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Pancreas And Diabetes

Diabetes And Pancreatic Cancer

Diabetes And Pancreatic Cancer

Your pancreas produces a hormone called insulin, which helps to control your blood sugar level. When you digest food and drink, carbohydrate is broken down into glucose, which is a type of sugar. This passes into your blood, and is used by the body. Normally, insulin controls the blood sugar level. But if you have pancreatic cancer or you have had all or part of your pancreas removed, your pancreas may not produce enough insulin. This means your blood sugar level may not be properly controlled, and you may develop diabetes. Diabetes is a condition where the amount of sugar in your blood is too high. If your blood sugar level is too high (hyperglycaemia), you may feel very thirsty, pass more urine, get headaches and feel tired. Your pancreas also produces a hormone called glucagon which also helps to control your blood sugar level. If your pancreas doesn’t produce enough glucagon when you need it, your blood sugar level may drop and become too low (hypoglycaemia). You may feel hungry, shaky or sweaty. This is more common if you have had surgery to remove your pancreas, such as a Whipple's operation. Managing diabetes If you are diagnosed with diabetes, you should see specialist diabetes or pancreatic dietitian. You may also see a diabetes nurse for help with managing any medication prescribed. It’s important that you get specialist advice, because managing your diabetes may be more difficult because of your pancreatic cancer. Your dietitian and diabetes nurse should discuss any changes to your diet and treatment with you. You may need to monitor your blood sugar level, and take tablets or have insulin injections to stop your blood sugar level becoming too high or too low. There are different types of diabetes, and information on the internet may not be right for you, Continue reading >>

Pancreas And Diabetes: Why Does Pancreas Stop Producing Insulin?

Pancreas And Diabetes: Why Does Pancreas Stop Producing Insulin?

Every part of an individual’s body has its own mechanisms. It is the constant production of hormones that leads to bodily as well as mental changes. This task of generating enzymes and hormones which are required for breaking food down lies with Pancreas. Being an important part of the body, its responsibility is also about producing enough insulin in the body so that the sugar level remains intact. In fact, imbalance in the production of insulin can lead to the health problem called Diabetes. Once the problem starts developing, it can be only controlled by taking suitable diet and by avoiding eating sweets. Let us see what the function of Pancreas is and its contribution towards the development of Diabetes. What is Pancreas and What is it’s Role? Pancreas is an important part of the body, which is positioned behind the lower stomach. It has the ability to produce insulin and glucagon that tends to regulate sugar level in the blood. Carrying out the double functionality of stowing hormones into the blood as well as discharging enzymes through ducts, Pancreas have always held a significant position in controlling hormonal secretion and regulation. A slightest of imbalance in the production of insulin can lead to the problem of diabetes that requires immense care in dealing with dietary management. Playing an essential part in the endocrine as well as exocrine systems, pancreas has exceptional functional system. Basically, the endocrine system is aimed at the production of chemicals as well as hormones in the body. On the other hand, exocrine system constitutes of glands in the body that tends to release saliva, sweat and digestive enzymes. As known to all, the role of Pancreas is to produce adequate amount of insulin for regulating the level of sugar in the body. The Continue reading >>

An Overview Of The Pancreas

An Overview Of The Pancreas

Pancreas Essentials The pancreas maintains the body’s blood glucose (sugar) balance. Primary hormones of the pancreas include insulin and glucagon, and both regulate blood glucose. Diabetes is the most common disorder associated with the pancreas. The pancreas is unique in that it’s both an endocrine and exocrine gland. In other words, the pancreas has the dual function of secreting hormones into blood (endocrine) and secreting enzymes through ducts (exocrine). The pancreas belongs to the endocrine and digestive systems—with most of its cells (more than 90%) working on the digestive side. However, the pancreas performs the vital duty of producing hormones—most notably insulin—to maintain the balance of blood glucose (sugar) and salt in the body. Without this balance, your body is susceptible to serious complications, such as diabetes. Anatomy of the Pancreas The pancreas is a 6 inch-long flattened gland that lies deep within the abdomen, between the stomach and the spine. It is connected to the duodenum, which is part of the small intestine. Only about 5% of the pancreas is comprised of endocrine cells. These cells are clustered in groups within the pancreas and look like little islands of cells when examined under a microscope. These groups of pancreatic endocrine cells are known as pancreatic islets or more specifically, islets of Langerhans (named after the scientist who discovered them). Hormones of the Pancreas The production of pancreatic hormones, including insulin, somatostatin, gastrin, and glucagon, play an important role in maintaining sugar and salt balance in our bodies. Gastrin: This hormone aids digestion by stimulating certain cells in the stomach to produce acid. Glucagon: Glucagon helps insulin maintain normal blood glucose by working in the Continue reading >>

I Have Type 3c Diabetes – What Is That All About?

I Have Type 3c Diabetes – What Is That All About?

This week is #NationalDiabetesWeek and social media has been full of interesting facts and hints and tips on how to manage either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. What I have noticed though is that no-one has, thus far, mentioned Type 3 diabetes. This hasn’t come as a surprise. A year before I was diagnosed with operable pancreatic cancer, I was told that I may have Type 2 diabetes. However, I wasn’t overweight, nor did I have a family history of the disease. We now know that it was probably the cancer causing the blood sugar level elevations and this link between new-onset diabetes without weight gain (which can occur 1-3 years before a pancreatic cancer diagnosis) is something that we at Pancreatic Cancer Action are investigating in our research programmes. For all of these years (nearly 9) I have believed that I have Type 2 diabetes. However, at a recent consultation with my new Diabetologist, I discovered that I have in fact got Type 3c Diabetes. This I had never heard of before and so went about trying to find out more. I looked at some informed websites including Diabetes UK and found nothing. Not even a mention. And not all of the medical profession has heard of this type of diabetes either – unless they are specialists in this field. Never being one to give up, I kept on researching. I have since found out that, of all diabetes cases Type 3c makes up about 8%1 – not a lot, but not insignificant either. Type 3c Diabetes is usually characterised by the fact that the patient has had all or part of their pancreas resected due to cancer or cystic lesions or other diseases of the pancreas such as pancreatitis and cystic fybrosis.2 Patients often have Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency (malabsorption) and are on Pancreatic Enzyme Therapy (PERT) to help them get their Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Diabetes Mellitus

Pancreatic Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus caused by pancreatic exocrine disease is a unique clinical and metabolic form of diabetes. The diagnosis of pancreatic diabetes caused by chronic pancreatitis may be elusive because it is occasionally painless and often not accompanied by clinical malabsorption until after hyperglycemia occurs. Diabetic patients with pancreatic calcification or clinically demonstrable pancreatic exocrine dysfunction will manifest the unique aspects of pancreatic diabetes described herein. Like other forms of diabetes, the primary hormonal abnormality in pancreatic diabetes is decreased insulin secretion. Patients with this disorder are unique in that they have low glucagon levels that respond abnormally to several physiological stimuli, blunted epinephrine responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and malabsorption. In addition, they often have concomitant alcohol abuse with hepatic disease and poor nutrition. These characteristics result in increased levels of circulating gluconeogenic amino acids, decreased insulin requirements, a resistance to ketosis, low cholesterol levels, an increased risk of hypoglycemia while on insulin therapy, and the clinical impression of brittle diabetes. Retinopathy occurs at a rate equal to that of insulin-dependent diabetes but may be less severe in degree. Other complications of pancreatic diabetes have been less well studied but may be expected to be seen more frequently as these patients survive longer. The characteristics of pancreatic diabetes suggest that a conservative approach be taken in regard to intensive insulin therapy and tight blood glucose control. We developed a computer program for the simulation of plasma insulin and glucose dynamics after subcutaneous injection of insulin. The program incorporates a pharmacokinetic Continue reading >>

The Connection Between Diabetes And Your Pancreas

The Connection Between Diabetes And Your Pancreas

A direct connection exists between the pancreas and diabetes. The pancreas is an organ deep in your abdomen behind your stomach. It’s an important part of your digestive system. The pancreas produces enzymes and hormones that help you digest food. One of those hormones, insulin, is necessary to regulate glucose. Glucose refers to sugars in your body. Every cell in your body needs glucose for energy. Think of insulin as a lock to the cell. Insulin must open the cell to allow it to use glucose for energy. If your pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t make good use of it, glucose builds up in your bloodstream, leaving your cells starved for energy. When glucose builds up in your bloodstream, this is known as hyperglycemia. The symptoms of hyperglycemia include thirst, nausea, and shortness of breath. Low glucose, known as hypoglycemia, also causes many symptoms, including shakiness, dizziness, and loss of consciousness. Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia can quickly become life-threatening. Each type of diabetes involves the pancreas not functioning properly. The way in which the pancreas doesn’t function properly differs depending on the type. No matter what type of diabetes you have, it requires ongoing monitoring of blood glucose levels so you can take the appropriate action. Type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes the immune system erroneously attacks the beta cells that produce insulin in your pancreas. It causes permanent damage, leaving your pancreas unable to produce insulin. Exactly what triggers the immune system to do that isn’t clear. Genetic and environmental factors may play a role. You’re more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if you have a family history of the disease. About 5 percent of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. People who ha Continue reading >>

New Evidence For 'artificial Pancreas' In Type 2 Diabetes - Cnn

New Evidence For 'artificial Pancreas' In Type 2 Diabetes - Cnn

'Artificial pancreas' for type 1 diabetes wins FDA approval If blood sugar is too high or too low, it can lead to a host of complications including kidney damage, nerve problems and diabetic comas. "In health care settings ... you would assume you were getting the best possible care for all of your medical conditions," said Dr. Jennifer Sherr, a pediatric endocrinologist and associate professor at Yale University School of Medicine. Sherr was not involved in the new study, but she has researched similar insulin-delivery systems and, as a person with Type 1 diabetes, uses an automated system herself. "Staff in hospitals are taxed with a number of patients; it's difficult to make sure insulin delivery is timely when meals are arriving into rooms, and there's stress and other factors going into it," she said. Havorka's "closed-loop insulin delivery" system, as it is technically called, used a real-time blood glocose sensor and a pump that released a rapid-acting insulin medication under the skin. These devices communicated wirelessly with a tablet computer running a predictive algorithm. The system kept 70 patients' glucose levels in the target range 65.8% of the time, versus 41.5% of the time for the 66 in the control group -- a difference of roughly 24 percentage points. How close we are to putting insulin in a pill for diabetes patients? "It's a larger jump than you see in most other closed-loop studies," Sherr said. The study was conducted at two hospitals in Europe: Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, United Kingdom, and the University Hospital in Bern, Switzerland. Patients were followed up to 15 days or until they were discharged from the hospital. When controlling glucose with insulin, patients run the risk of getting critically low blood sugars, or hypoglycemia, Continue reading >>

Fasting Diet 'regenerates Diabetic Pancreas'

Fasting Diet 'regenerates Diabetic Pancreas'

Fasting diet 'regenerates diabetic pancreas' By James Gallagher Health and science reporter, BBC News website These are external links and will open in a new window The pancreas can be triggered to regenerate itself through a type of fasting diet, say US researchers. Restoring the function of the organ - which helps control blood sugar levels - reversed symptoms of diabetes in animal experiments. The study, published in the journal Cell , says the diet reboots the body. Experts said the findings were "potentially very exciting" as they could become a new treatment for the disease. People are advised not to try this without medical advice. In the experiments, mice were put on a modified form of the "fasting-mimicking diet". It is like the human form of the diet when people spend five days on a low-calorie, low-protein, low-carbohydrate but high unsaturated-fat diet. It resembles a vegan diet with nuts and soups, but with around 800 to 1,100 calories a day. Then they have 25 days eating what they want - so overall it mimics periods of feast and famine. Previous research has suggested it can slow the pace of ageing. But animal experiments showed the diet regenerated a special type of cell in the pancreas called a beta cell. These are the cells that detect sugar in the blood and release the hormone insulin if it gets too high. Dr Valter Longo, from the University of Southern California, said: "Our conclusion is that by pushing the mice into an extreme state and then bringing them back - by starving them and then feeding them again - the cells in the pancreas are triggered to use some kind of developmental reprogramming that rebuilds the part of the organ that's no longer functioning." There were benefits in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the mouse experiments. Type 1 i Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Diabetes Mellitus.

Pancreatic Diabetes Mellitus.

Department of Medicine, Fitzsimons Army Medical Center, Aurora Colorado 80045-5001. Diabetes Care. 1989 Nov-Dec;12(10):715-24. Diabetes mellitus caused by pancreatic exocrine disease is a unique clinical and metabolic form of diabetes. The diagnosis of pancreatic diabetes caused by chronic pancreatitis may be elusive because it is occasionally painless and often not accompanied by clinical malabsorption until after hyperglycemia occurs. Diabetic patients with pancreatic calcification or clinically demonstrable pancreatic exocrine dysfunction will manifest the unique aspects of pancreatic diabetes described herein. Like other forms of diabetes, the primary hormonal abnormality in pancreatic diabetes is decreased insulin secretion. Patients with this disorder are unique in that they have low glucagon levels that respond abnormally to several physiological stimuli, blunted epinephrine responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and malabsorption. In addition, they often have concomitant alcohol abuse with hepatic disease and poor nutrition. These characteristics result in increased levels of circulating gluconeogenic amino acids, decreased insulin requirements, a resistance to ketosis, low cholesterol levels, an increased risk of hypoglycemia while on insulin therapy, and the clinical impression of brittle diabetes. Retinopathy occurs at a rate equal to that of insulin-dependent diabetes but may be less severe in degree. Other complications of pancreatic diabetes have been less well studied but may be expected to be seen more frequently as these patients survive longer. The characteristics of pancreatic diabetes suggest that a conservative approach be taken in regard to intensive insulin therapy and tight blood glucose control. Continue reading >>

Pancreas And Diabetes

Pancreas And Diabetes

The pancreas is the organ that is responsible for producing insulin The pancreas is an organ located behind the lower part of the stomach, in front of the spine and plays an important part in diabetes. The pancreas is the organ which produces insulin, one the main hormones that helps to regulate blood glucose levels . The pancreas plays a part in two different organ systems, the endocrine system and the exocrine system. The endocrine system includes all the organs which produce hormones, chemicals which are delivered via the blood to help regulate our mood, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Two of the hormones produced by the pancreas are insulin and glucagon . The exocrine system is made up of a number of glands which release substances such as sweat (to the skin), saliva (in the mouth) or, in the case of the pancreas, digestive enzymes . The pancreas is responsible for producing insulin. The cells which produce insulin are beta cells. These cells are distributed in a cluster of cells in the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans, named after the anatomist who discovered them . Insulin is a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by assisting the transport of glucose from the blood into neighbouring cells. In type 1 diabetes , the beta cells that produce insulin are attacked by the bodys immune system. As more beta cells get killed off, the pancreas struggles to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels down and the symptoms of diabetes begin to appear. Research has shown that whilst many beta cells are killed off, the body can continue to produce very small amounts of insulin even after decades have passed. News from 2012: Insulin production may last for over 30 years in type 1 diabetes In type 2 diabetes, the body builds up resistance to insul Continue reading >>

Pancreatitis And Diabetes

Pancreatitis And Diabetes

Tweet Pancreatitis is a condition in which the pancreas becomes inflamed, which can be very painful in the short term and could lead to complications including secondary diabetes. Alcohol and gall stones are the main risk factors for pancreatitis but some medications, including certain diabetes medications, may increase the risk of pancreatitis. Types of pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is when the pancreas becomes inflamed for up to a few days. Chronic pancreatitis is if inflammation of the pancreas persists over a long period of time, say years. Symptoms The main symptom of acute pancreatitis is a strong pain in the upper abdomen, where the pancreas is located. Other symptoms that may be present include: nausea vomiting or diarrhoea fever If you have chronic pancreatitis you may experience regular pain within the upper part of the abdomen and possibly some of the following symptoms, caused by difficulty in digesting food properly: Stomach cramps Bloating and wind Foul smelling stools Unexplained weight loss Jaundice Seek medical help if you experience sudden severe pain in your abdomen. Causes The NHS notes that pancreatitis may be caused by a digestive enzyme becoming prematurely activated within the pancreas, causing the pancreas to become inflamed. Having two or more alcoholic drinks a day Gallstones An automimmune response Hypertriglyceridemia – high levels of triglyceride blood fats in the blood Genetic mutation of MCP-1 gene The following medications may also raise the risk of pancreatitis: Oestrogens Corticosteroids Thiazide diuretics Certain diabetes medications – see below for more info Treatment Treatment for pancreatitis will need to be carried out in hospital. You may need to be given oxygen and intravenous fluids, and may be given strong painkillers, s Continue reading >>

Artificial Pancreas May Help Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Artificial Pancreas May Help Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Artificial Pancreas May Help Type 2 Diabetes Patients TUESDAY, June 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Using an artificial pancreas can help hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes maintain good blood sugar control, a new study suggests. That's important because when diabetes isn't managed well, high blood sugar levels can lengthen hospital stays and increase the risk of complications and even death, the researchers said. The artificial pancreas -- an automated insulin pump and continuous glucose monitor -- is still fairly new and more commonly used in people with type 1 diabetes , who must receive insulin multiple times throughout the day to survive. But the researchers thought the device might also be helpful in people with type 2 diabetes . People with type 2 diabetes don't always need to use insulin , but many do. The artificial pancreas has "great potential to improve glucose control," while people with type 2 diabetes are in the hospital, said study senior author Roman Hovorka. He's director of research at the University of Cambridge's Metabolic Research Laboratories, in England. In this study, Hovorka said the device "considerably improved glucose control [and didn't] increase the risk of hypoglycemia [low blood sugar] for in-patients requiring insulin on the general ward." In the United States, as many as one in four hospital patients is diabetic, the researchers said. And diabetes control in the hospital can be affected by many variables, such as illness and changes in diet and medication . These changes often mean diabetics need more attention from hospital staff, the study authors noted. The artificial pancreas, which uses a computer formula to direct insulin delivery from a pump based on blood sugar readings obtained from a continuous monitor, can automate muc Continue reading >>

Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes

Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a number of diseases that involve problems with the hormone insulin. While not everyone with type 2 diabetes is overweight, obesity and lack of physical activity are two of the most common causes of this form of diabetes. It is also responsible for about 90% to 95% of diabetes cases in the United States, according to the CDC. This article will give you a better understanding of the causes of type 2 diabetes, what happens in the body when type 2 diabetes occurs, and specific health problems that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Each section links to more in-depth information on that topic. In a healthy person, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help the body store and use the sugar from the food you eat. Diabetes happens when one or more of the following occurs: When the pancreas does not produce any insulin. When the pancreas produces very little insulin. When the body does not respond appropriately to insulin, a condition called "insulin resistance." Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes produce insulin; however, the insulin their pancreas secretes is either not enough or the body is unable to recognize the insulin and use it properly (insulin resistance). When there isn't enough insulin or the insulin is not used as it should be, glucose (sugar) can't get into the body's cells and builds up in the bloodstream instead. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, it causes damage in multiple areas of the body. Also, since cells aren't getting the glucose they need, they can't function properly. To understand why insulin is important, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy. Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, these cells need food in a Continue reading >>

Revolutionary 'artificial Pancreas' Is Proving To Be Incredible For Type 1 Diabetics

Revolutionary 'artificial Pancreas' Is Proving To Be Incredible For Type 1 Diabetics

Revolutionary 'Artificial Pancreas' Is Proving to Be Incredible For Type 1 Diabetics A new study on the efficiency of the so-called 'artificial pancreas' suggests it's a huge leap in the right direction for people with diabetes who are in constant need of monitoring their blood glucose. The technology works through a sort of closed loop system that monitors a person's blood's glucose while delivering doses of the right hormones - and for many this device is a dream come true. In a systematic review of the evidence to date, a team led by researchers from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki has evaluated 41 studies on the safety and efficacy of two types of artificial pancreas used by more than 1,000 volunteers. The team found that volunteers trialling this class of device spent roughly 10 percent more time within a healthy range of blood glucose levels over any given 24 hour period. That's encouraging news, showing medicine is heading in the right direction, but more questions will need to be answered about balancing the risks, costs, and benefits of this amazing device. Diabetes describes a class of conditions that make it difficult for the body to manage its sugar levels, either due to problems producing the insulin needed for cells to absorb glucose, such as type-1 diabetes, or resistance to insulin, like type-2. This requires those with type-1 diabetes to check their blood levels and monitor their diet while potentially administering specially calculated doses of insulin. While this sounds simple in principle, for millions of people this is a finicky task that can feel like balancing an egg in an earthquake, as a wide range of variables make it virtually impossible to maintain that perfect level of glucose. Modern technology has helped in many ways, providing p Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Pancreatic Cancer

Diabetes And Pancreatic Cancer

Approximately 25.8 million people in the United States, approximately 8.3% of the population, have diabetes. It is estimated that 18.8 million have been diagnosed, but unfortunately, 7.0 million people, or over one fourth, are unaware that they have the disease. Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not make or properly use a pancreatic hormone called insulin. Insulin helps the body utilize glucose (sugar) efficiently. Normally, insulin allows glucose to enter cells to be used for energy. In the case of diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the amount that is produced is not fully effective. Instead of entering cells, the glucose remains in the blood resulting in high blood glucose levels. Diabetes can cause major health problems, such as high-blood pressure, blindness, kidney disease and neuropathy. Long-term high blood glucose levels can lead to cell damage and long-term complications. There are several types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes results from the bodys inability to produce insulin and accounts for approximately 5% of those diagnosed with the disease. Type 2 diabetes results from the bodys failure to properly use insulin combined with insulin deficiency and accounts for most diagnosed cases of diabetes in the United States. Pre-diabetes occurs when a persons blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but are not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 79 million Americans are pre-diabetic. Other types of diabetes result from specific genetic conditions, surgery, medications, infections, pancreatic diseases and other illnesses. How does diabetes relate to pancreatic cancer? Diabetes may be either a risk factor or a symptom of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is more likely to occur in people who have lon Continue reading >>

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