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Pcos And Diabetes Type 1

I Struggle With Pcos And Type 1 Diabetes

I Struggle With Pcos And Type 1 Diabetes

A woman diagnosed with Type 1 grows frustrated with the dearth of information on the condition. I sleep through a CGM alarm, again. I never do this, but this week I do it several times. There are other symptoms, too, but I don’t connect the dots. I’ve been extremely hungry, but I think it’s because of a new walking commute. My blood sugars are everywhere, but that’s life. sponsor And then my period comes two weeks early. I know this because I am meticulous and because it affects my Type 1 diabetes. I normally make changes in my blood sugar routine prior to my period to help with the swings, and I start checking for ketones regularly. I’ve also been on birth control since the age of 14, and this isn’t supposed to happen. Read “Diabetes and Menopause – What You Need to Know.” I’ve been having problems with my periods since my first one at the age of 13; there was severe pain and drastic blood sugar swings. It took a year to get anyone to put me on birth control because I was in the Deep South and birth control was not a go-to option to help a teen regulate. Besides, doctors would say, my problems with my period were probably the diabetes’ fault anyway. After several hospitalizations I am eventually put on birth control. When my period comes early, I call my physician. After hearing my symptoms, she orders blood work. Her gut says it’s PCOS, or polycystic ovary syndrome. She tells me to set up an appointment with an OB/GYN. I look up PCOS, and I see that I have many of the signs – the acne, the excess hair growth, the sweatiness, the pain. I read about the risks, and then the limited treatment options. I’m not pleased with what I find – contraceptives and fertility treatments, with surgery for extreme cases. Read “Why People with Type 1 Migh Continue reading >>

How Pcos Leads To Diabetes?

How Pcos Leads To Diabetes?

Share PCOS – Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome is a sexual hormonal disorder in women. But did you know that it can lead to diabetes? Keep a check before it’s too late. A ccording to a study by PCOS society, one in 10 Indian women suffer from Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome (PCOS), and more than 10 million women globally are affected by this disease. PCOS is a disorder of the endocrinal system that causes an imbalance of female sex hormones. It is considered to be the most common cause of female infertility. Most urban women are somewhat familiar with this condition. However, not many are aware that PCOS is closely related to a much more serious lifestyle disease – diabetes. In fact, PCOS is often referred to as a form of prediabetes, because the conditions have a lot in common. For instance, just like with type 2 diabetes, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome often starts with insulin resistance. Some studies show that 50 to 90 per cent of women with PCOS are insulin resistant. According to the American Diabetes Association, insulin resistance leads the body to produce high levels of insulin, very similar to the early stage of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a study by Australian researchers found that women who had PCOS were three to five times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than women who didn’t have PCOS. Conversely, another study by the Medical College of Virginia found that up to 27 per cent of premenopausal women with type 2 diabetes also have PCOS, signifying that both conditions are inter-related. Here’s how they help A mobile intervention platform for diabetic patients provides patients with day-to-day support and real-time guidance to adhere to their treatment plan and manage their glycaemic levels. Armed with the right digital app one can: 1. Initiate better diagnos Continue reading >>

Pcos And Diabetes Mellitus: From Insulin Resistance To Altered Beta Pancreatic Function, A Link In Evolution

Pcos And Diabetes Mellitus: From Insulin Resistance To Altered Beta Pancreatic Function, A Link In Evolution

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common clinical condition often recurring in endocrinology. Women with PCOS may require advice for many reasons: hyperandrogenism-related symptoms (acne, hirsutism), chronic anovulation and infertility, menstrual disorders, oncologic prevention in case of endometrial hyperplasia, and clinical management of the main metabolic disorders related to obesity and insulin resistance (IR), very often present in these patients. IR is a special state in which a specific quantity of insulin evokes an abnormal biological response. The processes linked to this condition may concern anomalies involving the secretion of pancreatic cells (abnormal insulin or incomplete conversion of proinsulin to insulin), high blood concentration of hormones counterregulatory to insulin, anti-insulin antibodies or antibodies anti-insulin receptor, and also target organs disorders (because of a reduced quantity of insulin receptors or post-receptor defects). Insulin binds a tyrosine-kinase receptor and activates two possible intracellular pathways: the first one is regulated by the activation of IP3-kinase (inositol 1,4,5-tryphosphate), associated to an enhanced peripheral glucose linking and NO production in endothelium. The second pathway has anabolic function and is linked to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), enabling the proliferation of smooth muscle, monocyte migration, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activation (PAI-1). Methodologically, the assessment of IR may be performed with the euglycemical hyperinsulinemic clamp (based on the infusion of a specific amount of insulin as to stabilize its blood concentration to a constant level of 100 U/mL for 120 min). The evaluation of the amount of glucose necessary to maintain norm Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes And Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Type 1 Diabetes And Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

BACKGROUND A few small studies have reported increased prevalences of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and symptoms of androgen excess in women with type 1 diabetes. PURPOSE We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating androgen excess symptoms and PCOS in women with type 1 diabetes. STUDY SELECTION We selected studies addressing androgen excess signs, symptoms, and disorders in girls, adolescents, and adult women with type 1 diabetes. DATA EXTRACTION The main outcome measures were prevalences of PCOS, hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, menstrual dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM). DATA SYNTHESIS Nine primary studies involving 475 adolescent or adult women with type 1 diabetes were included. The prevalences of PCOS and associated traits in women with type 1 diabetes were 24% (95% CI 15–34) for PCOS, 25% (95% CI 17–33) for hyperandrogenemia, 25% (95% CI 16–36) for hirsutism, 24% (95% CI 17–32) for menstrual dysfunction, and 33% (95% CI 24–44) for PCOM. These figures are considerably higher than those reported earlier in the general population without diabetes. LIMITATIONS The data collected in the original studies were heterogeneous in age, race, ethnicity, and criteria used for the diagnosis of PCOS; yet, we used a quality-effects model in the meta-analyses to overcome this limitation. CONCLUSIONS PCOS and its related traits are frequent findings in women with type 1 diabetes. PCOS may contribute to the subfertility of these women by a mechanism that does not directly depend on glycemic/metabolic control among other negative consequences for their health. Hence, screening for PCOS and androgen excess should be included in current guidelines for the management of type 1 diabetes in women. Introduction Polycystic ovary sy Continue reading >>

Metformin For Type 1 Diabetes - Really? Why?

Metformin For Type 1 Diabetes - Really? Why?

You've heard it before: someone with type 2 diabetes goes on insulin. That's no surprise. But how often have you heard the reverse — someone with type 1 going on Metformin? Since the launch of Symlin in 2005, it's not uncommon for people to treat their type 1 diabetes with a supplemental injectable medication. But hang around long enough, and you too might get to know someone with type 1 who takes insulin and oral meds, those formerly known as "type 2 only" drugs. Really? Type 1's taking oral meds alongside insulin? To clarify this, I just had to query some experts. Just like in type 2 diabetes, people with type 1 diabetes can sometimes suffer from insulin resistance (when the insulin that's present can't perform it's work properly), and Metformin can lower your insulin requirements by helping the body make better use of the stuff — in this case coming from an injection or insulin pump. Gary Scheiner, CDE, author, and head of Integrated Diabetes Services in Wynnewood, PA, explained it this way: "Some of the more creative and aggressive endos are prescribing Metformin for type 1's, particularly if they are overweight or requiring very large basal insulin doses. In addition to having some mild appetite-suppression effects, it will enhance insulin sensitivity by hepatic cells (in the liver) and limit the amount of glucose secreted by the liver. Personally, I think it can be helpful during adolescence as well. As long as the patient has good liver and kidney function, the side effects and risks are negligible." I also learned this: a couple of other uses of Metformin for women to consider are PCOS (ovary disease) and pregnancy. Kelley Champ Crumpler, RN, who is a diabetes nurse educator and a type 1 diabetic married to an endocrinologist with type 1 diabetes (how's that Continue reading >>

The Link Between Diabetes And Pcos

The Link Between Diabetes And Pcos

November is Diabetes Awareness Month, bringing with it several alarming statistics from the American Diabetes Association: There are nearly 26 million adults and children living with diabetes and another 79 million at high risk for developing Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes kills more people each year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Recent estimates project that as many as 1 out of 3 American adults will have diabetes in the year 2050. These are scary statistics, but what do they have to do with infertility? A lot, particularly if you have been diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS are at higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Metabolic Disorders Diabetes is a disorder of the metabolism — the way the body breaks down and uses food for growth and energy. When a person eats, food is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Then the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from the blood into the cells. In a person with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. This causes the glucose to build up in the blood and pass out of the body in the urine, and the body loses its main source of fuel. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In Type 2, the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin, but the body is not using it effectively — a condition called insulin resistance. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is also a metabolic disorder and is one of the most common causes of infertility for women. It is characterized by an excess of androgens (male hormones), cysts on the ovaries and irregular menstrual cycles/lack of ovulation. Women who are diagnosed with PCOS are at increa Continue reading >>

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome & Prediabetes: My Story

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome & Prediabetes: My Story

Sixteen years ago, I was a 20-year-old, living on brown sugar Pop-Tarts (68 carbs) and cranberry juice (28 carbs). I gained 30 lbs in my first three years of college, weighing 165 lbs on a 5’8” frame. With every shower and brush, my hair fell out. I had increasing amounts of facial acne, much worse than when I was 16. Most notably, I was ALWAYS hungry. I ate baby-sized bean burritos (84+ carbs) chased with a Cold Stone creations (46+ carbs) and could always eat more. The Diagnosis My PCP ran some tests, and sent me to an endocrinologist who ran more tests. Multiple tests and appointments later I had a diagnosis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome or PCOS. The endo gave me five minutes of medical babble, two prescriptions, including Metformin, a xeroxed handout on What you need to know about PCOS, and sent me on my way. The following months transformed me. I learned anything and everything I could about PCOS. I learned PCOS affects 5-10% of women, is the leading cause of infertility and a whole host of physical symptoms (hair loss, acne). I also learned insulin resistance is a key contributor to developing PCOS. Up to 70% of women with PCOS have insulin resistance, resulting in pre-diabetes and a high-risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Living with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome When I was diagnosed, there was limited evidence on how to treat and manage PCOS. Some women were eating less carbs, exercising, and losing weight to minimize symptoms. I drank the Koolaid (low carb, that is), eating 30-40 carbs per day. I ate cauliflower mashed potatoes at Thanksgiving, deconstructed every burger, wrap, and pizza slice to make it low carb, and lost 45 lbs in the first six months of being diagnosed. My hair stopped falling out. The acne cleared. And, my blood tests normalized. In the Continue reading >>

When Diagnoses Collide- Pcos And Diabetes

When Diagnoses Collide- Pcos And Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes has been joining me in this journey called life since I was 7 years old. I’m a born and raised GA peach who graduated from the University of Georgia in 2015 and hightailed it up to Boston immediately after graduation to start working for the College Diabetes Network as the Program Assistant, and I haven’t looked back. I loved being involved in the diabetes community every chance I get. I’ve been volunteering at Camp Kudzu since 2012 where I was a camper growing up. I also blog and rant on the internet about type 1 diabetes, mental health, and now PCOS. What’s PCOS, you ask? Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, a condition in which a woman’s levels of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are out of balance. This leads to the growth of ovarian cysts. PCOS can cause problems with a woman’s menstrual cycle, fertility, cardiac function, and appearance. I will talk more about this definition and other information about PCOS throughout my posts now and in the future. But back to the diabetes part… After about a year of being sick and getting told by doctors in the small Southern town where we lived that nothing was wrong, something else was wrong, or my parents were overreacting, we went to an eye appointment where we were lucky to see a doctor that works with children with diabetes in developing countries. He told my parents that based off of my eyes he thought I might have Type 1 Diabetes, and we should seek a diagnosis immediately. We didn’t know anything about diabetes at all and went home to look it up in the big medical book (the days before google and WebMD), and all of the symptoms fit. The doctors tried to turn us away again, but we demanded that they check my blood sugar, and on March 8, 2000 I was finally diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. A Continue reading >>

Treating Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome And Diabetes

Treating Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome And Diabetes

“I woke up in the middle of the night—I thought a monster was going to crawl out of my stomach,” explains Asha Brown, founder of WeAreDiabetes.org and diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age 5. She was 15 years old when PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) began torturing her body. “The pain got worse and worse. I started rolling around in my bed, crying and screaming because the pain was so intense.” “And then, all of a sudden, something just ‘deflated.’ I almost passed out when it happened. I later learned that that was my first ‘cyst rupture.’ The beginning of my PCOS.” Mindy Bartelson, Program Assistant at College Diabetes Network and diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at 7 years old, likely developed PCOS before she’d even begun menstruating. “Problems with my period started with my very first period. It was so painful, I fell to the ground and I was quickly hospitalized. My blood sugar would spike to over 400 mg/dL, and my periods would last anywhere from two days to weeks long. Sometimes I’d get my period every two weeks and sometimes I wouldn’t have a period for several months in a row.” By the time Mindy was in high school, she was being hospitalized every time she menstruated. Diagnosing PCOS: Speak-Up & Ask For a New Doctor If Your Voice Isn’t Being Heard PCOS or polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common endocrine or hormonal disorder in women of reproductive age, explains Dr. Andrea Chisholm, a Board Certified Obstetrician and Gynecologist with over 17 years of clinical experience. “Although the exact cause of PCOS is not known, there is some thought that it might have a genetic component. Some researchers also suggest it might be an autoimmune disorder or the result of environmental toxin exposure. Whatever the exact cause, Continue reading >>

The Pcos-diabetes Connection

The Pcos-diabetes Connection

By Theresa Garnero, APRN, BC-ADM, MSN, CDE What causes women to have missed periods or irregular menstrual cycles, small ovarian cysts, difficulty getting pregnant, male-pattern baldness or hair thinning, weight gain, acne, and excessive hair growth on the face, chin, chest, stomach, back, thumbs, or toes? Did someone say chocolate? Wrong! These are some of the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS. It’s named for the cysts that often form on one or both ovaries. When an egg produced by the ovary doesn’t mature properly or isn’t released from the follicle (the sac that holds the egg), the follicle starts to grow and build up fluid, forming a cyst. After many months of this pattern, the ovaries end up with many cysts. But PCOS is much more than that. What is PCOS? The cause of PCOS is unknown—just as the PCOS-diabetes connection isn’t fully understood—but it’s thought that insulin resistance plays a key role. In insulin resistance, cells “resist” the hormone insulin so the body has to produce more of it. As insulin levels rise, the ovaries produce more androgens (commonly known as “male hormones,” but women make them too). Higher-than-normal levels of androgens in women may cause ovarian cysts and other symptoms. Problems associated with PCOS may include high cholesterol, high blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans (dark brown patches of skin most commonly found on the neck), pelvic pain, and sleep apnea. All of these symptoms are due to excess androgens. PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disorders in young women, affecting about one in ten women of childbearing age. Symptoms typically peak between ages 15 and 25. More than half of the women with PCOS will have prediabetes or type 2 diabetes before the age of 40. This syndrome affects Continue reading >>

Does Pcos Increase Your Risk Of Getting Diabetes?

Does Pcos Increase Your Risk Of Getting Diabetes?

You may think that the only worrying things about polycystic ovarian syndrome are a few missed periods, some acne and trouble getting pregnant. Not that these aren’t pretty bothersome by themselves. But did you know that a PCOS diagnosis raises your risk to diabetes? Wait, what?! Yup, you heard us right. Even if you do manage to get successfully pregnant despite the PCOS, you need to be careful. Australian researchers have now found that women with PCOS are almost 5 times more at a risk of gestational diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes. Experts now believe that the link between PCOS and Diabetes Type 2 relates to two factors: insulin resistance and obesity. Because these factors are common for both these conditions. PCOS – Could It Be A Precursor to Diabetes? Scientists have long suspected a link between PCOS and Diabetes. Because both these conditions have a lot to do with insulin resistance. PCOS or Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome happens due to an imbalance in female sex hormones. This imbalance is often caused by ovarian cysts. A woman’s ovaries contain tiny, fluid-filled sacs known as ‘follicles’ which hold the eggs. Every month, a mature egg is released by the follicles. This egg makes its way into the uterus for successful fertilization. For women with PCOS, immature follicles bunch together to form cysts. And these cysts make the release of mature eggs rather impossible. Strangely, the real cause behind PCOS is still unclear. But scientists are now sure that there is a direct link between PCOS and Diabetes. Insulin resistance, high levels of circulating insulin (hyperinsulinemia), low-grade inflammation and obesity interlink these two conditions. PCOS and Diabetes: How Are They Related? Scientists have observed a high frequency of excess male-sex hormones and PC Continue reading >>

9 Things I Do When My Illnesses Make Me Want To Scream

9 Things I Do When My Illnesses Make Me Want To Scream

Let’s face it. Chronic illness can be hard. It can also be annoying. Plus, it can wear you out when you’re trying to live your life and chase your dreams. There are moments I really want to scream. I want to scream “Why me?” I want to scream “It’s not fair.” Especially when I feel like I’m doing every right and trying as hard as I can but things still aren’t going right — my body still isn’t cooperating with me. Which… happens a lot when you have a chronic illness. And you know what? Sometimes, that’s what it takes to help me get through that moment. Occasionally it takes more than that moment. When I feel stuck in my emotions, I try to remind myself of things and do something. 1. I try to remember the influence of social and gender norms on my outlook and in life. A lot of this pressure I feel comes from that. I’m supposed to be a “productive” member of society who is supposed to say I’m fine even if I’m not. It’s a pressure we all feel, not just related to chronic illness. It feels heavier related to my chronic illness, but these are not the norms we have to live by. 2. Did someone say something to me? Made an ignorant or possibly hurtful comment? I try to educate the person instead of reacting harshly (which is what I typically did growing up). I also tell myself, Hey, you aren’t in elementary, middle or high school anymore. People aren’t as cruel — plus you don’t hear these comments on a regular basis anymore. 3. I remind myself that it isn’t about being better than everyone or being “extreme.” 4. Cry. Just as simple as that. I let it out. Crying is good for you. 5. Tell myself it’s OK to feel this way, but I need to pull myself out of it. 6. Is this happening a lot recently? Maybe I need to revisit counseling. 7 Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes, Hypothyroidism, Insulin Resistance, Pcos - Is The Risk Of Pregnancy Too High?

Type 1 Diabetes, Hypothyroidism, Insulin Resistance, Pcos - Is The Risk Of Pregnancy Too High?

I was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes 20 years ago, I inject about 50 units of apidra and 28 units of lantus daily. I tried desperately to reduce my insulin intake without success, I drink the maximum allowed dosage of extended release metformin as well as daily excercise and restricted carbohydrates. I was also diagnosed with hypothyroidism 10 years ago, I take 0.1mg eltroxin daily. After experiencing severe adult acne and hirsutism I was diagnosed with PCOS affecting both ovaries, my gynae said I no longer ovulate but that I could become pregnant with fertility medication to induce ovulation. My HbA1c is within the normal range and my thyroid hormone is slightly elevated due to the lack of dosage options available (it is too low if i drink 0.075mg). I have gained 15kg in the last 2 years and i cannot manage to lose the weight. I now have a bmi of 25.4. I am afraid that if by some miracle I can become pregnant, that I will be risking the health of my baby or risk miscarriage due to my medical conditions. Are there specialists in these fields who can help monitor and recommend better treatment options. I have a fantastic endocrinologist specialising in diabetes. But cannot seem to find a gynae specialising in pcos. There is also very few sources to give information on hypothyroidism and pregnancy other than explaining the many risks. GynaeDoc - 2016/05/24 The hypothyroidism should not be a problem if your levels are in the normal range. Diabetes does have risks to a pregnancy - miscarriage and also fetal abnormalities and stillbirths. All of these are related to how well or poorly controlled your sugars are. If your HbA1C is normal that is a good start. The other things to check would be your kidney function and eyes. If these are okay, you could consider a pregnancy. As Continue reading >>

Double Diabetes: Dealing With Insulin Resistance In Type 1 Diabetes

Double Diabetes: Dealing With Insulin Resistance In Type 1 Diabetes

Recently, Glu published a Call to Action to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in response to their recent report highlighting a significant reduction in newly diagnosed cases of diabetes. Although it appeared to represent significant progress in reducing the global obesity epidemic, the report was soon regarded as problematic, largely due to the lack of distinction between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) within their data set. Many from the diabetes community weighed in on the importance of separating T1D and T2D in media reports—highlighting differences in origin, treatment, and challenges. Most of us would agree that this dialogue was long overdue. After all, T1D and T2D are two separate diseases—right? Well, that’s where things get complicated. While there remains a great deal of confusion around the differences between T1D and T2D, there is a unique set of individuals dealing with a third option—a condition known as double diabetes. What Is Double Diabetes? The term “double diabetes” was first introduced in 1991, when a research study1 showed that participants with T1D who had a family history of T2D were more likely to be overweight and have difficulty achieving optimal glycemic control. Since this study was published, researchers have conducted numerous epidemiological studies on this topic. As the name suggests, double diabetes is a condition characterized by features of both T1D and T2D2. It can exist in many forms, such as a person living with T1D who develops insulin resistance or a person with T2D who has autoantibodies to their pancreatic β-cells. Given the interests of the Glu community, we will focus on the first example, in which a person with T1D has insulin resistance. How Common Is Double Diabetes? The p Continue reading >>

Pcos In Women With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Is Not Related To Diabetes Duration Or Insulin Dose

Pcos In Women With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Is Not Related To Diabetes Duration Or Insulin Dose

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is highly prevalent in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), possibly due to premenarchal exogenous hyperinsulinism (supraphysiological doses and nonphysiologic route of insulin administration). Our aim was to determine if PCOS was related to daily or basal insulin dose or T1DM duration. Methods: We examined 47 women with T1DM (mean age 36.02 years, ±6.03) treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (78.7%) or basal/bolus insulin therapy. Rotterdam criteria were used to diagnose PCOS. Participants reported medical history, underwent clinical examination, endocrine testing and ovarian ultrasound scan. Results: PCOS was confirmed in 20 women (42.5%). Mean HbA1c in PCOS was 7.36% (±0.81%), mean T1DM duration was 20 years (±7.16); daily insulin dose (DID) 36.11 IU (±10.02), basal insulin dose (BID) was 17.72 IU (±7.13) in PCOS and 7.22% (±0.83%), 23.17 years (±11.74), 35.25 IU (±13.34), 17.28 IU (±7.15) in non-PCOS group respectively. Neither comparison of DID and BID, premenarchal onset and T1DM duration nor multivariable logistic regression revealed statistically significant differences between the groups. No significant correlation between PCO ovarian morphology, DID and/or BID and/or T1DM duration was found. Statistically significant correlations in our sample were: correlation of DID to weight (P<0.001) and BMI (P<0.001), BID to BMI (P=0.001), DID to free testosterone concentration (P=0.001), BID to free testosterone concentration (P=0.014) and T1DM duration to BMI (P=0.022). Conclusion: We confirmed high prevalence of PCOS in our population with long duration and good metabolic control of T1DM. However, no difference was observed in DID or BID and T1DM duration and premenarchal onset of T1DM betwe Continue reading >>

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