diabetestalk.net

Pancreas Physiology Review

Pancreas Physiology | Intechopen

Pancreas Physiology | Intechopen

Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Its based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. How? By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the worlds most-cited researchers. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Jurij Dolenek, Viljem Pohorec, Marjan Slak Rupnik and Andra Stoer (April 26th 2017). Pancreas Physiology, Challenges in Pancreatic Pathology Andrada Seicean, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/65895. Available from: Jurij Dolenek, Viljem Pohorec, Marjan Slak Rupnik and AndraStoer (April 26th 2017). Pancreas Physiology, Challenges in Pancreatic Pathology Andrada Seicean, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/65895. Available from: Embed this chapter on your site Copy to clipboard Embed this code snippet in the HTML of your website to show this chapter Over 21,000 IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Continue reading >>

Pancreas

Pancreas

For other uses, see Pancreas (disambiguation). This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see Anatomical terminology. The pancreas /ˈpæŋkriəs/ is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide, all of which circulate in the blood.[2] The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing bicarbonate to neutralize acidity of chyme moving in from the stomach, as well as digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme. The pancreas is known as a mixed gland. Structure[edit] 1. Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common bile duct, 7. Ampulla of Vater, 8. Major duodenal papilla 9. Gallbladder, 10–11. Right and left lobes of liver. 12. Spleen. 13. Esophagus. 14. Stomach. 15. Pancreas: 16. Accessory pancreatic duct, 17. Pancreatic duct. 18. Small intestine: 19. Duodenum, 20. Jejunum 21–22. Right and left kidneys. The front border of the liver has been lifted up (brown arrow).[3] The pancreas is an endocrine and digestive organ that, in humans, lies in the upper left part of the abdomen. It is found behind the stomach.[4] The pancreas is about 15 cm (6 in) long.[5] Anatomically, the pancreas is divided into the head of pancreas, the neck of pancreas, the body of pancreas, and the tail of pancreas.[2] The head is surrounded by the duodenum in its concavity. The head surrounds two blood ves Continue reading >>

Saffron Compound May Inhibit Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth

Saffron Compound May Inhibit Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth

Saffron Compound May Inhibit Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth For several years now, researchers in the University of Kansas Medical Centers Department of Cancer Biology have been examining the effects of crocetin on pancreatic cancer, a deadly disease which responds poorly to current chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Crocetin is derived from saffron, a popular spice and food colorant and a key ingredient in many traditional Indian medicines. In a study just published in the journalOncotarget, a team of researchers led by KU Cancer Center Cancer Prevention & Survivorship Program member, Animesh Dhar, Ph.D., an associate professor of cancer biology at KU Medical Center, found that crocetinic acid, a purified compound from crocetin, showed the inhibition of growth in human pancreatic cancer cells grown either in a dish or as tumors under the skin of mice. Dhar said after 21 days, there was a significant reduction in tumor growth in the group of mice who received the crocetinic acid. The mice who were given the crocetinic acid demonstrated a 75 percent reduction in their tumor growth, while the mice in the control group, which didnt receive the crocetinic acid, actually saw a 250 percent increase in tumor growth, Dhar said. Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest types of cancer. It is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. More than 43,000 people are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer each year and about the same number die each year from the disease. Only about 3 percent of people with pancreatic cancer live more than five years after diagnosis. In the KU Medical Center trial, the crocetinic acid also targeted and inhibited pancreatic cancer stem cells the deadly population of cells that usually resist conventional chemotherapy. Unless the Continue reading >>

Regulation Of Insulin Secretion In Human Pancreatic Islets

Regulation Of Insulin Secretion In Human Pancreatic Islets

Regulation of Insulin Secretion in Human Pancreatic Islets Vol. 75:155-179 (Volume publication date February 2013) First published online as a Review in Advance on September 4, 2012 1Oxford Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, United Kingdom; email: [emailprotected] 2Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1, Canada Pancreatic cells secrete insulin, the body's only hormone capable of lowering plasma glucose levels. Impaired or insufficient insulin secretion results in diabetes mellitus. The cell is electrically excitable; in response to an elevation of glucose, it depolarizes and starts generating action potentials. The electrophysiology of mouse cells and the cell's role in insulin secretion have been extensively investigated. More recently, similar studies have been performed on human cells. These studies have revealed numerous and important differences between human and rodent cells. Here we discuss the properties of human pancreatic cells: their glucose sensing, the ion channel complement underlying glucose-induced electrical activity that culminates in exocytotic release of insulin, the cellular control of exocytosis, and the modulation of insulin secretion by circulating hormones and locally released neurotransmitters. Finally, we consider the pathophysiology of insulin secretion and the interactions between genetics and environmental factors that may explain the current diabetes epidemic. Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Cancer: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

Pancreatic Cancer: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths, being responsible for 7% of all cancer-related deaths in both men and women. Approximately 75% of all pancreatic carcinomas occur within the head or neck of the pancreas, 15-20% occur in the body of the pancreas, and 5-10% occur in the tail. See the image below. Pancreatic cancer. Gross section of an adenocarcinoma of the pancreas measuring 5 X 6 cm resected from the pancreatic body and tail. Although the tumor was considered to have been fully resected and had not spread to any nodes, the patient died of recurrent cancer within 1 year. The initial symptoms of pancreatic cancer are often quite nonspecific and subtle in onset. Patients typically report the gradual onset of nonspecific symptoms such as anorexia, malaise, nausea, fatigue, and midepigastric or back pain. Patients with pancreatic cancer may present with the following signs and symptoms: Significant weight loss: Characteristic feature of pancreatic cancer Midepigastric pain: Common symptom of pancreatic cancer, sometimes with radiation of the pain to the midback or lower-back region Often, unrelenting pain: Nighttime pain often a predominant complaint Onset of diabetes mellitus within the previous year Painless obstructive jaundice: Most characteristic sign of cancer of head of the pancreas Pruritus: Often the patient's most distressing symptom Migratory thrombophlebitis (ie, Trousseau sign) and venous thrombosis: May be the first presentation Palpable gallbladder (ie, Courvoisier sign) Developing, advanced intra-abdominal disease: Presence of ascites, a palpable abdominal mass, hepatomegaly from liver metastases, or splenomegaly from portal vein obstruction Advanced disease: Paraumbilical subcutaneous metastases (or Sister Mary Joseph nodule or Continue reading >>

Anatomy And Histology Of The Pancreas

Anatomy And Histology Of The Pancreas

1. Introduction The mandate for this chapter is to review the anatomy and histology of the pancreas. The pancreas (meaning all flesh) lies in the upper abdomen behind the stomach. The pancreas is part of the gastrointestinal system that makes and secretes digestive enzymes into the intestine, and also an endocrine organ that makes and secretes hormones into the blood to control energy metabolism and storage throughout the body. It is worthwhile to mention a few definitions for key terms as used in the context of the pancreas: Exocrine pancreas, the portion of the pancreas that makes and secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum. This includes acinar and duct cells with associated connective tissue, vessels, and nerves. The exocrine components comprise more than 95% of the pancreatic mass. Endocrine pancreas, the portions of the pancreas (the islets) that make and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide into the blood. Islets comprise 1-2% of pancreatic mass. Since we are dealing with a three dimensional solid structure, the aphorism that “a picture is worth a thousand words” seems to pertain (1). Accordingly, this chapter will largely consist of images with extended legends. The images range from classic work of skilled medical artists to original drawings and photomicrographs from leaders in the study of pancreatic anatomy and structure. Text is interspersed as appropriate. Additional useful images are available online at other websites. We provide a list of some of these sites at the end with the references. 2. Gross Anatomy Figs. 1-13 depict the gross anatomy of the pancreas and its relationship to surrounding organs in adults. It is customary to refer to various portions of the pancreas as head, body, and tail. The head lies near th Continue reading >>

Physiology, Endocrine, Pancreas

Physiology, Endocrine, Pancreas

The pancreas is a composite organ, which has exocrine and endocrine functions. The endocrine portion is arranged as discrete islets of Langerhans, which are composed of five different endocrine cell types (alpha, beta, delta,epsilon, and upsilon) secreting at least five hormones including glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, ghrelin, and pancreatic polypeptide, respectively. Source: Beta cells of islets of the pancreas. Synthesis: Insulin is a peptide hormone. The insulin mRNA is translated as a single-chain precursor called preproinsulin, and removal of its signal peptide during insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum generates proinsulin. Within the endoplasmic reticulum, proinsulin is exposed to several specific endopeptidases, which excise the C peptide (one of three domains of proinsulin), thereby generating the mature form of insulin. Insulin is secreted from the cell by exocytosis and diffuses into islet capillary blood. C-peptide is also secreted into the blood in a 1:1 molar ratio with insulin. Although C-peptide has no established biological action, it is used as a useful marker for insulin secretion. Transport: insulin circulates entirely in unbound form (T1/2 = 6 min). Main Target cells: hepatic, muscle and adipocyte cells (i.e., cells specialized for energy storage). Mechanism of action: Insulin binds to a specific receptor tyrosine kinase on the plasma membrane and increases its activity to phosphorylate numerous regulatory enzymes and other protein substrates. Plasma glucose level is the main regulator of insulin secretion. The change in the concentration of plasma glucose that occurs in response to feeding or fasting is the main determinant of insulin secretion. Modest increases in plasma glucose level provoke a marked increase in plasma insulin concentrat Continue reading >>

17.9 The Pancreas | Anatomy & Physiology

17.9 The Pancreas | Anatomy & Physiology

By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain the role of the pancreatic endocrine cells in the regulation of blood glucose Describe the location and structure of the pancreas, and the morphology and function of the pancreatic islets Compare and contrast the function and regulation of insulin and glucagon The pancreas is a long, slender organ, most of which is located posterior to the bottom half of the stomach ( Figure 1 ). Although it is primarily an exocrine gland, secreting a variety of digestive enzymes, the pancreas also has endocrine cells. Its pancreatic isletsclusters of cells formerly known as the islets of Langerhanssecrete the hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Figure 1. Pancreas endocrine function involves the secretion of insulin (produced by beta cells) and glucagon (produced by alpha cells) within the pancreatic islets. These two hormones regulate the rate of glucose metabolism in the body. The micrograph reveals pancreatic islets. LM 760. Also shown are the exocrine acinar cells. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School 2012) View the University of Michigan WebScope at to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. Cells and Secretions of the Pancreatic Islets The pancreatic islets each contain four varieties of cells: The alpha cell produces the hormone glucagon and makes up approximately 20 percent of each islet. Low blood glucose levels stimulate the release of glucagon. The beta cell produces the hormone insulin and makes up approximately 75 percent of each islet. Elevated blood glucose levels stimulate the release of insulin. The delta cell accounts for four percent of the islet cells and secretes the peptide hormone somatostatin. Recall that somatostatin is al Continue reading >>

114 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas

114 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the location and structure of the pancreas, and the morphology and function of the pancreatic islets Compare and contrast the functions of insulin and glucagon The pancreas is a long, slender organ, most of which is located posterior to the bottom half of the stomach (Figure 1). Although it is primarily an exocrine gland, secreting a variety of digestive enzymes, the pancreas has an endocrine function. Its pancreatic islets—clusters of cells formerly known as the islets of Langerhans—secrete the hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Figure 1. Pancreas. The pancreatic exocrine function involves the acinar cells secreting digestive enzymes that are transported into the small intestine by the pancreatic duct. Its endocrine function involves the secretion of insulin (produced by beta cells) and glucagon (produced by alpha cells) within the pancreatic islets. These two hormones regulate the rate of glucose metabolism in the body. The micrograph reveals pancreatic islets. LM × 760. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012) View the University of Michigan WebScope at to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. View the University of Michigan WebScope at to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. Cells and Secretions of the Pancreatic Islets The pancreatic islets each contain four varieties of cells: The alpha cell produces the hormone glucagon and makes up approximately 20 percent of each islet. Glucagon plays an important role in blood glucose regulation; low blood glucose levels stimulate its release. The beta cell produces the hormone insulin and makes up approximately 75 percent of each islet. Elevated Continue reading >>

Pancreas Physiology & Biochemistry

Pancreas Physiology & Biochemistry

- key: trypsinogen + enterokinase = trypsin (activator) 1) Gastrin: (4) inc gastric motility, inc gastric acid secretion (ST), inc pancreatic enzyme synthesis, inc bile synthesis & release 2) Cholecystikinin: (2) stimulates release of bile & pancreatic enzymes into duodenum 3) Secretin: (3) blocks gastric acid release (LT), regulates water/salt retention, stimulates pancreatic bicarb/juice flow 2) Alpha cells - glucagon (energy release) 4) Gamma/F cells - pancreatic peptide (accelerator) 5) Gastrin - stomach motility & acid synthesis/release 6) VIP - (i) regulates water/salt release, (ii) SM relaxant (inc motility), (iii) inc pancreatic duct flow pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, pancreatic cancer, DM Causes: Gallstones, Duct blockage, excess alcohol, GIT infections, premature activation of digestive enzymes in ducts Cystic Fibrosis (cause related to pancreas) Cause: CFTR mutation (chloride ion channel deficit), results in mucus build up and blockage of pancreatic duct Loss of pancreatic enzymes > malabsorption Causes: chronic pancreatitis, CF, other genetic syndromes Pancreatic Cancer (Epi, S/S, common form) 4th most common cause of cancer related death S/S: painless obstructive jaundice, wt loss, 65-75yo Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (>85%) Type 1: autoimmune anti-pancreatic islet Beta cells Type 2: dec receptor sensitivity & insulin production - inhibitor of both endocrine & exocrine pancreas Liver process that converts amino acids to glucose - Occurs in time of low blood glucose/high glucagon - Requires coupling to urea cycle to dispose of ammonia (a CNS toxin) = hormone secreted by the endocrine pancreas that function as the master inhibitor of pancreatic functions (endocrine/exocrine) a) blocks release of insulin & glucagon (isl Continue reading >>

Calcium Signalling In The Acinar Environment Of The Exocrine Pancreas: Physiology And Pathophysiology

Calcium Signalling In The Acinar Environment Of The Exocrine Pancreas: Physiology And Pathophysiology

Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, Kyiv 01024, Ukraine Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK Department of Physiology, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK Systems Immunity Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK Corresponding author O. H. Petersen: School of Biosciences, Sir Martin Evans Building, Museum Avenue, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3 AX, Wales, UK. Email: Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, Kyiv 01024, Ukraine Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK Department of Physiology, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK Systems Immunity Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK Corresponding author O. H. Petersen: School of Biosciences, Sir Martin Evans Building, Museum Avenue, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3 AX, Wales, UK. Email: O. Gryshchenko and J.V. Gerasimenko contributed equally to this work This is an Editor's Choice article from the 15 July 2018 issue. Linked articles This article is highlighted by a Perspective by Hegyi. To read this article, visit . Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. Ca2+ signalling in different cell types in exocrine pancreatic lobules was monitored simultaneously and Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Cancer - Symptoms And Causes - Mayo Clinic

Pancreatic Cancer - Symptoms And Causes - Mayo Clinic

Pancreatic cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer begins in the tissues of your pancreas an organ in your abdomen that lies horizontally behind the lower part of your stomach. Your pancreas releases enzymes that aid digestion and hormones that help manage your blood sugar. Pancreatic cancer typically spreads rapidly to nearby organs. It is seldom detected in its early stages. But for people with pancreatic cysts or a family history of pancreatic cancer, some screening steps might help detect a problem early. One sign of pancreatic cancer is diabetes, especially when it occurs with weight loss, jaundice or pain in the upper abdomen that spreads to the back. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or a combination of these. Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer often don't occur until the disease is advanced. They may include: Pain in the upper abdomen that radiates to your back Loss of appetite or unintended weight loss Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice) See your doctor if you experience unexplained weight loss or if you have persistent fatigue, abdominal pain, jaundice, or other signs and symptoms that bother you. Many conditions can cause these symptoms, so your doctor may check for these conditions as well as for pancreatic cancer. It's not clear what causes pancreatic cancer in most cases. Doctors have identified factors, such as smoking, that increase your risk of developing the disease. Your pancreas is about 6 inches (15 centimeters) long and looks something like a pear lying on its side. It releases (secretes) hormones, including insulin, to help your body process sugar in the foods you eat. And it produces digestive juices to help your body digest food. Pancreatic cancer oc Continue reading >>

The 9 Regions Of The Abdomen

The 9 Regions Of The Abdomen

An error occurred trying to load this video. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. You must create an account to continuewatching Start Your Free Trial To Continue Watching As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Coming up next: ATP: Definition & Molecules Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Did you know that your abdomen has nine regions? Yes, nine! In this lesson you will discover the location of these nine regions and which organs are associated with each region. Have you ever played tic-tac-toe? If you have, you know that it is set up with nine boxes, three across and three down. The nine regions of the abdomen are similar to that. If you were to lie on your back right now and draw two vertical lines splitting your abdomen into thirds, and then draw two horizontal lines splitting your abdomen into thirds again, you would have the locations of the nine regions. Think of the nine regions as the areas that hurt when we do sit-ups. Regions 1-3 comprise the upper abdomen, regions 4-6 are the middle abdomen, and the regions 7-9 make up the lower abdomen. Now let's explore the three regions of the upper abdomen. Region 1 is known as the right hypochondriac region. This area is home to organs such as the liver, gallbladder, right kidney, and small intestine. Region 2 is known as the epigastric region. Here, we have the stomach, liver, and the pancreas. The adrenal glands and the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum, are also found in region 2. Region 3 is known as the left hypochondriac region, which contains organs such as the spleen, colon, left kidney, and pancreas. Re Continue reading >>

The Roles Of Thyroid And Thyroid Hormone In Pancreas: Physiology And Pathology

The Roles Of Thyroid And Thyroid Hormone In Pancreas: Physiology And Pathology

The Roles of Thyroid and Thyroid Hormone in Pancreas: Physiology and Pathology 1Institute of Nursing and Health, College of Nursing and Health, Henan University, Kaifeng, China 2School of Basic Medicine, Henan University, Jinming Avenue 475004, Henan, Kaifeng, China 3Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China 4Wuxi School of Medicine, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China Correspondence should be addressed to Zhenxing Xie ; [email protected] Received 19 February 2018; Revised 18 April 2018; Accepted 10 May 2018; Published 14 June 2018 Copyright 2018 Chaoran Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. It is widely accepted that thyroid hormones (THs), secreted from the thyroid, play important roles in energy metabolism. It is also known that THs also alter the functioning of other endocrine glands; however, their effects on pancreatic function have not yet been reviewed. One of the main functions of the pancreas is insulin secretion, which is altered in diabetes. Diabetes, therefore, could be related to thyroid dysfunction. Earlier research on this subject focused on TH regulation of pancreas function (such as insulin secretion) or on insulin function through TH-mediated increase of energy metabolism. Afterwards, epidemiological investigations and animal test research found a link between autoimmune diseases, thyroid dysfunction, and pancreas pathology; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that THs also play important roles in pancreas development and on islet pathology, both in diabetes and in pancreatic canc Continue reading >>

Regulation Of Insulin Secretion In Human Pancreatic Islets

Regulation Of Insulin Secretion In Human Pancreatic Islets

Regulation of Insulin Secretion in Human Pancreatic Islets Vol. 75:155-179 (Volume publication date February 2013) First published online as a Review in Advance on September 4, 2012 1Oxford Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, United Kingdom; email: [emailprotected] 2Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1, Canada Pancreatic cells secrete insulin, the body's only hormone capable of lowering plasma glucose levels. Impaired or insufficient insulin secretion results in diabetes mellitus. The cell is electrically excitable; in response to an elevation of glucose, it depolarizes and starts generating action potentials. The electrophysiology of mouse cells and the cell's role in insulin secretion have been extensively investigated. More recently, similar studies have been performed on human cells. These studies have revealed numerous and important differences between human and rodent cells. Here we discuss the properties of human pancreatic cells: their glucose sensing, the ion channel complement underlying glucose-induced electrical activity that culminates in exocytotic release of insulin, the cellular control of exocytosis, and the modulation of insulin secretion by circulating hormones and locally released neurotransmitters. Finally, we consider the pathophysiology of insulin secretion and the interactions between genetics and environmental factors that may explain the current diabetes epidemic. Continue reading >>

More in diabetes