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Oxybutynin And Diabetes

Oxybutynin Transdermal System

Oxybutynin Transdermal System

It is used to treat an overactive bladder . It may be given to you for other reasons. Talk with the doctor. What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Oxybutynin Transdermal System? If you have an allergy to oxybutynin or any other part of oxybutynin transdermal system. If you are allergic to any drugs like this one, any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had, like rash; hives ; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing ; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs. If you have any of these health problems: Bowel block, glaucoma , myasthenia gravis , slow moving GI (gastrointestinal) tract, or trouble passing urine. This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with oxybutynin transdermal system. Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins ) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take oxybutynin transdermal system with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor. What are some things I need to know or do while I take Oxybutynin Transdermal System? Tell all of your health care providers that you take oxybutynin transdermal system. This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists. Avoid driving and doing other tasks or actions that call for you to be alert or have clear eyesight until you see how oxybutynin transdermal system affects you. Talk with your doctor before you drink alcohol or use other drugs and natural products that slow your actions. Be careful in hot weather or while being active. Drink lots of fluids to stop fluid loss. Good mouth care, sucking hard, sugar-free can Continue reading >>

Side Effects And Interactions Of Diabetes Drugs

Side Effects And Interactions Of Diabetes Drugs

Diabetes drugs can be a great way to keep your blood sugar levels from getting out of whack. But they can sometimes cause side effects or may not mix well with other medicines you take. Talk to your doctor about what you need to watch out for. Side effects can range from an upset stomach to a serious condition. And other medicines you take can make your diabetes drug stop working -- or even make it work too well. Different types of diabetes drugs have their own side effects and ways they interact with other medicines. Biguanides: Metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, Riomet). Metformin is usually the first drug that doctors suggest you try to treat type 2 diabetes. It cuts blood sugar by improving the way your body uses insulin. It also lowers the amount of sugar that the liver makes. What are the side effects? You may have nausea, gas, bloating, diarrhea, and an upset stomach. These problems usually go away in a few weeks, as your body gets used to the medicine. It may also help to take the drug with food. In rare cases, metformin may cause a serious condition called lactic acidosis. That's when too much lactic acid builds up. Call your doctor right away if you get any of these symptoms: Unusual weakness, tiredness, or sleepiness Sudden stomach problems, such as vomiting Do they clash with other drugs? Some drugs may interfere with some of the enzymes that metformin uses to work. Your doctor may need to monitor your blood sugar or adjust your metformin dose if you take any of these: Cephalexin Digoxin Ranitidine Anticholinergic drugs, such as dicyclomine and oxybutynin, may raise the amount of metformin your body absorbs. This may lead to low blood sugar. Sulfonylureas: Glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), glimepride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Gl Continue reading >>

Will You Have Diabetes With Oxybutynin - From Fda Reports - Ehealthme

Will You Have Diabetes With Oxybutynin - From Fda Reports - Ehealthme

Support group for people who take Atorvastatin Calcium and have Light Sensitivity? NOTE: The study is based on active ingredients and brand name. Other drugs that have the same active ingredients (e.g. generic drugs) are NOT considered. WARNING: Please DO NOT STOP MEDICATIONS without first consulting a physician since doing so could be hazardous to your health. DISCLAIMER: All material available on eHealthMe.com is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. All information is observation-only, and has not been supported by scientific studies or clinical trials unless otherwise stated. Different individuals may respond to medication in different ways. Every effort has been made to ensure that all information is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. The use of the eHealthMe site and its content is at your own risk. You may report adverse side effects to the FDA at or 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088). If you use this eHealthMe study on publication, please acknowledge it with a citation: study title, URL, accessed date. Continue reading >>

Anticholinergic Medications May Increase Dementia Risk In Diabetes

Anticholinergic Medications May Increase Dementia Risk In Diabetes

Anticholinergic Medications May Increase Dementia Risk in Diabetes Anticholinergic Medications May Increase Dementia Risk in Diabetes Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) taking oxybutynin, solifenacin, or tolterodine for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) had a greater risk of developing dementia, with patients taking oxybutynin showing the greatest risk, according to recent research published in PLoS ONE. Researchers at the China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan evaluated 10,938 patients with DM who took oxybutynin, solifenacin, or tolterodine for OAB between January 2002 and December 2013 and 564,733 patients with DM who did not take the anticholinergic drugs. Typically, patients who respond well to a particular anticholinergic drug will continue to use that drug and not switch to another one, the researchers wrote. However, our research finds [show] that long-term use of a particular anticholinergic drug may increase subsequent risk of developing dementia . At 6-year follow-up, the researchers found patients taking oxybutynin had a 3.9% rate of dementia, while patients taking solifenacin had a 4.3% rate and patients taking tolterodine had a 2.2% rate compared with a 1.2% rate of dementia in the control group (P <.001). After adjusting their multivariate adjusted competing-risk regression model for factors such as comorbidities, patient age, patient gender, socioeconomic status, geographical region, and urbanization, long-term use of oxybutynin carried the highest risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 2.35; 95% CI, 1.96-2.81), while tolterodine (HR 2.24; 95% CI, 1.85-2.73) and solifenacin (HR 2.16; 95% CI, 1.81-2.58) also carried a high risk of developing dementia compared with the control group. Limitations of the study included lack of data on the severity Continue reading >>

Association Between Different Anticholinergic Drugs And Subsequent Dementia Risk In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

Association Between Different Anticholinergic Drugs And Subsequent Dementia Risk In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

1. PLoS One. 2017 Apr 6;12(4):e0175335. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175335.eCollection 2017. Association between different anticholinergic drugs and subsequent dementia risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Yang YW(1)(2), Liu HH(3)(4), Lin TH(3)(4), Chuang HY(3)(5), Hsieh T(3)(4)(5). (1)Department of Neurology, China Medical University Hospital Taichung, Taiwan. (2)School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. (3)Department of Urology, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taichung, Taiwan. (4)School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualian, Taiwan. (5)Department of Research, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taichung, Taiwan. BACKGROUND: The effects of oxybutynin, solifenacin and tolterodine on dementiarisk in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) remain unknown. We investigated the effects of oxybutynin, solifenacin and tolterodine on dementia risk in patientswith DM.METHODS: We conducted a cohort study by using the diabetes dataset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1 January, 2002 to 31 December, 2013. We included 10,938 patients received one type of oxybutynin, solifenacin,or tolterodine, while 564,733 had not. We included a comparable number ofpatients not receiving oxybutynin, solifenacin, or tolterodine as controlsthrough systematic random sampling matching by age, gender, and the year of theindex date with 1 to 1 ratio. The dementia risk was estimated throughmultivariate Cox proportional hazard regression after adjustment for severalconfounding factors.RESULTS: The dementia event rates were 3.9% in the oxybutynin group, 4.3% in the solifenacin group, 2.2% in the tolterodine group and 1.2% in the control group(P<0.001). The adjusted HRs compared to nonusers of Continue reading >>

Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists As A Therapy For Diabetic Neuropathy

Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists As A Therapy For Diabetic Neuropathy

You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists as a Therapy for Diabetic Neuropathy The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03050827 Information provided by (Responsible Party): Aaron I. Vinik, MD, PhD, Eastern Virginia Medical School Study Description Study Design Arms and Interventions Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information Investigators propose a placebo controlled, double blinded study to examine efficacy of topical Gelnique 3%TM (3% oxybutynin) daily for 20 weeks) in improving IENF density in type 2 diabetic subjects with established peripheral neuropathy. This site most clearly demonstrated efficacy of topiramate in reversing IENF loss within 18 weeks in our prior study. Subjects will also undergo quantitative sensory testing (QST) and assays of laser Doppler skin blood flow (SkBF), neuropathy total symptom score (NTSS-6), and quality of life (Norfolk QOL-DN), along with standard measures of physiology and fasting blood chemistry. Subjects with IENF loss of between 20-75% of normative values and thus amenable to therapy-induced recovery, will be randomized into placebo (N=30) or active drug (N=30) arms and instructed in how to apply 84 mg Gelnique 3%TM or hydrogel placebo to cover a 2 in2 region of skin adjacent to the initial biopsy site, as per the manufacturers instructions (Treatment will c Continue reading >>

Oxybutynin - Oral (ditropan) Side Effects, Medical Uses, And Drug Interactions.

Oxybutynin - Oral (ditropan) Side Effects, Medical Uses, And Drug Interactions.

GENERIC NAME: OXYBUTYNIN - ORAL (OX-i-BUE-ti-nin) Medication Uses | How To Use | Side Effects | Precautions | Drug Interactions | Overdose | Notes | Missed Dose | Storage USES: Oxybutynin is used to treat certain bladder and urinary conditions (e.g., overactive bladder ). It relaxes the muscles in the bladder to help decrease problems of urgency and frequent urination . Oxybutynin belongs to a class of drugs known as antispasmodics.The manufacturer does not recommend using this medication in children younger than 5 years of age. HOW TO USE: Take this medication by mouth, usually 2-3 times a day, or as directed by your doctor. It may be taken with or without food. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy. The length of treatment is determined by your doctor, who may suggest periodic trials off the drug to evaluate whether you still need to be taking it.When using the syrup, measure the dose out carefully with a medication spoon/cup.Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day.Inform your doctor if your condition persists or worsens. SIDE EFFECTS: Dry mouth , dizziness , drowsiness, blurred vision , dry eyes , nausea , vomiting , upset stomach , stomach pain , constipation , diarrhea , headache , unusual taste in mouth, dry/flushed skin, and weakness may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.To relieve dry mouth , suck on (sugarless) hard candy or ice chips, chew (sugarless) gum, drink water or use a saliva substitute. To relieve dry eyes , use artificial tears or other eye lubricants. Consult your pharmacist for further advice.To prevent constipation , maintain a diet adequate in fiber , drink plenty of water, and ex Continue reading >>

Bladder Dysfunction In Diabetes Mellitus

Bladder Dysfunction In Diabetes Mellitus

Go to: Background Micturition is a highly coordinated process that starts with sensing bladder filling, transferring data to the central nervous system processing center and efferent pathways resulting in the voiding response. Increasing the volume of the urinary bladder provokes afferent signals to the central nervous system. The molecular basis of distention sensing has not been fully clarified, but may involve the urothelium as a major factor during this process. The urothelium represents the layer of epithelial cells lining the urinary tract between the renal pelvis and the urinary bladder. For many years, it was considered as a passive barrier for the passage of ions and solutes, but currently is known to possess a number of novel features that allow it to respond to various physical and chemical stimuli, resulting in the release of various substances from the urothelial cells: these include ATP, nitric oxide (NO), substance P, acetylcholine, adenosine, antiproliferative factor, cytokines, various trophic factors, and prostanoids (Birder and de Groat, 2007). During bladder filling at low volumes, low frequency impulses activate afferent nerves to signal the pontine storage and micturition centers, and stimulate sympathetic outflow via hypogastric and pudendal nerves. Released norepinephrine induces detrusor relaxation and enhances bladder compliance, which is mediated largely through β3-adrenergic receptors, while bladder outlet resistance is enhanced by activation of α1-adrenergic receptors in the bladder neck, urethra and prostate (Michel and Vrydag, 2006). The somatic nerves also participate in the process of increasing bladder outlet resistance by releasing acetylcholine. Increasing urine volume will increase the frequency of afferent impulses, which in turn Continue reading >>

Ditropan Xl (oxybutynin) Dosage, Indication, Interactions, Side Effects | Empr - Renal And Urology News

Ditropan Xl (oxybutynin) Dosage, Indication, Interactions, Side Effects | Empr - Renal And Urology News

Overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and frequency. Neurologic detrusor overactivity symptoms in children. Swallow whole. Take with fluid. Initially 5mg or 10mg once daily; may increase weekly in 5mg increments; max 30mg/day. <6yrs: not recommended. 6yrs: Swallow whole. Take with fluid. Initially 5mg once daily; may increase in 5mg increments; max 20mg/day. Urinary or gastric retention; uncontrolled narrow-angle glaucoma; or patients at risk for these. Discontinue if angioedema develops; consider discontinuing if anticholinergic CNS effects occur. Bladder outflow or GI obstruction. Ulcerative colitis. Intestinal atony. GERD. GI narrowing or stricture. Pre-existing dementia. Parkinson's disease. Myasthenia gravis. Decreased GI motility in those with autonomic neuropathy. Exposure to high environmental temperatures. Hepatic or renal impairment. Pregnancy (Cat.B). Nursing mothers. Increased drowsiness with alcohol, other CNS depressants. Additive anticholinergic effects with other anticholinergics. May be potentiated by CYP3A4 inhibitors. Decreases GI motility, possibly affecting absorption of other drugs. Caution with drugs that can cause or exacerbate esophagitis (eg, bisphosphonates). Dry mouth, constipation, somnolence, headache, diarrhea, nausea, tachycardia, blurred vision, dry eyes, other anticholinergic effects. Continue reading >>

Selecting Medications For The Treatment Of Urinary Incontinence

Selecting Medications For The Treatment Of Urinary Incontinence

Selecting Medications for the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence BARRY D. WEISS, M.D., University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona Am Fam Physician.2005Jan15;71(2):315-322. In response to the growing population of older patients with incontinence, pharmaceutical companies are developing new drugs to treat the condition. Before prescribing medications for incontinence, however, physicians should determine the nature and cause of the patients incontinence. The evaluation should rule out reversible conditions, conditions requiring special evaluation, and overflow bladder. The best treatment for urge incontinence is behavior therapy in the form of pelvic floor muscle exercises. Medications, used as an adjunct to behavior therapy, can provide additional benefit. Many therapies are available for patients with stress incontinence, including pelvic floor muscle exercise, surgery, intravaginal support devices, pessaries, periurethral injections, magnetic chairs, and intraurethral inserts. No medication has been approved for the treatment of stress incontinence, although medications are under development. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common chronic medical conditions seen in primary care practice. It is more prevalent than diabetes, Alzheimers disease, and many other conditions that receive considerably more attention. Incontinence is an expensive problem, generating more costs each year than coronary artery bypass surgery and renal dialysis combined. 1 , 2 Women have higher rates of urinary incontinence than men. Prevalence increases with age; one third of women older than 65 years have some degree of incontinence, and 12 percent have daily incontinence. 3 , 4 Approximately one half of patients with incontinence have never discussed the problem with a p Continue reading >>

Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists As A Therapy For Diabetic Neuropathy Calcutt, Nigel Anthony University Of California San Diego, La Jolla, Ca, United States

Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists As A Therapy For Diabetic Neuropathy Calcutt, Nigel Anthony University Of California San Diego, La Jolla, Ca, United States

Muscarinic receptor antagonists as a therapy for diabetic neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and will afflict over half of the 25 million Americans who currently suffe from the disease. There is no FDA-approved therapy to reverse the distal degenerative neuropathy that is already present in many newly diagnosed diabetic patients and which gets progressively worse over time. Recent clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the retraction of peripheral terminals of small sensory axons from the epidermis of the skin is an early feature of diabetic neuropathy. This offers an opportunity to halt or reverse the dying-back of peripheral terminals before neuronal death occurs. Our preclinical studies have demonstrated that structurally diverse muscarinic receptor antagonists such as pirenzepine, VU0255035, MT-7 and oxybutynin promote axonal growth from sensory neurons of adult rats in vitro and that this class of drugs also prevents loss of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (IENF) and other features of neuropathy in rodent models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It therefore appears that adult peripheral neurons are under constant endogenous cholinergic constraint of axonal growth. The practical application of this knowledge is that muscarinic receptor antagonists may be viable and novel therapeutics for reversing early diabetic neuropathy. The FDA has recently approved use of the muscarinic receptor antagonist oxybutynin (Gelnique 3%TM) as a daily topical therapy for overactive bladder. The drug is applied daily to a region of the skin as a gel and has a good safety profile, the main side effect being dry mouth, which is predictable for an anti-cholinergic drug. As oxybutynin is one of the drugs that we found to prevent IENF d Continue reading >>

New Over The Counter Relief For Overactive Bladder | Diabetic Connect

New Over The Counter Relief For Overactive Bladder | Diabetic Connect

The first-ever non-prescription treatment for overactive bladder (OAB) is on drug-store shelves now. Oxytrol for Women, manufactured by Actavis, is a patch that you place on your skin. It remains effective for up to 4 days before you replace it with another. The medicine in an Oxytrol for Women patch, oxybutynin, is absorbed through the skin. It relaxes muscles in the bladder to relieve three kinds of symptoms: Frequency, or how often you need to urinate Urgency, or how strong your need to urinate feels Incontinence, or the inability to control when urine is released The patches dont limit everyday activities and can even be worn while bathing. They cost about one dollar a day. How well does Oxytrol for Women work? In one study, urinary accidents were reduced 75 percent in patients who used the patch and also practiced lifestyle changes including timed urination, pelvic-floor exercises and managing fluid intake. By comparison, a placebo plus those same lifestyle changes reduced accidents by only 50 percent. Its worth remembering that theres no cure for overactive bladder, but a variety of treatments and lifestyle tips are available that can help most patients to achieve good control of their symptoms. Like many medications, Oxytrol for Women works better for some patients than others. The only way to know whether it will benefit you is to try it. But even though its sold without a prescription, its a good idea to discuss Oxytrol for Women with your doctor before using it. He or she can tell you whether there are any reasons why it may not be appropriate in your case. Your doctor can also monitor its effects, make suggestions and answer questions about its use, and coordinate it with other treatments to help you get the best possible results. Continue reading >>

Oxybutynin (ditropan) - Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions - Drugs

Oxybutynin (ditropan) - Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions - Drugs

Oxybutynin is the generic form of the brand-name drug Ditropan, which is used to treat overactive bladder, a condition where the bladder muscles contract uncontrollably and cause the urgent need to urinate frequently. Oxybutynin is in a class of medications called antimuscarinics or urinary antispasmodics, which work by relaxing the bladder muscles and reducing spasms in the urinary tract. Oxybutynin is also distributed under the brand names Ditropan XL or Urotrol. It's most commonly prescribed to control bladder muscles in adults and children older than age 6 with spina bifida or other nervous system conditions that affect the bladder muscles. Oxybutynin is made by Janssen Pharmaceuticals and was approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1978. You should not use oxybutynin if you have untreated or uncontrolled glaucoma , a blockage in your stomach or intestines or if you are unable to urinate. Tell your doctor if you have been diagnosed with liver or kidney disease, an enlarged prostate , or any other stomach disorder such as GERD, commonly known as reflux disease. This medicine may cause your eyes to become more sensitive to light. Wearing sunglasses and avoiding too much exposure to bright light may help lessen the discomfort. Oxybutynin may make you sweat less, causing your body temperature to increase. Use extra care not to become overheated during exercise or hot weather. Oxybutynin may control your symptoms, but it will not cure your condition. You may notice some improvement in your symptoms within the first two weeks of treatment. However, it may take up to eight weeks to experience the full benefit of Oxybutynin. You should not stop taking oxybutynin without talking to your doctor. If you are 65 years old or older, talk to your doctor abou Continue reading >>

Side Effects And Interactions Of Diabetes Drugs

Side Effects And Interactions Of Diabetes Drugs

Diabetes drugs can be a great way to keep your blood sugar levels from getting out of whack. But they can sometimes cause side effects or may not mix well with other medicines you take. Talk to your doctor about what you need to watch out for. Side effects can range from an upset stomach to a serious condition. And other medicines you take can make your diabetes drug stop working -- or even make it work too well. Different types of diabetes drugs have their own side effects and ways they interact with other medicines. Biguanides: Metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, Riomet). Metformin is usually the first drug that doctors suggest you try to treat type 2 diabetes. It cuts blood sugar by improving the way your body uses insulin. It also lowers the amount of sugar that the liver makes. What are the side effects? You may have nausea, gas, bloating, diarrhea, and an upset stomach. These problems usually go away in a few weeks, as your body gets used to the medicine. It may also help to take the drug with food. In rare cases, metformin may cause a serious condition called lactic acidosis. That's when too much lactic acid builds up. Call your doctor right away if you get any of these symptoms: Unusual weakness, tiredness, or sleepiness Sudden stomach problems, such as vomiting Do they clash with other drugs? Some drugs may interfere with some of the enzymes that metformin uses to work. Your doctor may need to monitor your blood sugar or adjust your metformin dose if you take any of these: Cephalexin Digoxin Ranitidine Anticholinergic drugs, such as dicyclomine and oxybutynin, may raise the amount of metformin your body absorbs. This may lead to low blood sugar. Sulfonylureas: Glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), glimepride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Gl Continue reading >>

Overactive Bladder Drugs Tied To Increased Dementia Risk In Diabetes

Overactive Bladder Drugs Tied To Increased Dementia Risk In Diabetes

Overactive Bladder Drugs Tied to Increased Dementia Risk in Diabetes Overactive Bladder Drugs Tied to Increased Dementia Risk in Diabetes Long-term use of a particular anticholinergic drug may increase subsequent risk for developing dementia. The use of oxybutynin, solifenacin, and tolterodine for overactive bladder (OAB) was tied to an increased risk for dementia in patients with diabetes, according to a paper published in the PLoS One journal. OAB, characterized by urinary frequency and urgency, is commonly treated with anticholinergics such as oxybutynin, solifenacin, and tolterodine. Anticholinergics not only target bladder smooth muscle muscarinic acetylcholine receptors but also receptors in the brain. Controversy remains regarding the risk of dementia with anticholinergic use, particularly in patients with diabetes who are at a higher risk of dementia. Yu-Wan Yang, of the department of neurology at China Medical University Hospital in Taichung, Taiwan, and colleagues sought to investigate the risk of dementia in patients with diabetes associated with oxybutynin, solifenacin, and tolterodine use for OAB. The investigators conducted a cohort study of diabetic patients using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2002 through 2013. The study included 10,938 patients who received one of the anticholinergic medications and 564,733 who did not receive any of the medications. The 6-year event rate for dementia was estimated at 3.9% in the oxybutynin group, 4.3% in the solifenacin group, 2.2% in the tolterodine group, and 1.2% in the control group (P <.001). The dementia event rates decreased in the solifenacin group (4.3% to 3.5%) and the oxybutynin group (3.9% to 3.0%) but increased from 1.2% to 2.4% in the control group. Adjusted hazard Continue reading >>

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