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Oral Contraceptives And Blood Glucose

Diabetes & Birth Control

Diabetes & Birth Control

Diabetes & birth control at a glance Birth control pills, patches, implants, injections, and rings are generally considered to be safe forms of contraception for diabetic women, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). However, the estrogen in birth control pills can raise blood glucose levels, which increase a diabetic’s resistance to insulin and may require an adjustment in the insulin she receives. Because of the effects of estrogen, some physicians do not prescribe hormone-based birth control for some diabetic women. The ADA says that combination birth control pills containing synthetic estrogen and norgestinate are best for women with diabetes. The effect of birth control on diabetes The inconclusive results of various research studies have led to controversy over the potential harmful effect of birth control pills for diabetic women. Some studies show that women who take birth control pills or other methods containing estrogen have higher blood glucose levels and blood cholesterol levels. Other studies show no differences in those levels between women taking birth control pills and women who don’t. Factors to consider Higher glucose levels resulting from the estrogen in birth control pills may require an increase in a diabetic woman’s need for insulin. Higher cholesterol levels increase the risk of heart attack, and diabetics already have an increased risk of heart attack. Some physicians recommend that diabetic women take birth control pills with the lowest dose of estrogen possible for effective contraception. Other birth control methods that employ estrogen, such as implants, patches, injections and vaginal rings, can also affect a woman’s diabetes. Studies indicate that diabetic women who take birth control pills for more than two years ma Continue reading >>

Do Birth Control Pills Affect Blood Glucose?

Do Birth Control Pills Affect Blood Glucose?

Do Birth Control Pills Affect Blood Glucose? Can taking birth control pills raise my blood glucose level? If I Have Diabetes, Can I Take Epsom Salt Baths? Yes. Studies show that high-dose birth control pills can increase blood sugar levels in women with diabetes , but low-dose birth control pills had smaller effects on blood sugar. If you start taking a new birth control pill, monitor your blood sugar closely to record any changes. Having your A1c checked after three months will also show changes in blood sugar levels. If changes occur, your doctor will discuss options to get your levels back under control. Written by/reviewed by: Arthur Schoenstadt, MD eMedTV serves only as an informational resource. This site does not dispense medical advice or advice of any kind.Site users seeking medical advice about their specific situation should consult with their own physician. ClickTerms of Use for more information. Please sign into you HealthSavvy account. Would you like to view your HealthSavvy Programs now, or stay on this page and continue reading this article? Do Birth Control Pills Affect Blood Glucose? Separate multiple addresses with a comma or semicolon In order for us to best serve you and provide you with the best information, can you please tell us if you currently have health insurance? In order for us to create your customized HealthSavvy programs, we need a little more information about the health topic(s) that you are interested in. Press "Continue" button below to begin selecting your HealthSavvy topic(s). You've chosen to add topics from the topic group to your selected topics. Are you sure you want to add all of these topics? You've chosen to clear all of your selected topics. Remember, you need at least one selected topic to use HealthSavvy. If you choose t Continue reading >>

Effect Of Oral Contraceptives On Plasma Glucose, Insulin, And Glucagon Levels

Effect Of Oral Contraceptives On Plasma Glucose, Insulin, And Glucagon Levels

Volume 147, Issue 6 , 15 November 1983, Pages 618-623 Effect of oral contraceptives on plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon levels Author links open overlay panel Ved V.GossainM.D. Get rights and content Effects of oral contraceptive agents (mestranol and norethindrone) on carbohydrate metabolism were evaluated in a group of 18 healthy young women. Plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon responses were evaluated after a glucose load (oral and intravenous) and an amino acid challenge (oral and intravenous). The oral glucose tolerance was normal and was unaltered by the use of oral contraceptive agents. However, following intravenous administration of glucose, plasma glucose levels were slightly but significantly elevated when subjects were using oral contraceptives. Plasma insulin concentrations were slightly but significantly higher than control values in response to oral and intravenous administration of glucose while subjects were using oral contraceptives. Plasma glucagon concentrations in response to oral and intravenous glucose were similar whether the subjects were using oral contraceptive agents or not. No significant differences from control values were observed after oral and intravenous amino acid challenges when subjects were using oral contraceptive agents. Mild elevations of glucose and insulin without any significant change in glucagon concentrations suggest that glucagon levels do not play a major role in the development of insulin resistance seen in some patients using oral contraceptive agents. Continue reading >>

Hormone Contraceptives And How The Body Uses Carbohydrates In Women Without Diabetes

Hormone Contraceptives And How The Body Uses Carbohydrates In Women Without Diabetes

Hormone contraceptives and how the body uses carbohydrates in women without diabetes Hormone contraceptives may change how the body handles carbohydrates (starches and sugars). Changes may include lower ability to use sugar from food and more problems with the body's insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use sugar. Problems with blood sugar can increase risk for diabetes and heart disease. These issues have been raised mainly with birth control methods that contain the hormone estrogen. In April 2014, we looked for randomized trials of how the body handles carbohydrates when using birth control methods with hormones. Outcomes were blood glucose or insulin levels. Birth control methods could contain estrogen and progestin or just progestin. The type could be pills, shots (injections), implants (matchstick-size rods put under the skin), the vaginal ring, or an intrauterine device (IUD). The studies had to compare two types of birth control or one type versus a placebo or 'dummy' method. We included 31 trials. None had a placebo . Of 34 pairs of birth control methods compared, eight showed some difference by study groups. Twelve trials studied pills with desogestrel. The few differences were not consistent. Three trials looked at the etonogestrel ring. One showed the ring group had lower insulin than the pill group. Eight trials looked at the progestin norethisterone. A group using norethisterone pills had less glucose change than those taking other pills. In another study , a group using the injectable depo (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) had higher glucose and insulin than the group using another injectable. Of five new trials, two used different estrogen types. In one study , a group taking a pill with ethinyl valerate had lower glucose than a group tak Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Birth Control

Type 2 Diabetes And Birth Control

Some methods of contraception can have an effect on your blood sugar. Learn about birth control options for women with type 2 diabetes. A woman who has type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, has to face the same issues that confront most women, such as choosing a birth control method. However, unlike women who don’t have diabetes, she must take into account about how the form of contraception she chooses will affect her blood sugar levels, as well as the rest of her body. Type 2 Diabetes and Birth Control Pills In the past, birth control pills weren’t usually recommended for women with diabetes because of the hormonal changes the medication could cause. High doses of hormones can have a dramatic effect on blood sugar levels, making it harder for women to control their diabetes. However, research into new formulations has resulted in many different, lighter combinations of hormones. These new pills are safer for many women, not just those with diabetes. According to Brian Tulloch, MD, endocrinologist at Park Plaza Hospital and Medical Center and clinical associate professor at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston, a woman with type 2 diabetes who chooses to use birth control pills should take the lowest possible dose that is still effective in order to help limit the effects the medication has on the diabetes. One thing women taking birth control pills should remember is that there is still an increased risk for heart attack or stroke among women who use this form of contraception. Since people with diabetes also have an increased risk of heart disease, this is something that women should discuss with their doctors. Type 2 Diabetes and Other Hormonal Contraception Birth control pills aren’t the only way Continue reading >>

Contraceptive Pill And Diabetes

Contraceptive Pill And Diabetes

Tweet As a woman who has type 1 or type 2 diabetes, there should be no reason why you cannot take birth control pills in safety. You should always consult with your doctor before taking the pill. Birth control pills Birth control pills generally fall into two types, although there at present 23 different brands of contraceptive pill on the UK market. Oestrogen and progestin The first contains the hormones oestrogen and progestin, and the second contains progestin alone. Combination pills, those that contain oestrogen and progestin, very rarely cause shifts in blood glucose levels and the ways in which the body controls them. Progesterone Pills which contain only progesterone don’t cause changes in blood glucose control. Further contraceptive methods such as injections and implants are also considered fairly safe for diabetics to use. Loss of control Many women experience a slight loss of control in blood sugars initially when they start taking the pill, but this can usually be rectified by a slight change in treatment regime. Contraceptive pill The contraceptive pill may indirectly complicate diabetes, however. Some of the side-effects of the pill may lead to increased risk of diabetes complications. High blood pressure, for instance, could increase your chance of contracting eye or kidney problems for diabetes. Diabetics who also smoke are advised to seek alternative forms of contraception. Some medical thinking implies that the oestrogen present in birth control pills can increase glucose levels whilst simultaneously decreasing bodily insulin response. Progestin present in birth control pills could also possibly lead to insulin overproduction. Some medical practitioners advise that taking the birth control pill should be limited only to those women who are younger t Continue reading >>

Birth Control And Diabetes

Birth Control And Diabetes

For years, many doctors have been hesitant to prescribe women with diabetes hormonal contraceptives — forms of birth control that include oral contraceptives (“the pill”) as well as injections, patches, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and subdermal (under-the-skin) implants. That’s because some hormonal contraceptives have, in the past, been associated with a higher risk of blood clots, heart attacks, and strokes in women with diabetes. In a recent study, researchers decided to reexamine the link between hormonal birth control and cardiovascular complications in women with diabetes. Published in November 2016 in the journal Diabetes Care, the study analyzed prescription records to identify women with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes (as shown by a prescription for insulin or an oral diabetes drug) along with which form of birth control, if any, they were prescribed and whether they experienced a heart attack, stroke, or blood clot between 2002 and 2011. About 150,000 women and girls ages 14–44 were included in the study. As noted in an article earlier this month in The Sacramento Bee, the overall rate of the cardiovascular problems the study looked at was low — about 6.3 events per 1,000 women per year, which indicates the overall safety of these forms of birth control, according to the researchers. But not all forms of hormonal birth control had an equal level of risk. The lowest risk was found with subdermal implants, which were associated with 0 events per 1,000 women per year, followed by IUDs at 6 events per 1,000 women per year. Oral contraceptives were only slightly less safe than IUDs. In comparison, contraceptive injections were associated with 12.5 events per 1,000 women per year, and patches were associated with 16 events per 1,000 women per year. But along Continue reading >>

Effect Of Long Term Use Of Oral Contraceptives On Glucose Tolerance

Effect Of Long Term Use Of Oral Contraceptives On Glucose Tolerance

, Volume 220, Issue3 , pp 185190 | Cite as Effect of long term use of oral contraceptives on glucose tolerance The effect of long term use of oral contraceptives on glucose tolerance was studied in 133 women. Oral contraceptives were taken for a period between 3 and 12 years. 25 women without any hormone treatment served as a control group. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) has indicated no pathological decrease of glucose tolerance, measured by k. The glucose tolerance test was performed on all subjects (0.33 Gm. of glucose per kg bodyweight). In one subject we diagnosticated a clinical diabetes. Two patients had a subclinical diabetes. After 10 years of treatment a significant decline was noted in k, also in women with family history of diabetes or a past obstetrics history. Several doubtfully pathological k-values were recorded in women more than 40 years of age. No significant relation could be established between parity and the developement of an abnormal glucose metabolism, while taking the drugs. The effect upon glucose tolerance is not related to the type of oral contraceptive. The evidence is not sufficient to warrant the elimination of oral contraceptives. It is suggested that at least in diabetes suspects, repeated controls of glucose tolerance be carried out during long term cyclic use of oral contraceptives. GlucoseFamily HistoryGlucose ToleranceGlucose MetabolismOral Contraceptive These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Glucosetoleranz nach Langzeiteinnahme von oralen Kontrazeptiva Zur Frage der Nebenwirkung nach Langzeiteinnahme von Ovulationshemmern auf den Kohlenhydratstoffwechsel wurde bei 133 Frauen die Glucosetoleranz be Continue reading >>

Birth Control And Diabetes

Birth Control And Diabetes

Birth control is an important issue for a woman with diabetes, as there are greater risks to the woman and her baby if the pregnancy is unplanned. Knowing the options and choosing the best birth control method is critical to ensure good reproductive health. The following contraceptive options should be considered for women who have diabetes. Combined hormonal contraception options Oral contraceptives (birth control pill) The use of oral contraceptives may cause an increase – although a small one – in blood sugar levels. This risk has decreased in the last few decades due to the changes in the level of hormones that are contained in the pill. However, women should perform blood glucose testing to see if there are any changes in blood sugar levels after starting oral contraception, in case an adjustment to their diabetes medication might be needed. Changes in blood sugar levels are more likely with combination pills (ones that contain both estrogen and progesterone). Because the estrogen component is largely responsible for the change in blood sugar levels, it is advisable to choose the pill with the lowest possible estrogen level. In fact, some doctors may suggest pills that contain only progestin to avoid this issue. However, even with these pills, some women may experience increased blood sugar levels. Women who have prediabetes or diabetes should monitor their blood sugar levels carefully while taking oral contraceptive pills. Also, women taking combination birth control pills should remember that there is still an elevated risk for heart attack or stroke when using this form of contraception. Since people with diabetes also have an increased risk of heart disease, this should be discussed with your healthcare team. The World Health Organization also advises that Continue reading >>

Estrogen And Glucose Intolerance

Estrogen And Glucose Intolerance

The requested URL /files/fbshare.php was not found on this server. Also see: Bisphenol A (BPA), Estrogen, and Diabetes The longer a woman stays on hormones, the more each cell in her body is poisoned. Does poison sound like too strong a word? A woman must decide for herself. As the years pass, her sugar metabolism may test out like a diabetic’s. -Drs. Barbara and Gideon Seaman Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Jul;163(1 Pt 2):382-7. Effects of oral contraceptives on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in a healthy population: the Telecom study. Simon D, Senan C, Garnier P, Saint-Paul M, Garat E, Thibult N, Papoz L. In a cross-sectional study that aimed to identify risk factors for diabetes, 1290 consecutive, healthy, nonpregnant women of child-bearing age were examined in a center for preventive medicine. An in-depth interview about menses, use of oral contraceptives, and menopause was performed. Plasma glucose at fasting and 2 hours after a 75 gm glucose load, glycated hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma insulin, total plasma cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Compared with nonusers taking no progestogens, oral contraceptive users (n = 431; 33.4%) were younger (p less than 0.001) and leaner (p less than 0.001). After adjustment for age and body mass index, oral contraceptive users had higher 2-hour plasma glucose (p less than 0.001), higher fasting plasma insulin (p less than 0.01), and higher triglycerides levels (p less than 0.01). Fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, and total cholesterol did not significantly differ between the two groups. In relation to dosage and types of steroid components, few differences have been found between high-dose and low-dose oral contraceptives or according to the estrogen-progestogen balance of the preparations. Use of ora Continue reading >>

Plasma Insulin And Blood Glucose Levels In Patients Taking Oral Contraceptives: A Preliminary Report Of A Prospective Study

Plasma Insulin And Blood Glucose Levels In Patients Taking Oral Contraceptives: A Preliminary Report Of A Prospective Study

Volume 95, Issue 4 , 15 June 1966, Pages 474-478 Plasma insulin and blood glucose levels in patients taking oral contraceptives: A preliminary report of a prospective study Author links open overlay panel W.N.SpellacyM.D. K.L.CarlsonB.S. Get rights and content Blood glucose and plasma insulin were measured before and after an intravenous glucose stimulus. Twenty-five subjects were tested before and after one cycle of oral Enovid treatment. Both the glucose and insulin levels are higher in the drug-treated group. The significance of these findings is discussed. Choose an option to locate/access this article: Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. This study was supported with funds from the Population Council of the Rockefeller Institute of New York; The G. D. Searle & Company, Chicago; and Grant HD 01463-01 of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, United States Public Health Service. A preliminary report of this paper appeared in Clinical Research 13: 407, 1965. Presented at the Minnesota Gynecological and Obstetrical Society Meeting, St. Paul, Minnesota, Dec. 4, 1965. Copyright 1966 C. V. Mosby Company. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Hormonal Contraceptives On Glycemic Regulation

The Effects Of Hormonal Contraceptives On Glycemic Regulation

The effects of hormonal contraceptives on glycemic regulation 1Departamento de Ciencias Qumicas y Biolgicas, Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins, Santiago, Chile 2Reproductive Health Research Institute, Santiago, Chile 3Liceo Experimental Manuel de Salas, Universidad de Chile, uoa, Chile 4Programa de Magster en Educacin en Salud y Bienestar Humano, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educacin, Santiago, uoa, Chile 1Departamento de Ciencias Qumicas y Biolgicas, Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins, Santiago, Chile 2Reproductive Health Research Institute, Santiago, Chile 3Liceo Experimental Manuel de Salas, Universidad de Chile, uoa, Chile 4Programa de Magster en Educacin en Salud y Bienestar Humano, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educacin, Santiago, uoa, Chile Copyright Catholic Medical Association 2014 This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. A number of side effects have been linked to the use of hormonal contraceptives, among others, alterations in glucose levels. Hence, the objective of this mini-review is to show the main effects of hormonal contraceptive intake on glycemic regulation. First, the most relevant studies on this topic are described, then the mechanisms that might be accountable for this glycemic regulation impairment as exerted by hormonal contraceptives are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss the ethical responsibility of health professionals to inform about the potential risks on glycemic homeostasis regarding hormonal contraceptive intake. Keywords: Glycemic homeostasis, Hormonal contraception, Insulin resistance, Impaired glucose tolerance Since the early 1950s, when Mexican chemist Luis. E. Miramontes and co-researchers carried out the synthesis of norethisterone (norethindrone), the first oral contraceptive ( Miramontes Continue reading >>

Oral Contraceptive Use And Association With Glucose, Insulin, And Diabetes Inyoung Adult Women: The Cardia Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development In Youngadults.

Oral Contraceptive Use And Association With Glucose, Insulin, And Diabetes Inyoung Adult Women: The Cardia Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development In Youngadults.

1. Diabetes Care. 2002 Jun;25(6):1027-32. Oral contraceptive use and association with glucose, insulin, and diabetes inyoung adult women: the CARDIA Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in YoungAdults. Kim C(1), Siscovick DS, Sidney S, Lewis CE, Kiefe CI, Koepsell TD; CARDIA Study. (1)Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. [email protected] OBJECTIVE: We studied the associations between 1) current use of oralcontraceptives (OCs) and 2) glucose levels, insulin levels, and diabetes in youngwomen.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were women (n = 1,940) in the CoronaryArtery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a prospectiveobservational study of African-Americans and whites aged 18-30 years atenrollment in 1985-1986. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations between 1) current use of OCs and 2) fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and presence ofdiabetes using generalized estimating equations to adjust for repeated measures. We also examined the effect of current use of OCs on incident diabetes at year 10of the study.RESULTS: In unadjusted analyses, current use was associated with lower fastingglucose levels [-3.1 mg/dl, 95% CI (-3.7, -2.5)] and reduction in the odds ofdiabetes [odds ratio 0.56 (0.32, 0.97)], but not lower fasting insulin levels[-0.01 microU/ml (-0.03, 0.02)], compared with nonuse in both African-Americanand white women. After adjustment for covariates, current use of OCs was stillassociated with lower fasting glucose levels [-1.8 mg/dl (-2.4, -1.3)] and lower odds of diabetes [odds ratio 0.56 (0.33, 0.95)], although the associations wereattenuated. After adjustment, current use of OCs was associated with higherinsulin levels [0.12 microU/ml (0.006, 0.23)]. No association exist Continue reading >>

Contraceptives And Diabetes

Contraceptives And Diabetes

In North America, many women are often prescribed birth control medication (often known as oral contraceptive pills or hormonal pills) for treating various conditions as well as preventing unplanned pregnancy. However, as contraceptive treatments become available without a prescription in the United States, many women lack the knowledge of the risks and side effects of these methods. For women who are in the prediabetes category or already suffering from type 1 or type 2 diabetes, these treatments cause severe problems with the blood glucose management. To better educate women about how contraceptive methods affect the blood glucose level and various diabetes symptoms, this article will be covering these topics below: How Does Hormonal Contraceptive Work? In order to explain how hormonal contraceptives affect the blood glucose level and other diabetes symptoms, it is imperative that we explain how a woman becomes pregnant and how the hormonal contraceptives work: What Happens When A Woman Becomes Pregnant? In order for pregnancy to occur, 2 things need to happen: 1. an egg is released from the ovaries during the ovulation period and is transported to the fallopian tube, and 2. a man’s sperm has successfully fertilized the egg. Once these two events occur, the fertilized egg will attach to the inside of the uterus. (from medical standpoint, pregnancy begins the moment the fertilized egg is attached to the uterus wall). This event allows the egg to receive nourishment from the mother so that it develop into a baby. In order to shut off the egg production and to sustain the fetus’ development, the secretion of estrogen and progesterone are highly elevated. As a result, some women develop gestation diabetes during their pregnancy. I advise you to read the following arti Continue reading >>

Oral Contraceptive Use And Association With Glucose, Insulin, And Diabetes In Young Adult Women

Oral Contraceptive Use And Association With Glucose, Insulin, And Diabetes In Young Adult Women

Abstract OBJECTIVE— We studied the associations between 1) current use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and 2) glucose levels, insulin levels, and diabetes in young women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Subjects were women (n = 1,940) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a prospective observational study of African-Americans and whites aged 18–30 years at enrollment in 1985–1986. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations between 1) current use of OCs and 2) fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and presence of diabetes using generalized estimating equations to adjust for repeated measures. We also examined the effect of current use of OCs on incident diabetes at year 10 of the study. RESULTS—In unadjusted analyses, current use was associated with lower fasting glucose levels [–3.1 mg/dl, 95% CI (−3.7, −2.5)] and reduction in the odds of diabetes [odds ratio 0.56 (0.32, 0.97)], but not lower fasting insulin levels [−0.01 μU/ml (−0.03, 0.02)], compared with nonuse in both African-American and white women. After adjustment for covariates, current use of OCs was still associated with lower fasting glucose levels [–1.8 mg/dl (−2.4, –1.3)] and lower odds of diabetes [odds ratio 0.56 (0.33, 0.95)], although the associations were attenuated. After adjustment, current use of OCs was associated with higher insulin levels [0.12 μU/ml (0.006, 0.23)]. No association existed between pattern of use of OCs and incident diabetes at year 10, although the total number of new persons with diabetes at year 10 was small (n = 17). CONCLUSIONS—Current use of OCs is associated with lower glucose levels in young African-American and white women and may be associated with lower odds of diabetes. Given the increasing incidence of type 2 diab Continue reading >>

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