime glucose leve Continue reading >>

Cl232 Ch 33 Flashcards | Quizlet

Cl232 Ch 33 Flashcards | Quizlet

True or False. The function of glucose in the body is to build and repair tissue. True or False Insulin is required for normal utilization of glucose in the body. True or False An abnormally low level of glucose in the body is known as hypoglycemia. True or False The hemoglobin A1c test measures the average amount of blood glucose over a 3-month period. True or False An antibody is a substance that is capable of combining with an antigen. True or False Mononucleosis is transmitted through coughing and sneezing. True or False Symptoms of infectious mononucleosis include severe fatigue, fever, and sore throat. True or False The buildup of plaque (due to high cholesterol) on the walls of arteries is known as thrombophlebitis. True or False . An HDL cholesterol level greater than 50 mg/dL is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. True or False . The triglyceride test requires that the patient not eat or drink for 12 hours before the test. True or False . The normal range for a fasting blood sugar is 120 to 160 mg/dL. True or False The glucose tolerance test is used to assist in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. True or False Before meals, it is recommended that the blood glucose level for a diabetic patient fall between 60 and 80 mg/dL. True or False The recommended A1c level for a patient with diabetes is 4% to 6%. True or False The RPR test is a screening test for syphilis. True or False . The varicella virus causes infectious mononucleosis. True or False; Serum is required for most blood chemistry tests. A substance that is capable of combing with an antigen resulting in an antige-antibody reaction is known as A substance capable of stimulating the formation of antibodies is known as The form in which carbohydrate is stored in the body is called The process of gluc Continue reading >>

Chapter 33 Practice Test

Chapter 33 Practice Test

What type of specimen is required for most blood chemistry test? What is the term for a substance that is being identified or measured in a laboratory test? What should be done at the control does not perform as expected? Do not perform patient testing until the problem is resolved. The function of glucose in the body is to What is the term for glucose that is stored in muscle and liver tissue for later use? What hormone is required for the normal use of glucose in the body? Which of the following instructions should be relayed to the patient regarding a fasting blood glucose test? Do not consume food or fluid (except water)for 12 hours before the test. According to the American Diabetes Association, what is the normal range for a fasting blood glucose level (in mg/dL)? Which of the following is true regarding a 2-hour postprandial glucose test? A blood specimen was collected two hours after the patient consumes 100 g of glucose which of the following is NOT a function of an oral glucose tolerance test? Which of the following is not a restriction that must be followed by the patient during an oral glucose tolerance test? Which of the following is a serious side affect of an oral glucose tolerance test? Headache; irrational speech;fainting; profuse perspiration What time is used to describe an abnormally Low level of glucose in the blood? To maintain good blood glucose control; To delay or prevent long-term complications of diabetes;to test blood glucose when a side effect common to diabetes occurs;to make decisions regarding insulin dosage, meal planning, and physical activity Which of the following conditions cannot be caused by a prolonged high blood glucose level? Before meals, it is recommended that the blood glucose level for a diabetic patient fall between Averag Continue reading >>

Chapter 19 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 19 Flashcards | Quizlet

What type of measurement does blood chemistry testing involve of chemical substance in the blood? In what portion of the blood is the chemicals dissolved in? What is required in blood chemistry tests performed at an outside lab? What are automated blood chemistry analyzers used to perform? What does a blood chemistry analyzer consist of? A reflectance photometer that quanatively measures the amount of chemical substances, or analytes, in the blood. A substance that is being identified or measured in a lab test. Most medical offices use what type of blood chemistry analyzer? What two important quality control measures must be performed routinely when a blood chemistry analyzer is used? Calibration of the instrument and running controls. A mechanism used to check the precision and accuracy of a blood chemistry analyzer, to determine if the system is providing accurate results. What is a calibration device often called? When should a calibration be performed at the minimum? When a lot number of testing reagents is put into use. What does a blood chemistry control consists of? A solution that is used to monitor a blood chemistry analyzer to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the test result. Controls consist of commercially available solutions euphonium values. What is the chief source of energy in the blood? What is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism? Glucose can be stored for later use in what type of form? A hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas that is required for normal use of glucose in the body. Triglycerides(a form of fat) and is stored in adipose tissue What is blood glucose testing used to detect? Pre-diabetes, diabetes, gestational diabetes, hypoglycemia, and liver and adrenocortical dysfunction. What are the ranges for a fasting blood Continue reading >>

Chapter 33- Blood Chemistry And Immunology

Chapter 33- Blood Chemistry And Immunology

A substance that is being identified or measured in a laboratory test. A substance that is capable of combining with an antigen resulting in an antigen-antibody reaction. Substance capable of simulating the formation of antibodies. The form in which carbohydrate is stored in the body. A lipoprotein consisting of protein and cholesterol that removes excess cholesterol from the cells. An abnormally high level of glucose in the body. A lipoprotein, consisting of protein and cholesterol, that picks up cholesterol and delivers it to the cells. A complex molecule consisting of protein and a lipid fraction such as cholesterol. What type of specimen is required for most blood chemistry tests? To ensure that test results are reliable and accurate. At a minimum, when should a calibration check be performed on a blood chemistry analyzer? When new testing reagents are being put to use. What is the purpose of running a control on a blood chemistry analyzer? To determine if the testing reagents are performing properly and to detect any errors in technique by the individual performing the test. Reasons why a control may not produce expected results. 3.) Improper environmental testing conditions When running controls on a blood chemistry analyzer, what should be done if the controls do not perform as expected? The patient testing should not be conducted until the problem has been identified and resolved. What is the function of glucose in the body? Explain the function of insulin in the body. Enables glucose to enter the body's cells and be converted to energy. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose: 2-hour PPBG What type of patient preparation is required for a fasting blood glucose test? Fast for 12 hours (except for water) and stop taking certain medications three days before the test Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Flashcards | Quizlet

Blood Glucose Flashcards | Quizlet

-To measure the amount of glucose in the blood of people with diabetes -To ensure blood glucose levels are in acceptable ranges Glucose is a sugar that your body uses as a source of energy. Unless you have diabetes, your body regulates the amount of glucose in your blood. People with diabetes may need special diets and medications to control blood glucose. his is a quantitative test, which means that you will find out the amount of glucose present in your blood sample. You should take this test if you have diabetes and you need to monitor your blood sugar (glucose) levels. You and your doctor can use the results to: determine your daily adjustments in treatment know if you have dangerously high or low levels of glucose understand how your diet and exercise change your glucose levels The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (1993) showed that good glucose control using home monitors led to fewer disease complications. Follow your doctor's recommendations about how often you test your glucose. You may need to test yourself several times each day to determine adjustments in your diet or treatment. According to the American Diabetes Association (Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2011, Diabetes Care, January 2011, vol.34, Supplement 1, S11-S61) the blood glucose levels for an adult without diabetes are below 100 mg/dL before meals and fasting and are less than 140 mg/dL two hours after meals. People with diabetes should consult their doctor or health care provider to set appropriate blood glucose goals. You should treat your low or high blood glucose as recommended by your health care provider. he accuracy of this test depends on many factors including: how well you perform the test. For example, you should wash and dry your hands before testing and closely follow t Continue reading >>

Ati Chapter 52: Specimen For Glucose Monitoring

Ati Chapter 52: Specimen For Glucose Monitoring

is preferred method of monitoring blood glucose levels not an effective measure of glucose level as glucose levels must be greater than 180 mg/dL before glucose appears in urine Clients who are able & willing to continue monitoring independently can learn how to self monitor blood glucose levels. Required abilities include: -Alertness or ability to comprehend & give a return demonstration of process For blood glucose testing of clients who have diabetes mellitus, a glucometer or blood glucose meter is used with small test strips to "read" the blood sample. These systems require proper calibration, storage of supplies, & matching a lot numbers Indications- regular testing is necessary for clients who have diabetes mellitus to manage the disease by maintain safe blood glucose levels -Usually, a blood glucose lever greater than 250 mg/dL indicates hyperglycemia* -Blood glucose level less than 70 mg/dL indicated hypoglycemia* -Poor storage of glucose strips can lead to falsely high & low readings. Typically, these test strips come in vial to store at room temperature or as directed by the manufacturer -Frequency & type of test; testing times vary based on goals of management & the complexity of client's hypoglycemic medication schedule -Results from previous tests-norms & ranges -Note times & does of hypoglycemic agents -Note use of steroids or medications that can elevate blood glucose levels *Gather materials & prepare the equipment -Blood glucose meter, meter & reagent strip compatible with meter, washcloth with soap, gloves, sterile lancet, cotton boll -Review meter & manufacturers instructions -Calibrate meter & run a control sample per facility/agency protocol. This is usually performed when new bottle of test strips is opened -*Evaluate selected puncture site for: i Continue reading >>

Specimen Collection Flashcards | Quizlet

Specimen Collection Flashcards | Quizlet

After bacteria are cultured from a midstream urine specimen, what is accomplished by sensitivity testing? Confirms the accuracy of the results of the culture Identifies the immune system's reaction to the presence of the bacteria Determines whether the patient is allergic to the antibiotic agent with which the provider plans to treat the infection Determines which antibiotic agent is most effective in killing the bacteria Determines which antibiotic agent is most effective in killing the bacteria CORRECT. Sensitivity testing of a bacterial culture determines which antibiotic the bacteria are most vulnerable (sensitive) to and therefore which agent is likely to be the most effective in killing them. What can the nurse do to help ensure an accurate result when collecting a midstream urine sample for a patient who is menstruating? Make a note on the lab slip that the patient is menstruating. Postpone the specimen collection until menses has ceased. Do nothing other than follow normal procedure, since menstruation will not affect the results. Make a note on the lab slip that the patient is menstruating. CORRECT. The nurse would make a note on the lab slip that the patient is menstruating, to alert the lab to the possible source of any blood detected in the specimen. Which statement might the nurse make to nursing assistive personnel (NAP) assigned to collect a midstream urine specimen from a patient with signs of a urinary tract infection? "Teach the patient to collect the urine specimen." CORRECT. The nurse would show the NAP how to keep the container sterile. Which statement might the nurse make to nursing assistive personnel (NAP) in order to help ensure reliable results of culture and sensitivity testing of a midstream urine specimen? "I'll need a biohazard bag to put Continue reading >>

Mosby Skill: Blood Glucose Testing

Mosby Skill: Blood Glucose Testing

Ensure that the ____ on the test strip vial matches the ____ entered into the glucose meter. _____ on a strip can alter the accuracy of the final test results. Be aware that abnormal ____ mechanisms increase the risk of local ecchymosis and bleeding. Never ____ a lancet because of the risk for infection. Do not use the hand on the side on which a ______ was performed as a puncture site. If the puncture site is bruised or continues to bleed, apply ____ and notify the health care provider. If the patient's blood glucose level is above or below the target range: Check to see if there are medication orders for _____ in glucose level. Administer insulin or a carbohydrate source as ordered, depending on the glucose level Assess the patient's_______ of the procedure and the purpose of blood glucose monitoring. Determine if the patient knows how to perform the test and understands its importance in ______control. Review the health care provider's _____to see how often the patient's blood glucose level must be measured and whether the procedure must be completed at a specific time. For example, the sample might need to be collected before insulin is administered, while the patient is fasting, after he or she has had a meal, or after certain medications have been administered. Determine if any ____ exist for performing skin puncture, including the patient's being on anticoagulant therapy or having a low platelet count or a ____ disorder. Assess the area of the ____ to be used as a puncture site. Inspect the fingers or forearms for edema, inflammation, cuts, and sores. Avoid selecting as a puncture site any bruised area or open lesion. Continue reading >>

Chapter 33 Blood Chemistry And Immunology

Chapter 33 Blood Chemistry And Immunology

Introduction to Blood Chemistry and Immunology CLIA-waived blood chemistry and immunological laboratory tests CLIA-waived automated blood analyzers: designed for use in the medical office Perform blood chemistry tests in a short time Chemicals are dissolved in the liquid part of blood (plasma) Quantitative measurement of chemical substances in blood Quantitative test: indicates the exact amount of a substance that is present Type of test ordered depends on clinical diagnosis Most blood chemistry tests are performed at an outside laboratory If specimen is collected at the medical office Blood chemistry profile frequently ordered Primarily used in routine health screen to detect any changes in body's biological processes - before patient may have symptoms to indicate changes have occurred Also is used when patient's symptoms are vague - not enough concrete evidence to support a clinical diagnosis of a specific organ or disease state Reflectance photometer measures light intensity to determine amount of substance present Provides a quantitative measurement of chemical substances or analytes present Analyte: a substance that is being identified or measured in a laboratory test Too expensive to perform nonwaived blood chemistry tests In terms of equipment, supplies, and medical laboratory personnel If moderate-complexity blood chemistry tests are performed - "Benchtop" blood chemistry analyzer is used: Ultimate goal when performing blood chemistry testing Ensure the test accurately measures what it is supposed to measure Quality control: consists of methods and means to ensure that test results are reliable and valid A mechanism to check the precision and accuracy of a blood chemistry analyzer to determine if the system is providing accurate results Detects errors caused by Continue reading >>

Final Test 321 Flashcards | Quizlet

Final Test 321 Flashcards | Quizlet

what is the typical size of catheters for women? what is the typical size of catheters for men? wash with soap and water and insertion site 4 times a day does urinalysis need to be sterile or non-sterile? what about a clean catch? urinalysis is non-sterile, clean catch is sterile What are some factors for stool elimination? Medication such as diuretics, chemotherapy, antibiotics, stool softener and laxatives. Pain medication, narcotics cause constipation. Bowel regimen is important, Illness and infection, diabetes, stress What is type one of the bristol stool form? Infrequent bowel movements, less than every 3 days, difficulty evacuating, inability to defecate with hard, dry, feces For treatment of constipation, what type of stool softener, bulk forming products, stimulants or suppositories should be used first? What is a last resort for stimulating defecation? What do you do to treat fecal impactation? you basically put your finger up the butt of the patient and wiggle it to get the poop out, try to avoid the vagus nerve if there is a stoma from the descending or sigmoid colon look like? regular poop, it will b more liquidy if in the ascending or transverse, an illeostomy will be even more watery, and an illeal conduit will have mucus What would the nurse do if he or she were not able to insert a nasogastric tube in either of a patient's nares? Notify the physician that the attempts were unsuccessful. What would the nurse do if he or she encountered resistance when inserting a nasogastric tube? Which patient does not have a medical condition that contraindicates placement of a nasogastric tube? A 28-year-old patient who fractured a femur after heavy drinking What might the nurse do to reduce the patient's discomfort before inserting a nasogastric tube? Examine each na Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Monitoring (test 1)

Blood Glucose Monitoring (test 1)

(Juvenile) Diabetes; Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM); Juvenile Onset DM o Total lack of insulin due to the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM); Adult Onset DM o Impaired release of insulin; defective insulin receptors; destruction of insulin before it can become effective o Insulin injections may or may not be required; can be managed with diet, exercise, and oral hypoglycemic agents low blood glucose, high blood glucose without ketones, high blood glucose with ketones diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia (very low blood glucose), hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketonic syndrome (very high blood glucose) Pregnancy Complications: high blood sugar levels can be dangerous for both the mother and the baby. The risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and birth defects are increased when diabetes isn't well-controlled. For the mother, diabetes increases the risk of diabetic-ketoacidosis (DKA), diabetic eye problems (retinopathy), pregnancy-induced high blood pressure and preeclampsia Hearing impairment, hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes. Alzheimer's disease. Type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. The poorer your blood sugar control, the greater the risk appears to be. The exact connection between these two conditions still remains unclear. Macrovascular disease (coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease) Microvascular disease (kidney damage (nephropathy) and eye damage) Brain: Cerebrovascular Accident/ Stroke Diabetes: Greater than or equal to 126mg/dl Pre-diabetes: Greater than or equal to 100mg/dl PRe-Diabetes: Greater than or equal to 5.7% Position lancet firmly against site and pierce skin -appropriate intervention for the value obtained, then: dispose of supplie Continue reading >>

Ch 33 Flash Cards Blood Chem And Serology

Ch 33 Flash Cards Blood Chem And Serology

What type of specimen is required for most blood chemistry tests? To ensure that the test results are reliable and valid. What is the purpose of calibrating a blood chemistry analyzer? To check the precision of the blood chemistry analyzer. List two reasons why a control may not fall within its normal range. Problems or errors exist with the analyzer or the technique used to perform the procedure. A white, waxy, fatlike substance that is essential for normal functioning of the body. List the two main sources of cholesterol in the blood. Most of the cholesterol circulating in the blood is manufactured by the liver; a portion of it comes from an individual's diet (dietary cholesterol). What is atherosclerosis, and why is it a health risk? Fatty deposits that build up on the walls of the arteries; the arteries may become occluded, which eventually could lead to a heart attack or stroke. Why is LDL cholesterol referred to as "bad cholesterol" and HDL referred to as "good cholesterol"? An excess amount of LDL cholesterol can cause plaque to build up on the arterial walls, resulting in atherosclerosis. HDL cholesterol removes excess cholesterol from the walls of the blood vessels. What does a total cholesterol test measure? A combined measurement of the amount of LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol in the blood. List the ranges for each of the following cholesterol categories: Desirable cholesterol level: Less than 200 mg/dL. Borderline cholesterol level: 200 to 239 mg/dL. High cholesterol level: 240 mg/dL and greater. At what level is the HDL cholesterol considered a risk factor for coronary heart disease? What type of patient preparation is required for a triglyceride test? Fast for at least 12 hours before collection of the blood specimen. What is the primary use of the c Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Testing

Blood Glucose Testing

is an instrument that measures the amount of glucose in capillary blood When do nurses measure glucose levels for clients? for clients who are hospitalized or being cared for in a long-term care institutions and in-home care What should you do before checking a patient's glucose level if the patient is in their room? Place a barrier on the table (paper towel) before placing the equipment down Because there are several types of glucometers available you should. . . follow the manufacturer's instructions for accurate use. about 30 mintues before eating and before bedtime Measuring blood glucose involves a risk for contact with blood, what should you do? always wear gloves when performing the test. Where do you apply the lacet to obtain your blood sample? What should you do with the first drop of blood? wipe it and obtain the next drop for testing What is the normal range of a blood glucose test How do you document glucose test results? Date and time, preassessment data, how the patient is acting, what the patient ate. record in diabetice flow sheet, different for each facility, and any treatment based on abnormal test Continue reading >>

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