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One Twin Has Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes Clues Revealed From Study Of Identical Twins

Type 2 Diabetes Clues Revealed From Study Of Identical Twins

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Type 2 diabetes clues revealed from study of identical twins By studying identical twins, researchers have identified mechanisms that could be behind the development of type 2 diabetes. This may explain cases where one identical twin develops type 2 diabetes while the other remains healthy. By studying identical twins, researchers from Lund University in Sweden have identified mechanisms that could be behind the development of type 2 diabetes. This may explain cases where one identical twin develops type 2 diabetes while the other remains healthy. The study involved 14 pairs of identical twins in Sweden and Denmark. One twin had type 2 diabetes and the other was healthy. "Twins are a good model for finding mechanisms, but the results are applicable to all," said Emma Nilsson, who carried out the study with Charlotte Ling. We know that fat tissue can release hormones and regulate metabolism in different organs in the body. The question the researchers posed was whether epigenetic changes in the DNA lead to changes in the fat tissue that in turn can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. The researchers investigated DNA methylation at 480,000 points on the DNA and looked at how it affected the expression of the genes in the identical twins. They found that genes that are involved in inflammation were up-regulated and that genes involved in the fat and glucose metabolism were down-regulated in those who had diabetes. "This means that they are not able to process fat as well, which leads to raised levels of fat in the blood and uptake of fat by other organs instead, such as the muscles, liver or pancreas. This causes insulin resistance, which leads to type 2 diabetes," said Emma Nilsson. The Continue reading >>

Potential Complication: Gestational Diabetes With Twins

Potential Complication: Gestational Diabetes With Twins

Potential Complication: Gestational Diabetes With Twins Gestational diabetes is caused by a change in how your body responds to the hormone insulin . This hormone helps move glucose out of the blood and into the cells, so your body can use it for energy. When you are pregnant, your cells become slightly more resistant to insulin . That increases the amount of sugar in your blood , which helps make more nutrients available to your babies. However, if the level of glucose becomes too high, it can cause problems for you and your twins. If you develop gestational diabetes, you're at greater risk for: Risk of developing diabetes later in life The good news? If you receive treatment and control gestational diabetes, your risk of problems is similar to the risks of other women. Your chances of having healthy twins are excellent. And, after you deliver, glucose levels often return to normal. However, both you and your babies will have a higher risk of getting diabetes later. So your doctors will need to regularly monitor your blood sugar levels. Certain things raise your risk of getting gestational diabetes. You are at increased risk if you: Are Hispanic, African-American, Native American, Asian American, or Pacific Islander Had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy Had a previous very large baby (9 pounds or more) or a stillbirth Have had abnormal blood sugar tests before You can expect your doctor to assess your risk for gestational diabetes at your first prenatal visit. If you are at high risk, you should have a blood test for gestational diabetes as soon as possible. If your test is negative, you should still repeat the test about week 24-28. If you are not at high risk, you should still get screened about week 24-28. To test for gestational diabetes, your doctor ma Continue reading >>

'i Wasn't Prepared For Two Surprises - Twins And Diabetes.'

'i Wasn't Prepared For Two Surprises - Twins And Diabetes.'

'I wasn't prepared for two surprises - twins and diabetes.' 'I wasn't prepared for two surprises - twins and diabetes.' "I met my husband when I was 34 and we got married pretty soon after we met. Both of us wanted children and rather faster than we thought we got pregnant. We went for our introduction appointment and they asked me lots of questions and then wanted a urine sample.The nurse said not to worry it's just standard, however when reading the results, she said oh itsthis andoh no it's that,This continued for some time, at which point she said we needed to speak with the doctor. They asked me ifI was diabetic, Isaid no, and asI was only 12 weeks pregnant they thought it too soon to be gestational diabetes so they referred me to the diabetes clinic. At the same time we then went for our scan, shock horror we found out we were having twins. Neither of our families had any previous history of twins, that was until my father found out thatfour generations before, the last female born into the family had twins but died at childbirth... So with our happy news we trotted down to the diabetes clinic thinking they were going to give me a lecture about healthy eating etc The nurse tested my blood and was very surprised to get a reading of 18. She immediately called the consultant and beforeI knew itI had a bag full of insulin, needles and a crash course on what to inject with each meal. I walked out of the clinic in even more shock not knowing what was going on.I then had to visit the clinic every week during my preganancy where my consultant repeatedly told meI had to keep my sugar level low at all times, I watched my diet as bestI could being pregnant, and two months early had my two beautiful baby girls.It was then that they tested me to confirm ifI had diabetes as op Continue reading >>

Genetics

Genetics

("What are the odds of my getting diabetes?")* If your mother has Type 1 diabetes, you have a 3% risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. If your father has Type 1 diabetes, you have a 6% risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. If both your parents have Type 1 diabetes, you have a 30% risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. If your brother or sister has Type 1 diabetes, you have a 5% risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. If your non-identical twin has Type 1 diabetes, you have a 20% risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. If your identical twin has Type 1 diabetes, you have a 35% risk of developing Type 1 diabetes.** If there is no family history of diabetes, you have a 0.2% risk of developing Type 1 diabetes (by the age of 20). If your mother or father has Type 2 diabetes, you have a 15% risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. If both your parents have Type 2 diabetes, you have a 75% risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. If your brother or sister has Type 2 diabetes, you have a 10% risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. If your non-identical twin has Type 2 diabetes, you have a 10% risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. If your identical twin has Type 2 diabetes, you have a 90% risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. *These figures are approximations. Quite different estimates of risk show up on different studies from different parts of the world. The estimates listed above are most applicable to North America. Also (and importantly), remember that at least for type 2 diabetes these risks can be substantially reduced by appropriate intervention with diet, exercise, weight control,and sometimes, with medication. **Can you think of a better illustration of the fact that type 1 diabetes is clearly a mixture of both genetic susceptibility and environmental trigger? If it was all genetic then, if your ident Continue reading >>

I Am The Lucky Twin: Why Did I Escape Type 1 Diabetes?

I Am The Lucky Twin: Why Did I Escape Type 1 Diabetes?

When a family member has a chronic condition such as diabetes, things can be challenging for the whole family. The constant vigilance and stress can tear families apart… or it can pull them together and make them stronger. That’s certainly the case for identical twins Sydney and Shelby Payne. Shelby was diagnosed with T1D at age 11 in 2004. Ten years later, Shelby continues to inspire Sydney with her positivity and energy in living with diabetes. The sisters played together on Stanford Women’s Soccer team throughout their four years at Stanford University, winning 3 PAC-12 titles and the program’s first NCAA National Championship. They graduated from Stanford in 2014 and have been accepted to medical school. We first featured Sydney and Shelby on the Carb DM blog a few days ago, when Sydney shared some thoughts on being a “type 3 diabetic” , along with ways to support a sibling with type 1 diabetes. Today, in order to really get a glimpse of what it is like to have a sibling with T1D, Sydney shares an essay she wrote a few months ago. I am the Lucky Twin: Why Did I Escape Type 1 Diabetes? Last winter break my twin sister Shelby and I went on a run together around 5:00 PM in Florida. We run together almost everyday. 200. This run started off normally, the sun was starting to set and we ran at an average pace through the palm tree lined streets of our neighborhood. Then Shelby stopped. Breathing heavily, she checked her continuous glucose monitor. 84. This number was perfectly normal, but 20 minutes before she was at 200. 116 points was too rapid a drop for her body to maintain a normal running pace. I waited for her while we rested. After five minutes, she announced that she was ready to resume the run. We started off again. A few minutes later she slowed to Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Twins: A Cooperative Study In Japan - Sciencedirect

Diabetes Mellitus In Twins: A Cooperative Study In Japan - Sciencedirect

Volume 5, Issue 4 , 14 October 1988, Pages 271-280 Get rights and content In 1984, the Japan Diabetes Society organized a committee to collect data on diabetic twins in Japan. Within 3 years, through correspondence with Society members and hospitals, the Committee had contacted 87 pairs of twins, one or both of which had diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance. Sixty-three pairs were monozygotic and 24 dizygotic. The probands, who had been diagnosed as diabetic or glucose-intolerant earlier, included 21 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), 56 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), one with an unknown type of diabetes, and nine with glucose intolerance. Concordance between monozygotic twins was 45% for IDDM and 83% for NIDDM; between dizygotic twins, concordance was 0% (0/10) for IDDM and 40% (4/10) for NIDDM. Concordance was significantly greater in NIDDM than in IDDM, and in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins. Concordance was greater among twins in which one twin had developed diabetes after the age of 20 than among twins in which the age of onset had been earlier. There was no evidence that the period of discordance was shorter in the discordant pairs than in the concordant pairs. About 90% of the IDDM twin pairs lived together, against 20% of the NIDDM pairs, probably due to the later age of onset of NIDDM. The frequency of diabetes in family members other than the twins was higher in NIDDM than in IDDM regardless of concordance. In concordant pairs the presence or absence of various complications agreed in 6897%; a few pairs were discordant for the severity of retinopathy, which may have resulted from differences in duration and hyperglycemic degree. A 75-g glucose tolerance test administered to the normal discordant twins revealed bord Continue reading >>

Diabetes - Research - Twins - Medicine And Health - The New York Times

Diabetes - Research - Twins - Medicine And Health - The New York Times

Health |Twins on a Medical Odyssey After a Diagnosis of Diabetes Twins on a Medical Odyssey After a Diagnosis of Diabetes SCARSDALE, N.Y. On Oct. 3, 2005, the eve of Rosh Hashana, Ali and Marissa Newman and their parents, Stacey and Rick, drove from their home here to Long Island to have dinner with cousins. It was supposed to be a pleasant holiday, a time to be with family and to celebrate the Jewish New Year in temple. But for Ali and Marissa, 13-year-old twin sisters, the holiday was the beginning of a medical odyssey that would turn their lives upside down. One would learn she has Type 1 diabetes ; the other would become the first person enrolled in a multinational study aimed at delaying or preventing the disease in some patients. The trouble had begun a month earlier, when Ali came home from summer camp unexpectedly thin, having lost about 10 pounds. She had also been unusually tired, falling asleep in the car and on visits to friends homes. Alis weight loss was so troubling that her friends and a school nurse had confronted her, wanting to know if she had an eating disorder . Her parents could not stop asking what was wrong; Ali, increasingly frustrated at being accused, could not give them an answer. The evening after Rosh Hashana, Ali struggled to climb the stairs to the bedroom she shared with Marissa. Id go two steps, then stop and take a breath, she later recalled. Marissa, who had been worried about her sister for weeks, stayed up that night, watching Ali as she slept. Ali woke twice and went to find her father, who gave her cold medicine and an inhaler to ease her breathing. But the third time she woke, when she said she could not make it down the hall, Marissa told her parents that they had to get Ali to the hospital. No one knew that Ali had developed T Continue reading >>

Bond Of Brothers: Teen Researchers Tackle Type 1

Bond Of Brothers: Teen Researchers Tackle Type 1

They studied at Oxford and conducted diabetes research at Harvard and Yale, yet Jake and Michael Carrion made their greatest impact when they ventured into independent research. The brothers eventually pinpointed specific genes that likely regulate the autoimmune response that causes type 1 diabetes . Then in June 2016, the siblings graduated from high school and turned 18. Identical twins from Jericho, New York, Michael and Jake have much in common: brown hair, green eyes, traveling soccer, debate club, student government, stellar GPAs, lofty scores on college entrance exams, and an immense appetite for diabetes research. Their commitment to science has opened doors and impressed scientists at leading research centers. The level of their work is beyond their age, says Li Wen, MD, PhD, senior research scientist in internal medicine at Yale School of Medicine. Its at least graduate level, almost PhD level. Diane Mathis, PhD, professor of microbiology and immunobiology at Harvard Medical School, says: Theyre bright and knowledgeable and ask really interesting questions. High school students with their knowledge of type 1 diabetes are very rare.So rare, in fact, that a publisher of peer-reviewed medical and scientific journals asked them to review articlesan honor usually reserved for scientists with a string of credentials after their names, not teens still needing parental permission. Their passion for research was sparked by their greatest difference. Jake has had type 1 diabetes since age 4; Michael doesnt have it. At age 13, they learned that type 1 has a genetic component. They were perplexed. How can we share all of our genes and one of us have this lifelong disease and the other one be perfectly fine? Jake remembers thinking. To learn about type 1 diabetes, the br Continue reading >>

Reanalysis Of Twin Studies Suggests That Diabetes Is Mainly Genetic

Reanalysis Of Twin Studies Suggests That Diabetes Is Mainly Genetic

Reanalysis of twin studies suggests that diabetes is mainly genetic Reanalysis of twin studies suggests that diabetes is mainly genetic BMJ 2001; 323 doi: (Published 27 October 2001) Cite this as: BMJ 2001;323:997 Edwin A M Gale, professor ([email protected]), Jacob S Petersen, head of islet discovery research Diabetes/Metabolism, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CL 80262, USA Genetic Epidemiology Research Unit, Institute of Community Health, Odense University, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark Novo Nordisk, Novo Alle (1KO3), 2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark EDITORTwo twin studies of type 1 diabetes have reached opposite conclusions. In one, a population based cohort of Danish twins in which one or both cotwins had type 1 diabetes was studied for the presence of islet autoantibodies.1 High rates of autoantibody positivity were identified in twins with and without diabetes. Since positivity did not differ between the monozygotic and dizygotic twins it was suggested that a shared intrauterine or early postnatal environment might be more important than genetic factors. The second study found that the prevalence of islet autoantibodies was lower in initially unaffected dizygotic twins than monozygotic twins and did not differ from that found in unaffected non-twin siblings. The authors concluded that islet autoimmunity is determined predominantly Continue reading >>

Genetics Of Type 2 Diabetes

Genetics Of Type 2 Diabetes

Until recently the genetic variation and genes involved in type 2 diabetes were very poorly characterised. Traditionally genetic studies focused on the collection and characterisation of multi-generation families but type 2 diabetes occurs in older age, making the collection of affected families difficult – the parents of most patients have died and most offspring have yet to develop the condition. Furthermore the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes over one or two generations proves that the changing environment has a strong role to play in type 2 diabetes risk – gene frequencies do not change appreciably in 1 or 2 generations, and certainly not those that influence a disease of largely post reproductive age. Two major developments mean that we now know of 65 regions of the human genome that influence type 2 diabetes risk. First, in 2007 genome wide association studies (GWAS) became possible. These studies provided scientists with the ability to analyse 100,000s of single nucleotide variants (the simplest and most abundant type of DNA marker) in a single experiment. Second, scientists realised that they would have to work together and combine case-control studies to achieve the very large sample sizes that provided adequate statistical power to identify the subtle effects of common genetic risk factors. These developments have resulted in the latest study of 35,000 European type 2 diabetes cases and 115,000 controls.[1] History and heritability of type 2 diabetes genetics. Before trying to identify genes, geneticists tend to perform twin or family studies in attempts to quantify the relative contributions of genes (heritability) and environment. Comparing disease concordance in identical twins to same sex non-identical twins is a powerful approach. However, th Continue reading >>

Interview: Mother With Type 1 Diabetes & Twins

Interview: Mother With Type 1 Diabetes & Twins

Interview: Mother with Type 1 Diabetes & Twins Sysy Morales has lived withtype 1 diabetes for almost 20 years. She is married and has two year old twins who drive her bananas as they climb everything from the bookcase to the top of the fireplace to the dining room table-and then attempt to fly. Sysy is a certified nutrition coach through the Institute of Integrative Nutrition, and blogs at The Girls Guide to Diabetes. GINGER:Did you always know you would have children, or did you ever think it wouldnt be possible because of your diabetes? What was the process of deciding you were ready to take on the challenge of balancing diabetes with pregnancy and the immense job of being a mother? SYSY:Growing up the oldest of five children, I often wondered if I even wanted children at all. I witnessed how much my parents sacrificed and worked to keep the five of us healthy and happy. I was very afraid of motherhood taking away my health. Especially after I had worked so hard to regain it. The year before my twins were born, I made many life changes. I switched jobs, I fine-tuned my diet and exercise and stuck with it more. I got married and moved in with my husband. My A1c at the time of the wedding was under 6% and all other lab tests came out fine. A month after the wedding I went to see a doctor for abdominal pain and without going into details was told I may never conceive. Surprised by how hard I took the news, I decided to just work on being healthy and not plan out my life so much as Id alwaysdone. My husband and I thought wed eventually adopt. Two months later I found out I was pregnant with twins! To me, this was a revelation because surely if I got pregnant with two, it meant I could actually do this. More than anything, knowing that I was healthy and had the right part Continue reading >>

How Type 1 Diabetes Affects Twin Pregnancies

How Type 1 Diabetes Affects Twin Pregnancies

Increasing need for insulin in mothers carrying multiple babies as compared to mothers carrying single. According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, carrying multiple babies has a higher risk of pregnancy complications, such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, effects on fetal growth and even effects on risk of postpartum depression. The purpose of this study is to determine whether pregnant women carrying multiples have a higher risk of developing diabetes, therefore requiring a higher insulin level than pregnant women carrying single babies. This was a retrospective study to gather details from 15 women carrying twins compared to a 108 prospective study of women carrying singles and with both groups having type 1 diabetes. Tests like blood pressure, HbA1c, and insulin dose were recorded at weeks 8, 14, 21, 27 and 33. Patients self-monitored their Plasma Glucose (SMPG) and values assessed at their clinic visits. Preprandial, postprandial and prebedtime SMPG of 72-108mg/dL (4-6mmol/L), 72-144mg/ dL (4-8mmol/L) and 108-144mg/ dL (6-8mmol/L) respectively were maintained. For their second trimester, an HbA1c of <5.6% is suggested. Statistical analysis done included the X2 test or the Fisher’s exact test. The average rise in total insulin needed was based on up to 33 weeks since most multiples do not make it to full term. Insulin requirements for a twin pregnancy had an increase until 8 weeks, then a small decline to week 14; it then changed again by having a drastic increase until week 27. The value sustained until the 33rd week. This insulin requirement was comparable to a single pregnancy until week 14. However, between weeks 14 and 27 there is a much higher insulin requirement in twin pregnancies than in single pregnancies with values of 3. Continue reading >>

Pregnancy, Twins + Type 1

Pregnancy, Twins + Type 1

Two years ago, after leaving the clinic for my pre-conception visit I decided I did not want to ever get pregnant. Not because I did not want a baby; I wanted one more than anything. But after sitting in the doctor’s office for an hour-and-a-half so he could lecture me about the do’s and don’t’s, all while graphically describing every possible scenario that could go wrong, all I could think of was that I couldn’t put my baby in jeopardy like that. I would never be able to forgive myself if anything went wrong. I was supposed to have blood sugar levels between 70 – 100??!! Seriously?! (Spoiler alert: it was pretty doable.) My husband was just as taken aback, but he had more faith in me than I had. With him at my side, and personally knowing many amazingly strong women with T1D who have had healthy babies, I felt like I had the strength to take on the challenge. I knew it would be first-thing’s-first: my HbA1c needed to be below 6. For the next couple of months, I watched things like a hawk and at the time of conception it was 5.9. We found out I was pregnant and the ecstatic feeling of bliss was out of this world, but that didn’t last very long. My “diabetic brain” took over, and worry hijacked the moment. After more than two years of trying to get pregnant, finding out I was pregnant was a shocker but nothing could have prepared us for what came next. At our first ultrasound we found out we were having twins! TWO babies! The challenge had doubled. I had di/di twins meaning two placentas, which would double my insulin resistance but at that point I didn’t care. All I knew was my motherly duties had begun and I needed to kick diabetes’ butt for these babies. The next few weeks were nerve wracking. Every time I went above 100 I would visualize large Continue reading >>

What Twins Can Tell Us About The Causes Of Diabetes

What Twins Can Tell Us About The Causes Of Diabetes

Stacey Divone sees double every time she looks in the mirror. She’s the slightly older of a pair of identical twins born on Christmas Eve 1976, and when she was just 5 years old, Stacey -- just like her father -- was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Thirty-five years later, her genetic double is still diabetes-free. “It fascinates me that we share 100% of the same genes, developed in the exact same womb and grew up in the exact same environment, eating the exact same things, having the same father who had type 1 -- yet one of us has (T1D) and the other doesn’t," Stacey says. "The human body is a mysterious thing sometimes.” So how common is it for one identical twin to have diabetes, and the other not to? The first line of the first study I dug into to answer that question read, “Monozygotic twins are usually discordant for type 1 diabetes.” Let me translate that into English for you: When it comes to identical twins, usually only one gets diabetes. How many sets of twins both have diabetes? About a third, according to the literature. If your identical twin (should you have one) has type 1 diabetes, your risk for developing type 1 yourself is “only” 35%. That's still a pretty high risk -- and there plenty of stories about twins sharing diabetes, like Amylia Grace Yeaman and her sister in Iowa, Ashley and Emily in Pennsylvania, and the Tale of Two Twins in Massachusetts -- but it’s by no means a slam-dunk, and two-thirds of sets of identical twins have a D-sibling and a sugar-normal sibling. Despite the scientific knowledge that type 1 is basically genetic, diabetes researchers have long known that identical twins don’t have the identical risk of developing type 1 diabetes; and this fact has long fueled theories of environmental causes as the root sour Continue reading >>

A Handy Guide To Ancestry And Relationship Dna Tests

A Handy Guide To Ancestry And Relationship Dna Tests

If I am a type 1 diabetic (since 25 years) - what is the probability that due to genetic transformation my child/children could be diabetics too? Is it true that type 1 diabetics are genetically inherited from ancestors or is it a combination of factors? -A curious adult from California Type 1 diabetes happens because of a combination of factors. It is partly genetic. But the environment plays a role too. We know that if one parent has Type 1 diabetes, then each child is 10 times more likely to get Type 1 diabetes too. This might sound scary, but the actual risk of getting Type 1 diabetes isn't that high. The average person has around a 1 in 200 chance of developing Type 1 diabetes. So if you have a parent with it, your chances become around 1 in 20. Or in other words, you have a 5% chance of also becoming diabetic. Now this doesn't give you a lot of information about your specific situation. That 5% is made up of a large group of people. Some have a much higher risk and some have a much lower risk. This information does tell us that genes are almost certainly involved in Type 1 diabetes. But other information tells us they aren't the whole story. One way we know this is because of identical twin studies. Identical twins have the same set of genes. So if a disease were just due to genes, when one twin has it, then the other would always have it too. But this is not the case with Type I diabetes. If one twin has it, the other twin gets it less than 50% of the time. There must be something else going on here. Most likely something from the environment needs to trigger the development of Type I diabetes. Genes make that trigger more or less likely to cause the disease. Scientists are hard at work trying to figure out what these environmental triggers are and what genes are Continue reading >>

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