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Olive Oil Diabetes Type 1

The Real Story On Olive Oil

The Real Story On Olive Oil

Canola and olive oil are the two most widely used cooking oils in the world today. It wasn’t always this way and it is important to understand how this change occurred, because it wasn’t always for health reasons that this shift took place. Fred Pescatore, MD, MPH, CCN author of The Hampton’s Diet explains what happened, as he helps us learn about The Science of Fats, Fatty Acids and Edible Oils Canola and olive oil are the two most widely used cooking oils in the world today. It wasn’t always this way and it is important to understand how this change occurred, because it wasn’t always for health reasons that this shift took place. For years, we were stuck in the mire of polyunsaturated fats being healthy for us and these two oils were relegated to the back shelf. However, once the shift to monounsaturated fats and omega-3 fatty acids came to be, these two oils quickly rose to prominence. Since many of you are probably sitting there pretty smugly thinking you are being so healthy because these are the only two oils you use; and, since I have spent so much time saying they aren’t, this is the chapter that explains my reasoning. It is a pretty fascinating story so sit back and read this like a good mystery. Carrie, a 44 year old mother of two teenage children came to see me because she was exhausted all the time. She worked and raised her children so she had plenty to be tired about. She had always been a health nut and during our first visit when we discussed some of the basics, the conversation came around to cooking oils. She held up her hand and said don’t worry there doc, I’ve got that under control – I only use olive oil when I am cooking and canola oil for salad dressings. Several years ago I would have applauded her for her heightened awareness o Continue reading >>

Top 10 Type-2 Superfoods

Top 10 Type-2 Superfoods

Keep these wonder ingredients on your shopping list and in your pantry. These 10 tried-and-true staples are win-win foods for people with type 2 diabetes : nutritious and delicious! Put them on your shopping list. Berries. A smart substitute when you need to limit candy, berries offer sweet flavor, few calories, and lots of fiber. Plus, they have antioxidants , chemicals that help protect against cancer and heart disease . Raspberries, strawberries, and pomegranates (yes, they're considered a berry) also have plenty of ellagic acid, an antioxidant that may counter cancer . Toss fresh or frozen berries in your morning cereal and noontime salads, and keep dried or freeze-dried versions handy for snacking. High-fiber foods like berries help keep blood sugar levels normal. Eggs are an inexpensive source of protein, and they may help you lose weight . Research shows that people who eat eggs at breakfast tend to take in fewer calories the rest of the day. The American Heart Association says healthy adults can eat one egg a day. One reason is that they have little saturated fat . (To be safe, talk to your doctor about your blood cholesterol level.) Hard-boil eggs while you prepare dinner. Then store them in the refrigerator so they're ready for a quick breakfast or snack. Extra virgin olive oil. Called "EVOO" for short, this type of olive oil offers great taste plus type-2- diabetes -friendly monounsaturated fat. "Extra virgin" means the oil is minimally processed, which protects its more than 30 antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant compounds, says Kathleen Zelman, RD, MPH. Drizzle it on salads, dip bread into it, and use it to saut meat and veggies. Go easy. Like all oils, it packs 120 calories per tablespoon. Kale. This nutrition darling is one of healthiest vegetables. Continue reading >>

Can Taking One Spoonful Of Olive Oil Daily In The Morning Cure Type 2 Diabetes?

Can Taking One Spoonful Of Olive Oil Daily In The Morning Cure Type 2 Diabetes?

Can taking one spoonful of olive oil daily in the morning cure type 2 diabetes? I am sorry to disappoint you but I dont believe in quick fix solutions on a serious condition like diabetes. Please understand that diabetes is a functional disorder. Your pancreas does not secret adequate quantities of much needed insulin to deal with the sugar in your blood and to make its optimum use for the benefit of your body. Also understand that insulin is a hormone created by your body to make you feel good, energetic and also keep you fit. It is a hormone that is badly required for our day to day functioning. In other words, insulin is something our bodies need on a daily basis to be generated for our well being and health. Pancreas gets sluggish due to your life style which leads to type II diabetes. This type of diabetes can be easily controlled. Only the experts can opine if it can be cured, i.e. if the lost or retarded capacity of pancreas can be restored to its earlier normal levels. There are medically proven ways by which you can build up the capacity of your pancreas by exercising on a daily basis, controlling intake of fats, bringing down your overall weight and regularly taking your prescribed medicines. Regular check of your sugar level can be a realistic indicator of your sugar control. If the sugar control is good, your physician may adjust your daily dose by bringing it down. But it is dangerous to stop the diabetes medications on your own. Remember, like hypertension, blood sugar is also a silent killer of the modern age. There are several substances, mostly natural by origin, which are touted to be dure for type II diabetes. For instance, many consider methi an Indian herb used in the kitchen, as an effective substance for controlling sugar. There are many who dail Continue reading >>

Olive Oil And Coconut Oil | Super Fats Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

Olive Oil And Coconut Oil | Super Fats Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

Author's Perspective: The fat phobia is very powerful. Most of us have been taught or told that fat is bad. So, for years, I avoided adding fat to my meals. But, after I did some research and discovered the health benefits of plant oils such as extra virgin olive oil and coconut oil, I became more comfortable with adding fat to my meals. Gradually, I learned to accept that fat was good and that I needed to eat fat on purpose! :-) Extra virgin olive oil is a super fat because it provides anti-inflammatory and glucose stabilization benefits, both of which are beneficial to people with Type 2 diabetes. In addition, extra virgin olive oil is a super fat because it contains phytonutrients called polyphenols, which are well-known to have anti-inflammatory properties. The anti-inflammatory strength of olive oil rests on its polyphenols. These anti-inflammatory compounds contain several well-researched anti-inflammatory nutrients, including the following: Anthocyanidins (cyanidins, peonidins) Flavones (apigenin, luteolin) Flavonols (quercetin; kaempferol) Flavonoid glycosides (rutin) Lignans (pinoresinol) These anti-inflammatory nutrients help to decrease inflammation markers, such as homocysteine, C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-alpha, interleukin 1-beta, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4. This provides health benefits to people with systemic diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Heart disease reduction has been identified in numerous studies of the Mediterranean Diet, which uses olive oil. This reduction in heart disease is due to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, and an increase in the HDL:LDL ratio; and a decrease in blood pressure. Olive oil contains heart-healthy fat in the form of oleic acid, Continue reading >>

Olive Oil And Diabetes

Olive Oil And Diabetes

WHAT IS DIABETES? Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading health problems in the developed countries, and the sixth cause of death. It is one of the major metabolic diseases and it is potentially very serious because it can cause many complications that seriously damage health, such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure, blindness, peripheral circulation disorders, etc. There are two types of diabetes mellitus: type-I or insulin-dependent diabetes, found in children and teenagers, and type-II or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, which appears in adulthood, generally from the age of 40 onwards. Insulin is required to control the first type while the second, more frequent type is generally associated with obesity and does not call for insulin treatment. Nowadays a person is considered to be a diabetic when, two hours after an oral overdose of glucose, he or she has a fasting blood sugar level of more than 126 mg/dl, or of more than 200 mg/dl in non-fasting conditions. Glucose intolerance is a situation where a person has high blood sugar levels (between 110 and 125 mg/dl) without any clear signs of disease, but with a major risk of suffering from diabetes in the future. OLIVE OIL AND DIABETES An olive-oil-rich diet is not only a good alternative in the treatment of diabetes; it may also help to prevent or delay the onset of the disease. How it does so is by preventing insulin resistance and its possible pernicious implications by raising HDL-cholesterol, lowering triglycerides, and ensuring better blood sugar level control and lower blood pressure. It has been demonstrated that a diet that is rich in olive oil, low in saturated fats, moderately rich in carbohydrates and soluble fibre from fruit, vegetables, pulses and grains is the most effective approach for diabetics Continue reading >>

Olive Oil In The Prevention And Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Cohort Studies And Intervention Trials

Olive Oil In The Prevention And Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Cohort Studies And Intervention Trials

Olive oil in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and intervention trials 2Nutrition and Obesity Group, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and Lucio Lascaray Research Center, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain 3CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn), Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain 3CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn), Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain 4Health Research Institute of Palma (IdISPa), University Hospital Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain 1Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Nuthetal, Germany 2Nutrition and Obesity Group, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and Lucio Lascaray Research Center, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain 3CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn), Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain 4Health Research Institute of Palma (IdISPa), University Hospital Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain 5Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna,, Vienna, Austria *Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, Nuthetal 14558, Germany. E-mail: [email protected] Received 2016 Oct 26; Revised 2017 Jan 25; Accepted 2017 Feb 2. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license ho Continue reading >>

Benefits Of Olive Oil Consumption In Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Benefits Of Olive Oil Consumption In Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Worldwide, type 2 diabetes is at epidemic proportions, with over 300 million already having the condition with an estimated rise to 600 million diagnosed cases by the year 2030. Information regarding reduced risk of type 2 diabetes is fairly common. However, finding information regarding treatment and management for an individual who already has type 2 diabetes can be somewhat more difficult. Therefore, this article is designed as a mini literature review of sorts, pointing to some of the recent research around olive oil and its potential benefits for use as a dietary intervention in type 2 diabetes treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER) is a central mediator for pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. An in vitro study published in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2016, investigated if tyrosol, an antioxidant polyphenolic compound found in olive oil, could protect against beta-cell dysfunction. Researchers found that tyrosol did in fact protect against beta-cell ER stress-induced cell death, suggesting that it should be explored as a therapeutic agent for improving insulin resistance and diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the major contributors to difficulties in maintaining blood glucose control. A study published in Diabetologia, 2015, randomized 642 patients to either an olive oil enriched Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) (35 percent fat; 22 percent from monounsaturated fat) or a low-fat diet (less than 28 percent fat) to determine whether dietary intervention effects tissue-specific IR and beta-cell function. The study found that both diets improved IR, however, liver IR is improved more through a low-fat diet, while muscle IR and muscle+liver IR could benefit more from the olive oil enriched MedDiet. At this point there Continue reading >>

The Extra Virgin Olive Oil Is Also A Cure For Diabetes

The Extra Virgin Olive Oil Is Also A Cure For Diabetes

The extra virgin olive oil is also a cure for diabetes An Italian study found that adding olive oil to foods reduces the glycemic index of meals, or wheelies post-prandial blood glucose, helping to protect against cardiovascular complications and microvascular diabetes The study evaluated whether fat quality, in the context of meals with high (HGI) or lowglycemic index (LGI), influences postprandial blood glucose (PPG) response in patients with type 1 diabetes. Current guidelines for the treatment of type 1 diabetes advised to calculate the units of insulin to be administered with meals, based on the carbohydrate content of the foods that will be eaten (the so-called 'count carbs'). However this system, despite the efforts made by patients, does not always prove effective in controlling blood glucose levels in an optimal way. And the reasons are many. The most important element, however, is the glycemic index of foods consumed and the fiber content of a particular food. The same group of researchers of the SID, the authors of the work published in Diabetes Care, in a previous study had shown that even in the post counts of carbohydrates a correction that takes into account the glycemic index of foods helps to improve glycemic control. But of course, to influence the absorption of carbohydrates also contribute other macronutrients that they become part of a meal, in particular proteins and fats. And 'ever more evident the role that dietary fats play in influencing blood sugar levels after a meal. In general the fats tend to delay the gastric emptying times and this should in theory result in an attenuation of the peak of postprandial glucose. E 'was also shown that the glycemic index of certain foods can be reduced after totalising with fat. According to a randomized cr Continue reading >>

Extra Virgin Olive Oil Lowers Blood Glucose And Cholesterol, Study Finds

Extra Virgin Olive Oil Lowers Blood Glucose And Cholesterol, Study Finds

Extra virgin olive oil lowers blood glucose and cholesterol, study finds Extra virgin olive oil lowers blood glucose and cholesterol, study finds Tax sugary drinks to tackle type 2 diabetes, urges Canadian Diabetes Association 08 September 2015 Extra virgin olive oil reduces blood sugar and cholesterol more than other kinds of fats , according to new research. The study, conducted at Sapienza University in Rome, could explain the health benefits associated with a traditional Mediterranean diet for people with diabetes. "Lowering blood glucose and cholesterol may be useful to reduce the negative effects of glucose and cholesterol on the cardiovascular system," said Francesco Violo, lead author of the study. This was a small study involving only 25 participants, all of whom ate a typical Mediterranean lunch - consisting primarily of fruits , vegetables , grains and fish - on two separate occasions. For the first meal, they added 10g of extra virgin olive oil. For the second, they added 10g of corn oil. After each meal, the participants blood glucose levels were tested. The rise in blood sugar levels was much smaller after the meal with extra virgin olive oil than after the meal with corn oil. The findings were consistent with previous studies, which have linked extra virgin olive oil to higher levels of insulin , making it beneficial to people with type 2 diabetes. More surprising, however, were the reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, associated with the extra virgin olive oil meal. The study's findings are interesting but preliminary. Further studies are needed to confirm them. The study did not examine whether corn oil was worse or better than having no oil at all, for example. Despite its flaws, the study is one of the first to link Continue reading >>

Olive Oil Consumption Associated With Reduced Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Olive Oil Consumption Associated With Reduced Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Olive oil consumption associated with reduced type 2 diabetes risk Schwingshackl L, et al. Nutr Diabetes. 2017;doi:10.1038/nutd.2017.12. In healthy adults, olive oil consumption appeared to lower the risk for developing type 2 diabetes, whereas daily olive oil ingestion improved glucose metabolism in adults who already had the disease, according to findings from a meta-analysis. In many studies, olive oil has been suspected to exert beneficial effects on health, Lukas Schwingshackl, MSc, PhD, of the department of epidemiology at the German Institute of Human Nutrition in Berlin, and colleagues wrote. It is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, providing approximately two-thirds of vegetable fats in this kind of nutrition ... The major question is still not well answered [as to] which of the components of the Mediterranean diet is worthwhile to be adopted in countries with other dietary traditions, without having a local substitutional food. Schwingshackl and colleagues analyzed data from four cohort studies and 29 randomized controlled trials conducted in Europe (n = 22), North America (n = 8), Australia/New Zealand (n = 2) and Asia (n = 1). Study duration varied between 5.7 and 22 years for cohort studies (n = 183,370) and between 2 weeks and 4.1 years for randomized controlled trials (n = 3,698); mean ages ranged between age 33 years and age 67 years. Randomized controlled trials were stratified by three types: olive oil vs. low-fat diet; olive oil vs. polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oils, and olive oil vs. fish oil . Researchers performed three types of meta-analyses to investigate any association between olive oil consumption and type 2 diabetes risk: high vs. low-intake meta-analysis, dose-response meta-analysis and restricted cubic spline calculation for ea Continue reading >>

Extra-virgin Olive Oil Reduces Postprandial Glucose In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

Extra-virgin Olive Oil Reduces Postprandial Glucose In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

Extra-virgin Olive Oil Reduces Postprandial Glucose in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Adjunct Faculty, Bastyr University, Seattle; Owner Naturopathic Doctor Harbor Integrative Medicine, Bellingham, WA Dr. Pantuso reports no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. SYNOPSIS: In this study, the authors demonstrated significantly improved postprandial glucose levels in patients that consumed high glycemic index meals with extra-virgin olive oil compared to meals with butter or low fat meals. SOURCE: Bozzetto L, Alderisio A, Giorgini M, et al. Extra-virgin olive oil reduces glycemic response to a high glycemic index meal in patients with type 1 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2016;39:518-524. The type of fat contained in meals may be more important than the quantity with respect to the effect on the postprandial glycemic response. Consuming 2.7 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil combined in a high glycemic meal reduces the postprandial blood glucose levels compared to butter or low fat during the 0-3 hours after the meal. Bozzetto et al previously found that considering both the quality (fiber content) and quantity of carbohydrates, compared to only carbohydrate quantity, when calculating pre-meal insulin improves the daily blood glucose profile in type 1 diabetes (DM1) patients.1 The use of continuous glucose monitoring in patients with DM1 has demonstrated that not only carbohydrate quantity but also protein and fat content affect postprandial glucose (PPG) levels.2 There have been conflicting studies on how fat content in meals affects the PPG levels in patients with DM1. The aim of this study was to determine if there is an effect of different dietary fats on the PPG response to either a high glycemic index (HGI) or low glycemic Continue reading >>

Coconut Oil And Diabetes

Coconut Oil And Diabetes

Can You Eat Coconut Oil If You Have Diabetes? If you’re living with diabetes, you’ve likely been through the diet overhaul. Out with the rippled chips, white bread, and full-fat cheese. In with the whole-wheat toast, tofu, and celery sticks. Now you may want to replace the fats you use in your cooking. You may have heard coconut oil may be a good substitute, but you may not be sure how it would affect your diabetes. Is it better or worse? Here’s what you need to know about coconut oil and diabetes. Coconut oil, also known as copra oil, is derived from the meat of mature coconuts. The oil is rich in antioxidants and energy-boosting triglycerides, and low in cholesterol. Not only does the oil have a sweet, nutty flavor, but it also leaves behind little grease. It’s commonly used as a replacement for butter and olive or vegetable oils when baking or cooking. Coconut oil also has many cosmetic uses, such as: a natural skin moisturizer a leave-in condition for your hair an ingredient in homemade soap scrub and lotion recipes If you have diabetes, you know that maintaining a healthy weight is a key component of a diabetes meal plan. This is especially true of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes generally begins with your body’s resistance to insulin. Insulin resistance is linked to excess weight. A 2008 study found that people who consumed medium-chain fats like coconut oil as part of a weight loss plan lost more fat than participants who used olive oil. Coconut oil is high in medium-chain fats. This means coconut oil, a solid fat, is harder to convert to stored fat. This makes it easier for your body to burn it off. Although separate studies, such as this 2009 study in Lipids, have corroborated this, there isn’t enough research to definitively support this claim. Re Continue reading >>

Olive Oil Blunts Glucose Response In Type 1 Diabetes

Olive Oil Blunts Glucose Response In Type 1 Diabetes

Olive Oil Blunts Glucose Response in Type 1 Diabetes Encouraging results for fending off type 2 diabetes, too With commentary by lead study author Angela Rivellese, M.D., professor of applied dietetic sciences at Federico II University in Naples. Adding olive oil to a meal improves glucose response in those with type 1 diabetes, researchers in Italy have found. Olive oil may slow blood sugar rise following a high-glycemic meal in those with type 1 diabetes. Our study shows for the first time that the type of fat significantly influences post-prandial glycemic response in patients with type 1 diabetes, said lead author Angela Rivellese, M.D., professor of applied dietetic sciences at Federico II University in Naples. In short, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is better than butter. Study subjects who consumed meals with 37 grams of EVOO (2.5 tablespoons) showed an approximate 50% reduction in early, after-meal blood glucose response compared with those who consumed meals with either 43 grams of butter (2.9 tablespoons) or meals deemed low-fat (half-a-tablespoon of EVOO). The EVOO meals were also associated with a significant delay in the time it took for blood glucose to peak compared with the butter and low-fat meals. The EVOO benefit was seen only in meals with a high glycemic index (HGI); it did not apply to meals with a low glycemic index (LGI). HGI foods cause a rapid rise in after-meal blood glucose levels, while LGI foods result in a slower and steadier release of glucose, which leads to healthier blood glucose readings. The study, which suggests that carbohydrate-counting alone may not result in optimal glucose control, has important clinical implications for those with type 1 diabetes, the authors wrote, because it demonstrates that the combination of carbohydrate Continue reading >>

Olive Oil And Diabetes

Olive Oil And Diabetes

During my Masters in Nutrition I had to do one project on my choice of chronic condition and a dietary factor that can help improve that condition. Like most of my projects I chose type 2 diabetes to focus on. Previously I’d learned about oleocanthal, an ingredient in olive oil that is highly anti-inflammatory. And since diabetes is an inflammatory condition I was curious to investigate if using olive oil in a diabetes diet would be beneficial. And I was surprised at what I learned, the benefits were even greater than I expected. Olive oil is very good for diabetes! I did a literature review of the latest research from 2004-2014 and looked at 10 randomized trials, the highest level of study. Seven of those studies far outweighed the benefits of a high carbohydrate diet in their benefits, and the other three showed equivalent results. So what does this all reveal and how can it help you? Olive Oil Helps Diabetes In 3 Ways Reduces Glucose and a1c Helps cholesterol Reduces inflammation Let’s explore how… Components of Olive Oil Olive oil is a monounsaturated fat. The best type of olive oil is extra virgin olive oil and like all fats, olive oil is made up of fatty acids, mostly containing oleic acid at a rate of 55-83%. It also contains 36 known phenolic compounds; these are various compounds that have beneficial effects to our health. As I also mentioned above, it contains one particular compound called oleocanthal that helps reduce inflammation. Researchers have found that oleocanthal has the same anti-inflammatory response in the body as NSAID ibuprofen. It’s not as potent but it doesn’t have any side effects like NSAIDs either, so that’s a great thing. So all in all, it’s got some great components that help improve our health and have great benefits for di Continue reading >>

Olive Oil Diet Reduces Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Olive Oil Diet Reduces Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Olive Oil Diet Reduces Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Traditionally a low fat diet has been prescribed to prevent various diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. While studies have shown that high fat diets may increase the risk of certain diseases such as cancer and diabetes, it appears that it is the type of fat that counts rather than the amount of fat. We now know that a diet rich in monounsaturated fats such as the ones found in olive oil, nuts and seeds actually protects from many of these chronic diseases. A recent Spanish study published in the scientific journal Diabetes Care showed that a Mediterranean style diet rich in olive oil reduces the risk of type II diabetes by almost 50 percent compared to a low fat diet. Type II diabetes is the most common and preventable form of diabetes. Individuals who are obese or overweight and have metabolic syndrome are at highest risk for developing this form of diabetes. The study is part of PREDIMED , a long-term nutritional intervention study aimed to assess the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, and is composed of a multidisciplinary team of 16 groups distributed in 7 autonomous communities in Spain. The study included 418 participants who did not have diabetes. Each participant was randomly assigned to either a low fat diet, a Mediterranean diet with olive oil (up to 1 liter a week) or a Mediterranean diet with nuts (30 grams a day). After 4 years 17.9 percent of the individuals following the low fat diet developed diabetes, while only 10 percent of the participants following the Mediterranean with olive oil diet developed the disease. When the two MedDiet groups (olive oil and nut groups) were pooled and compared with the low fat group, diabetes incidence was reduced Continue reading >>

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