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Obesity Increases The Risk For Type 1 Diabetes True Or False

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.[6] Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss.[3] Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal.[3] Often symptoms come on slowly.[6] Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations.[1] The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon.[4][5] Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than others.[6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[12][13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).[3] Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.[1] If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.[7][14] Many people may eventually also require insulin injections.[9] In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills.[15] Bariatri Continue reading >>

Obesity And Cancer

Obesity And Cancer

What is obesity? Obesity is a condition in which a person has an unhealthy amount and/or distribution of body fat. To measure obesity, researchers commonly use a scale known as the body mass index (BMI). BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by their height (in meters) squared (commonly expressed as kg/m2). BMI provides a more accurate measure of obesity than weight alone, and for most people it is a fairly good (although indirect) indicator of body fatness. Other measurements that reflect the distribution of body fat—that is, whether more fat is carried around the hips or the abdomen—are increasingly being used along with BMI as indicators of obesity and disease risks. These measurements include waist circumference and the waist-to-hip ratio (the waist circumference divided by the hip circumference). The standard weight categories based on BMI for adults age 20 years or older are BMI in kg/m2 Weight Category Below 18.5 Underweight 18.5 to 24.9 Normal 25.0 to 29.9 Overweight 30.0 to 39.9 Obese 40.0 or higher Severely obese The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute has a BMI calculator at For children and adolescents (younger than 20 years of age), overweight and obesity are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) BMI-for-age growth charts, which are available at BMI Weight Category BMI-for-age at or above sex-specific 85th percentile, but less than 95th percentile Overweight BMI-for-age at or above sex-specific 95th percentile Obese The CDC has a BMI percentile calculator for children and teens at Compared with people of normal weight, those who are overweight or obese are at greater risk for many diseases, including diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and many cancers. Extreme or Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

There are several risk factors that may make it more likely that you’ll develop type 1 diabetes—if you have the genetic marker that makes you susceptible to diabetes. That genetic marker is located on chromosome 6, and it’s an HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. Several HLA complexes have been connected to type 1 diabetes, and if you have one or more of those, you may develop type 1. (However, having the necessary HLA complex is not a guarantee that you will develop diabetes; in fact, less than 10% of people with the “right” complex(es) actually develop type 1.) Other risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Viral infections: Researchers have found that certain viruses may trigger the development of type 1 diabetes by causing the immune system to turn against the body—instead of helping it fight infection and sickness. Viruses that are believed to trigger type 1 include: German measles, coxsackie, and mumps. Race/ethnicity: Certain ethnicities have a higher rate of type 1 diabetes. In the United States, Caucasians seem to be more susceptible to type 1 than African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans. Chinese people have a lower risk of developing type 1, as do people in South America. Geography: It seems that people who live in northern climates are at a higher risk for developing type 1 diabetes. It’s been suggested that people who live in northern countries are indoors more (especially in the winter), and that means that they’re in closer proximity to each other—potentially leading to more viral infections. Conversely, people who live in southern climates—such as South America—are less likely to develop type 1. And along the same lines, researchers have noticed that more cases are diagnosed in the winter in northern countries; the diagnosis rate Continue reading >>

Overweight And Obesity In Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

Overweight And Obesity In Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

Go to: INTRODUCTION Globally, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing among youth, at an annual rate of 3%–4% per year, thus posing a significant public health problem (Bell et al., 2009; Lipman et al., 2013; Patterson et al., 2012). At the same time, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among all youth has increased precipitously over the past few decades (Wild, Roglic, Green, Sicree, & King, 2004) and has been deemed the major public health challenge facing youth in the 21st century (Jack, 2007). Surprisingly, overweight and obesity are now prevalent among youth with T1D, and a recent study demonstrated that youth with T1D are more likely to be overweight than their peers without the condition (Liu et al., 2010). Others have noted more than a twofold increase of overweight and obesity in youth with T1D since the 1990s when the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) availed the benefits of tight glucose control to reduce the complications of T1D (Libman, Pietropaolo, Arslanian, LaPorte, & Becker, 2003; Purnell et al., 1998). In the DCCT, a complication of intensive insulin therapy and tight glucose control was untoward weight gain, which was threefold higher in the intensive treatment group and was associated with more moderate to severe hypoglycemic events and better glucose control (American Diabetes Association, 1993; DCCT Research Group, 1988, 1993). Because excess weight is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease in youth without diabetes, excess weight in youth with T1D may contribute to a higher risk of cardiometabolic complications in these youth (Purnell et al., 2013; Van Vliet et al., 2012). Indeed, youth with T1D are predisposed to such complications by having diabetes, regardless of weight status (Krishnan & Sho Continue reading >>

Chapter 38

Chapter 38

Sort Type 2 signs/ symptoms -May experience polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia -More commonly experience excessive weight gain -Family history of diabetes mellitus -Poor healing of scratches, abrasions, and wounds -Blurred vision -Itching -Drowsiness -Increased fatigue -Tingling or numbness in the feet Factors Associated with Development of Type 2 Diabetes Older age • Obesity Family history of type 2 diabetes • History of gestational diabetes • Impaired glucose metabolism Physical inactivity • Race/ethnicity African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, some Asian Americans, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) Continue reading >>

True Or False? Sugar Causes Diabetes.

True Or False? Sugar Causes Diabetes.

False. Its a common misunderstanding that sugar causes diabetes. It doesnt. The real cause has more to do with insulinor more precisely, the lack of it. Diabetes is identified as either type 1 or type 2. Type 1 diabetes, which used to be known as juvenile-onset diabetes, is most often diagnosed in children or adolescents. People with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas that helps control blood glucose levels. Since people with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin, they need to administer daily injections of insulin to ensure that the glucose in their blood is metabolized properly. Type 2 diabetes is more commonly diagnosed in adults although it is starting to be seen in children and adolescents too. People with type 2 diabetes still produce insulin but their bodies dont respond to it normally. The treatment for type 2 is always diet and exercise and often medications (in pill form). Sometimes people may also need to take insulin to manage and control their diabetes. So even though sugar doesnt cause diabetes, it doesnt mean we should hit up the candy store on a regular basis. Foods high in added sugar tend to have lower nutrient densities and therefore provide little nutritional value. Plus, eating a lot of high-sugar foods is associated with an increased incidence of obesity, which is one of the biggest risk factors for developing diabetes. Continue reading >>

Obesity Linked To Type 1 Diabetes

Obesity Linked To Type 1 Diabetes

Though being overweight is the main risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes, it has not previously been thought to be a major factor in type 1 diabetes, once known as "juvenile-onset diabetes." Type 1 diabetes is considered to be a genetically driven autoimmune disorder in which the body destroys the insulin-producing cells that allow it to process glucose. In type 2 diabetes, the body produces insulin but is unable to use it properly, a condition known as insulin resistance. In a hypothesis first made public two years ago, U.K. researcher Terry Wilkin, MD, and colleagues suggested that type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are "one and the same disorder of insulin resistance set against different genetic backgrounds." To prove this, the researchers recently examined the relationship between body weight and age at diagnosis among a group of children with type 1 diabetes. Ninety-four children between the ages of 1 and 16 were included in the study, and a strong correlation was seen between the children's age at the time diabetes was diagnosed and their weight. The findings are published in the October issue of the American Diabetes Association journal Diabetes Care. "Basically, the age (at diagnosis) got younger and younger as the children got heavier and heavier," Wilkin tells WebMD. "This doesn't prove that insulin resistance drives type 1 diabetes, but it is some of the first direct evidence suggesting that it plays a role." Wilkins says the observation could explain why more and more children are developing type 1 diabetes and why they are doing so at earlier ages than ever before. Kids who develop type 1 diabetes are genetically predisposed to get the disease, but being overweight accelerates the process, he argues. Two other studies published in the same issue of Continue reading >>

True Or False? Obesity Is Unavoidable If It Runs In The Family? False

True Or False? Obesity Is Unavoidable If It Runs In The Family? False

True or False? Obesity is unavoidable if it runs in the family? FALSE True or False? Obesity is unavoidable if it runs in the family? FALSE The Daily Telegraph this week reported as a myth the genetic excuse for obesity - namely that having fat genes makes you fat and there is nothing you can do about it. According to a study conducted by scientists at the Medical Research Councils Epidemiology Unit in Cambridge, people can work off around 40 per cent of their extra weight, often blamed on "fat genes" by exercising. Researchers looked for 12 markers known to increase body mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in the genes of more than 20,000 men and women between the ages of 39 and 79. For each person they calculated a "genetic predisposition score" and then asked them to fill out questionnaires about their physical activity levels. They concluded that although some people do have a predisposition to be overweight or even obese, the "findings challenge the popular myth that obesity is unavoidable" - having an active lifestyle can go a long way to countering a persons genetic inheritance. "This research suggests that being physically active can reduce the effects of a persons genetic predisposition to obesity by almost half. This means that a person can improve their weight despite this predisposition by making small changes to their level of physical activity," said Libby Dowling, Diabetes UK Clinical Advisor. "Diabetes UK recommends 30 minutes physical activity five days a week. This can include walking at a faster pace, gardening, even house cleaning! As obesity is one of the key factors in developing Type 2 diabetes, it is so important to prevent weight gain. This research suggests that people, whether they have a predisposition for obesity or not, can take a cer Continue reading >>

Maternal Overweight, Obesity Increases Risk Of Type 1 Diabetes In Children When Neither Parent Has Diabetes

Maternal Overweight, Obesity Increases Risk Of Type 1 Diabetes In Children When Neither Parent Has Diabetes

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Maternal overweight, obesity increases risk of type 1 diabetes in children when neither parent has diabetes A study of more than 1.2 million children in Sweden has concluded that children of parents with any type of diabetes are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes (T1D), and that maternal overweight and obesity increases the risk of the child developing T1D when neither parent has diabetes. A study of more than 1.2 million children in Sweden has concluded that children of parents with any type of diabetes are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes (T1D), and that maternal overweight and obesity increases the risk of the child developing T1D when neither parent has diabetes. The results, published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes), clearly suggest that strategies to reduce overweight and obesity before and during pregnancy could reduce the incidence of T1D, which is currently increasing in children (and especially in younger children) in most countries of the world. The research is by Associate Professor Tahereh Moradi, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and colleagues. The study cohort comprised 1,263,358 children, born in Sweden between 1992 and 2004. Children were followed from birth until diagnosis of T1D, emigration, death or end of follow-up in 2009, whichever occurred first. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for the first trimester of the mother's pregnancy. A total of 5,771 children were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during the study period. Of those, 5,155 children had both parents born inside Nordic countries, including Sweden, and 322 had both parents born outside Nordic countries, and a further 294 had one parent born Continue reading >>

True Or False? Diabetes Uncovered

True Or False? Diabetes Uncovered

Diabetes affects 1.3million people in the UK. It is a condition where the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood is too high because the body cannot use it properly. But how much do people know about diabetes, considering that as many as one million people have the condition without realising? Here we pose some common questions about the condition and challenge some misconceptions: Eating too much sugar causes diabetes FALSE: Diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, being overweight does increase your risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. If you have a history of diabetes in your family, a healthy diet, quitting smoking and regular exercise are recommended. If you have diabetes you should have an annual flu jab TRUE: The flu can be particularly unpleasant if you have diabetes because it causes your blood sugar level to fluctuate and become more difficult to control. You should also be immunised against pneumococcus bacteria, but this jab is only needed once. Diabetes is a disease caused by insulin problems TRUE: In Type 1 diabetes the pancreas stops making insulin that is essential for breaking down glucose (sugars). This means there is too much glucose in the blood. In Type 2 diabetes you either don't make enough insulin for your body's needs and/or the cells in your body don't use insulin properly. All people with Type 2 diabetes need daily injections FALSE: Type 1 diabetes is treated by injections of insulin and a healthy diet. However Type 2 diabetes tends to be treated by a healthy diet or by a combination of a healthy diet and tablets. Sometimes people with Type 2 diabetes do have insulin injections, although they are not totally 'dependent' on the insulin. If you have diabetes, you can never eat sweets FALSE: Having diabete Continue reading >>

F - Obesity And Diabetes

F - Obesity And Diabetes

Sort Type II Diabetes Mellitus Commonly begins in midlife. Characterized by insensitivity ("resistance") to insulin. Disease has a complex etiology that varies between individuals. Can be caused by defective function of the insulin receptor or defects within the insulin signal transduction pathway. Genetics play a large role. Ketoacidosis is uncommon. Patients may ultimately become so resistant to insulin that injections are required. STRONGLY associated with obesity. Genetics play a large role. Many problems can be reduced by weight loss and increasing exercise. Metabolic Features of Diabetes Uncontrolled diabetes is similar to a starvation state due to similar (effectively) insulin:glucagon ratio, but effects are WORSE in diabetes. - low insulin:glucagon ratio in blood - BLOOD GLUCOSE INCREASED: due to decreased glucose uptake by liver (decreased GLUT-2 and glucokinase expression) and skeletal muscle/adipose tissue - Liver GLUCONEOGENESIS and GLYCONEOLYSIS INCREASE - PROTEIN DEGRADATION INCREASED: to provide substrates for gluconeogenesis - Adipose tissue LIPOLYSIS INCREASED: more ß-oxidation of FA's to provide substrates for Ketone Body synthesis - URINE OUTPUT INCREASED: due to osmotic effect of glucose on H2O resorption - APPETITE INCREASES: due to catabolic state Pear Obesity Fat deposition around hips/butt (lower body obesity) More common in women Waist:Hip ratio <0.8 in women, <1.0 in men Much lower risk of metabolic disease lower body subQ fat is very efficient at TAG deposition (esp in women) and tends to mobilize fat more slowly than abdominal subQ deposits Released Free Fatty Acids enter general circulation where they can be oxidized and reach liver in lover concentration Apple Obesity Abdominal fat deposition (upper body obesity) Waist:Hip ratio >0.8 in wo Continue reading >>

Your Weight And Diabetes

Your Weight And Diabetes

Diabetes is a group of disorders characterized by chronic high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to the body's failure to produce any or enough insulin to regulate high glucose levels. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, which often occurs in children or adolescents, is caused by the body's inability to make insulin or type 2 diabetes, which occurs as a result of the body's inability to react properly to insulin (insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than type 1 diabetes and is therefore seen in roughly 90% of all diabetes cases. Type 2 diabetes is predominantly diagnosed after the age of forty, however, it is now being found in all age ranges, including children and adolescents. The impact of diabetes goes beyond chronic hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness (diabetic retinopathy), end stage kidney diseases (diabetic nephropathy) and non-traumatic lower extremity amputations (diabetic neuropathy) in working-age adults. People with diabetes are also two to four times more likely to experience cardiovascular complications and strokes. Diabetes and its related complications result in an estimated 200,000+ deaths each year, making diabetes one of the major causes of mortality in the U.S. In 2012, the NIH reported an estimated 29.1 million Americans (9.3% of the population) living with diabetes. Of these, an estimated 8.1 million persons were unaware that they had the disease. How does my weight relate to type 2 diabetes? There are many risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as age, race, pregnancy, stress, certain medications, genetics or family history, high cholesterol and obesity. However, the single best predictor of type 2 diabetes is overweight or obesity. Almost 90% of people living with type 2 diabetes a Continue reading >>

Diabetes: What's True And False?

Diabetes: What's True And False?

en espaolLa diabetes: Qu es cierto y qu es falso? There's a lot of info and advice out there about diabetes, but some of it is wrong or bad. And following advice that's wrong could make people with diabetes really sick. Ask your doctor or a member of your diabetes health care team if you ever come across information that doesn't seem quite right or sounds too good to be true. Here's some stuff you might hear about diabetes and the facts about what's true and what's not. True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's because their bodies can't make insulin anymore. The insulin-making cells in the pancreas (say: PAN-kree-us) get destroyed, and it doesn't have anything to do with eating sugar. This isn't true for type 2 diabetes either, but there is a connection between type 2 diabetes and being overweight. With type 2 diabetes, the pancreas can still make insulin (say: IN-suh-lin), but the insulin doesn't work like it should. Eating too much sugar (or foods with sugar, like candy or regular soda) can cause weight gain, and if someone becomes overweight , it can lead to type 2 diabetes. True or False: Kids With Diabetes Can Never Eat Sweets False: Kids with diabetes can eat some sweets as part of a balanced, healthy diet. Like everyone else, a person with diabetes shouldn't eat too many sweets because they are high in calories and they don't have many vitamins and minerals. True or False: Kids With Diabetes Can Exercise True:Exercise has many benefits. It can help you get to a healthy weight, it's good for your heart and lungs, it can improve your mood, and it's great for your diabetes. Your diabetes health care team can help you and your parents come up with an exercise plan that's good for you. True or False: You Can't C Continue reading >>

How Much Do You Know About Obesity?

How Much Do You Know About Obesity?

Body mass index (BMI) is used to measure the relationship (or ratio) of a person's weight and height. A BMI is more closely equated with body fat than other measures of height and weight. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight; a BMI over 30 is considered obese. Experts may measure waist circumference to determine abdominal fat, and a waist-to-hip ratio may also be calculated. Body mass index (BMI) is used to measure the relationship (or ratio) of a person's weight and height. A BMI is more closely equated with body fat than other measures of height and weight. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight; a BMI over 30 is considered obese. Experts may measure waist circumference to determine abdominal fat, and a waist-to-hip ratio may also be calculated. Experts say people are at increased risk for health problems associated with being obese if they have had close relatives with heart disease or diabetes. In addition to family history of certain chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, or high blood sugar are all warning signs of health problems that can occur with obesity. In addition to family history of certain chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, or high blood sugar are all warning signs of health problems that can occur with obesity. Being overweight or obese increases the risk of developing other health problems or diseases, such as cancer. People that are obese are at increased health risk for many diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke, gall bladder disease, and osteoarthritis. In women, obesity is associated with cancer of the uterus, gallbladder, cervix, ovary, breast, and colon. In men, obesity i Continue reading >>

Why Does Obesity Cause Diabetes?

Why Does Obesity Cause Diabetes?

Being overweight or obese increases the chances of developing the common type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes. In this disease, the body makes enough insulin but the cells in the body have become resistant to the salutary action of insulin. Why does this happen? New Research: A report this week in Science proposes that being overweight stresses the insides of individual cells. Specifically, overeating stresses the membranous network inside of cells called endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When the ER has more nutrients to process than it can handle, it sends out an alarm signal telling the cell to dampen down the insulin receptors on the cell surface. This translates to insulin resistance and to persistently high concentrations of the sugar glucose in the blood -- one of the sure signs of diabetes. Comment: Research into diabetes today is far ranging. It ranges from the environment to the deep dark recesses of the single cell. It is much easier to look at the environment, for example, "Super Size Me" in a fast-food culture, than it is to sort out what is going on inside the workings of an individual cell. Barbara K. Hecht, Ph.D. Frederick Hecht, M.D. Medical Editors, MedicineNet.com Study Suggests How Obesity Causes Diabetes HealthDay Reporter THURSDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDayNews) -- Scientists know that obesity is a key player in the development of type 2 diabetes, but exactly how excess weight causes the disease isn't clear. While trying to answer that question, Harvard University researchers have discovered a new pathway that sets in motion a series of reactions that leads to the development of insulin resistance, a precursor of type 2 diabetes, a new study reports. The researchers found that obesity causes stress in a system of cellular membranes called endoplasmic reticulum (ER Continue reading >>

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