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Obesity And Diabetes Risk

Incident Type 2 Diabetes Risk Is Influenced By Obesity And Diabetes In Social Contacts: A Social Network Analysis.

Incident Type 2 Diabetes Risk Is Influenced By Obesity And Diabetes In Social Contacts: A Social Network Analysis.

Abstract BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes family history are the two strongest risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Prior work shows that an individual's obesity risk is associated with obesity in social contacts, but whether T2D risk follows similar patterns is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the relationship between obesity or diabetes in an individual's social contacts and his/her T2D risk. We hypothesized that obesity and diabetes in social contacts would increase an individual's T2D risk. DESIGN: This was a retrospective analysis of the community-based Framingham Offspring Study (FOS). PARTICIPANTS: FOS participants with T2D status, height and weight, and at least one social contact were eligible for this study (n = 4797 at Exam 1). Participants' interpersonal ties, cardiometabolic and demographic variables were available at eight exams from 1971 to 2008, and a T2D additive polygenic risk score was measured at the fifth exam. MAIN MEASURES: Primary exposures were T2D (fasting glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L or taking diabetes medications) and obesity status (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) of social contacts at a prior exam. Primary outcome was incident T2D in participants. KEY RESULTS: Incident T2D was associated with having a social contact with diabetes (OR 1.32, p = 0.004) or with obesity (OR 1.21, p = 0.004). In stratified analyses, incident T2D was associated with diabetes in siblings (OR 1.64, p = 0.001) and obesity in spouses (OR 1.54, p = 0.0004). The associations between diabetes and obesity in social contacts and an individual's incident diabetes risk were stronger in individuals with a high diabetes genetic risk score. CONCLUSIONS: T2D and obesity in social contacts, particularly siblings and spouses, were associated with an individual's risk of incident diabetes Continue reading >>

The Magnitude Of Association Between Overweight And Obesity And The Risk Of Diabetes: A Meta-analysis Of Prospective Cohort Studies

The Magnitude Of Association Between Overweight And Obesity And The Risk Of Diabetes: A Meta-analysis Of Prospective Cohort Studies

Abstract The objectives of this meta-analysis were to examine the magnitude of the relative risk (RR) of developing type 2 diabetes for overweight and obese populations, compared to those with normal weight, and to determine causes of the variation in RR between various cohort studies. The magnitude of the RR was analyzed by combining 18 prospective cohort studies that matched defined criteria. The variance in RR between studies was explored. The overall RR of diabetes for obese persons compared to those with normal weight was 7.19, 95% CI: 5.74, 9.00 and for overweight was 2.99, 95% CI: 2.42, 3.72. The variation in RR among studies was explored and it was found that the effect of heterogeneity was highly related with sample size, method of assessment of body mass index (BMI) and method of ascertainment of type 2 diabetes. By combining only cohort studies with more than 400 cases of incident diabetes (>median), adjusted by at least three main confounding variables (age, family history of type 2 diabetes, physical activity), measured BMI, and diabetes determined by clinical diagnosis, the RR was 7.28, 95% CI: 6.47, 8.28 for obesity and 2.92, 95% CI: 2.57, 3.32 for overweight. Continue reading >>

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Key Points Changes in human behaviour and lifestyle over the last century have spurred a dramatic increase in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes worldwide. Because obesity and diabetes are closely linked, the term “diabesity” has been coined to illustrate the interdependence of these two diseases. Obesity and type 2 diabetes frequently occur together and the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes are or have been obese. Besides genetic susceptibility, obesity is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle changes are the best way to prevent obesity and slow this worldwide epidemic. The “Diabesity” Epidemic Developed societies face two crucial health problems: overweight and obesity. Obesity is the most common metabolic disease, and the number of individuals who are overweight or obese is fast increasing worldwide (1). Increased body fat has been linked to numerous co-morbidities such as dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes (2). The rapid, global increase in obesity has also sparked an increase in cases of type 2 diabetes (3). Lifestyle and environment changes have sent the rates of both obesity and diabetes soaring (4). The end result is that, over the past two decades, the number of individuals with diabetes has skyrocketed worldwide (5, 6). All signs indicate that the diabetes epidemic will continue to escalate. It has been suggested that there will be more than 220 million individuals with diabetes by the year 2010 (7). The World Health Organization has called this global increase in obesity and diabetes the “21st century epidemic” (1). The term “diabesity” has been coined to illustrate the close relationship between obesity and diabetes (8, 9). Obesity and type 2 diabetes frequently occur toge Continue reading >>

Your Weight And Diabetes

Your Weight And Diabetes

Diabetes is a group of disorders characterized by chronic high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to the body's failure to produce any or enough insulin to regulate high glucose levels. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, which often occurs in children or adolescents, is caused by the body's inability to make insulin or type 2 diabetes, which occurs as a result of the body's inability to react properly to insulin (insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than type 1 diabetes and is therefore seen in roughly 90% of all diabetes cases. Type 2 diabetes is predominantly diagnosed after the age of forty, however, it is now being found in all age ranges, including children and adolescents. The impact of diabetes goes beyond chronic hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness (diabetic retinopathy), end stage kidney diseases (diabetic nephropathy) and non-traumatic lower extremity amputations (diabetic neuropathy) in working-age adults. People with diabetes are also two to four times more likely to experience cardiovascular complications and strokes. Diabetes and its related complications result in an estimated 200,000+ deaths each year, making diabetes one of the major causes of mortality in the U.S. In 2012, the NIH reported an estimated 29.1 million Americans (9.3% of the population) living with diabetes. Of these, an estimated 8.1 million persons were unaware that they had the disease. How does my weight relate to type 2 diabetes? There are many risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as age, race, pregnancy, stress, certain medications, genetics or family history, high cholesterol and obesity. However, the single best predictor of type 2 diabetes is overweight or obesity. Almost 90% of people living with type 2 diabetes a Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Tobacco Cessation On Weight Gain, Obesity, And Diabetes Risk

The Effect Of Tobacco Cessation On Weight Gain, Obesity, And Diabetes Risk

Abstract Objective Most smokers gain weight after quitting, and some develop new onset obesity and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the current science investigating the consequences of tobacco cessation on body weight and diabetes, as well as intervention strategies that minimize or prevent weight gain while still allowing for successful tobacco cessation. Systematic reviews and relevant studies that were published since prior reviews were selected. Smoking cessation can cause excessive weight gain in some individuals and can be associated with clinically significant outcomes such as diabetes or obesity onset. Interventions that combine smoking cessation and weight control can be effective for improving cessation and minimizing weight gain but need to be tested in specific populations. Conclusions Despite the health benefits of quitting tobacco, post-cessation weight gain and new onset obesity and diabetes are a significant concern. Promising interventions may need to be more widely applied to reduce the consequences of both obesity and tobacco use. Introduction Tobacco use continues to be a major public health problem and the leading preventable cause of death. Unfortunately, most smokers will gain weight after quitting, and a significant minority of smokers will gain an excess amount which may increase their risk for diabetes onset. This article presents a narrative review of the prevalence and impact of cessation-related weight gain on obesity and diabetes and a summary of cessation interventions aimed at addressing post-cessation weight gain. We primarily used PubMed to search for English language articles describing the effects of tobacco cessation on weight, diabetes, and glucose control as well as studies examining mechanisms for those Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Linked To Metabolic Health In Obesity

Type 2 Diabetes Linked To Metabolic Health In Obesity

The risk for type 2 diabetes is increased in adults with obesity, whether they were metabolically healthy or unhealthy, and in those with normal weight who were metabolically unhealthy, according to findings published in Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. Dongsheng Hu, MD, of the department of epidemiology and health statistics at the College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University in China, and colleagues evaluated data from a cluster random sample of adults recruited from a rural Chinese population during July to August 2007 and July to August 2008 to determine whether risk for type 2 diabetes is associated with metabolically healthy obesity or metabolically unhealthy overweight or obesity. Participants were divided into groups based on their weight status and metabolic health status. Normal weight was defined as BMI of 18.5 kg/m2 to 23.9 kg/m2, and overweight or obesity as BMI of at least 24 kg/m2. The 6-year incidence of type 2 diabetes was 3.38 per 1,000 person-years for participants with baseline metabolically healthy normal weight, 5.53 for those with baseline metabolically healthy overweight or obesity, 9.89 for those with baseline metabolically unhealthy normal weight and 19.25 for those with metabolically unhealthy overweight or obesity. Participants with overweight or obesity had a higher risk for type 2 diabetes than those with normal weight (adjusted HR = 2.82; 95% CI, 2.32-3.44). The risk for type 2 diabetes was increased 1.4- to 5.3-fold in participants with metabolic disorder components of fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol compared with participants without the conditions; FPG was the strongest risk factor (aHR = 5.33; 95% CI, 4.42-6.43). The risk for type 2 diabetes was higher in all participants who were metabo Continue reading >>

The Epidemic Of Obesity And Diabetes

The Epidemic Of Obesity And Diabetes

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in women. Both obesity and diabetes mellitus are important independent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Obesity is the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that 32% of white and 53% of black women are obese. Women with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 have a 28 times greater risk of developing diabetes than do women of normal weight. The risk of diabetes is 93 times greater if the BMI is 35 kg/m2.1 The presence of diabetes can increase a woman's risk of heart disease 2-fold. In addition, the presence of diabetes overshadows the protective effects of the premenopausal state. In 2007, 11.5 million of all women over the age of 20 (10.2%) had diabetes, and rates were slightly higher in ethnic minority groups: 10.4% in Hispanic women and 11.8% in non-Hispanic black women.2 The national prevalence rates of diabetes have increased in parallel with the rates of obesity (Fig. 1). Screening Screening for obesity and diabetes is the 1st step to treatment and often reveals individuals who are at risk for but do not yet have overt disease. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that all adults be screened for obesity. Obesity signifies excess adipose tissue. The most widely used method for screening is determination of the BMI. The BMI is weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (BMI = kg/m2) (Table I). Most electronic medical records automatically calculate BMI if height and weight are entered. There are also many smart-phone applications and online calculators that can calculate BMI (for example, Other screening tools include waist circumference and the waist-to-hip ratio. In women, a waist ci Continue reading >>

Study: Better Neighborhood Lowers Obesity, Diabetes Risk

Study: Better Neighborhood Lowers Obesity, Diabetes Risk

Low-income moms who move from very poor neighborhoods to less disadvantaged ones lower their risk of becoming extremely obese and developing type 2 diabetes, a study reveals. “This research shows how important the environment can be for people’s health,” says the study’s lead author, Jens Ludwig, a professor of social service administration, law and public policy at the University of Chicago. Obesity increases people’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease and other serious health problems. People in poorer neighborhoods are at a higher risk of becoming too heavy because they may not have access to grocery stores that are well-stocked with healthy fare such as fresh fruits and vegetables, often don’t have safe places to be physically active and may have greater concerns about safety, which could impact their psychological stress and eating habits, Ludwig says. The study is the first to use data from a randomized experiment to learn about the connection between neighborhoods and risk of obesity and diabetes, he says. For the full story, “click here.”: Other Related Posts Providing ongoing opportunities for healthy living and community building is a major focus for the Movin' for LIFE program, a community-engaged health promotion program of the Tulane Prevention Research Center. (Click on the photo to see a slideshow of photos from Movin’ for LIFE activities in 2017). "The Movin' for LIFE activities have the potential to positively impact behaviors that can prevent many chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer," said Dr. Carolyn… Conversations on Twitter can lead to engaged, two-way communication about health, according to a new study published by the Tulane Prevention Research Center (PRC) and its partners at t Continue reading >>

Obesity And Cancer

Obesity And Cancer

What is obesity? Obesity is a condition in which a person has an unhealthy amount and/or distribution of body fat. To measure obesity, researchers commonly use a scale known as the body mass index (BMI). BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by their height (in meters) squared (commonly expressed as kg/m2). BMI provides a more accurate measure of obesity than weight alone, and for most people it is a fairly good (although indirect) indicator of body fatness. Other measurements that reflect the distribution of body fat—that is, whether more fat is carried around the hips or the abdomen—are increasingly being used along with BMI as indicators of obesity and disease risks. These measurements include waist circumference and the waist-to-hip ratio (the waist circumference divided by the hip circumference). The standard weight categories based on BMI for adults age 20 years or older are BMI in kg/m2 Weight Category Below 18.5 Underweight 18.5 to 24.9 Normal 25.0 to 29.9 Overweight 30.0 to 39.9 Obese 40.0 or higher Severely obese The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute has a BMI calculator at For children and adolescents (younger than 20 years of age), overweight and obesity are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) BMI-for-age growth charts, which are available at BMI Weight Category BMI-for-age at or above sex-specific 85th percentile, but less than 95th percentile Overweight BMI-for-age at or above sex-specific 95th percentile Obese The CDC has a BMI percentile calculator for children and teens at Compared with people of normal weight, those who are overweight or obese are at greater risk for many diseases, including diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and many cancers. Extreme or Continue reading >>

Obesity, Poverty Help Explain Higher Diabetes Risk For U.s. Blacks

Obesity, Poverty Help Explain Higher Diabetes Risk For U.s. Blacks

(Reuters Health) - Even though black adults are more likely to develop diabetes than white adults, the increased risk is largely due to obesity and other risk factors that may be possible to change, a U.S. study suggests. Researchers followed 4,251 black and white men and women starting when they were 18 to 30 years old; none of them had diabetes to start with. After an average follow-up of more than 24 years, 504 of the participants developed diabetes. Compared to white women, black women were almost three times more likely to develop diabetes, researchers report in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Black men, meanwhile, had 67 percent higher odds of becoming diabetic than white men. However, there was no longer a meaningful difference in diabetes risk between black and white people once researchers accounted for a variety of factors that can contribute to this disease including obesity, neighborhood segregation and poverty levels, depression, education and employment. “Our work suggests that if we can eliminate these differences in traditional risk factors between blacks and whites then we can reduce the race disparities in the development of diabetes,” said lead study author Michael Bancks, a researcher at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. This isn’t an easy fix, Bancks acknowledged. “To eliminate the higher rate of diabetes, everybody needs to have access to healthy foods, safe spaces for physical activity and equal economic opportunity to have enough money to afford these things and live in communities that offer this,” Bancks said by email. “Prior research by our team has shown that black adults live in neighborhoods that have higher rates of poverty, fewer grocery stores and (fewer) safe places for physical Continue reading >>

Obesity And Diabetes

Obesity And Diabetes

Doctors and researchers have found that obesity and diabetes are connected. Persons who are obese are at high risk for developing Type 2 diabetes (also known as "insulin-resistant" or "adult-onset" diabetes), particularly if a close family member is affected with diabetes. Therefore, it becomes very important to maintain a healthy body weight throughout your life in order to protect yourself from developing a chronic disease like diabetes. As nurses associated with the Genetics of the Acadian People projects, we have been asked questions at public forums concerning obesity and diabetes. The following is a list of some of the most commonly asked questions, together with our answers and advice. Is obesity caused by a specific genetic defect? Researchers have not yet discovered a specific gene that causes obesity, although several genes are considered to be important in playing a part. However, we have come to understand that a person's genetic make-up can result in a predisposition to becoming obese. This means that a person may be particularly susceptible to becoming obese through experiencing risk factors in their life, like high calorie or high fat diets and lack of exercise. Your genetic make-up, which you have inherited from your parents, may contribute to your general body type, including how and where your body deposits fat in certain places such as buttocks or thighs. There seems to be a strong connection between abdominal fat and diabetes. What, then, is the major cause of obesity? The environment plays a much larger role in a person's likelihood of becoming obese than does any specific gene. By "environment," we mean not only what the outside world does to a person's body but also what enters a person's body through eating and drinking. The two main factors that Continue reading >>

Maternal Obesity, Diabetes Tied To Increased Autism Risk In Kids

Maternal Obesity, Diabetes Tied To Increased Autism Risk In Kids

By Lisa Rapaport Mothers who are obese during pregnancy have almost twice the odds of having a child with autism as women who weigh less, a U.S. study suggests. When women are both obese and have diabetes, the autism risk for their child is at least quadrupled, researchers reported online January 29 in Pediatrics. "In terms of absolute risk, compared to common pediatric diseases such as obesity and asthma, the rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the U.S. population is relatively low, however, the personal, family and societal impact of ASD is enormous," said senior study author Dr. Xiaobin Wang, a public health and pediatrics researcher at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. About one in 68 children have ASD, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or about 1.5 percent of U.S. children. The study findings suggest the risk rises closer to about 3 percent of babies born to women who are obese or have diabetes, and approaches 5 percent to 6 percent when mothers have the combination of obesity and diabetes. Wang and colleagues analyzed data on 2,734 mother-child pairs followed at Boston Medical Center between 1998 and 2014. Most of the children, 64 percent, weren't diagnosed with any other development disorders, but there were 102 kids who did receive an ASD diagnosis. Compared with typically developing kids, those with ASD were more likely to be boys, born preterm and at a low birth weight. Mothers of children with ASD were likely to be older, obese and to have diabetes diagnosed before or during pregnancy. Maternal obesity was linked to a 92 percent increased risk for autism on its own, while diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy was associated with more than triple the risk. When women both had diabetes and were obese, the autism risk com Continue reading >>

Men With Obese Wives Have Greater Risk Of Developing Diabetes: Study

Men With Obese Wives Have Greater Risk Of Developing Diabetes: Study

Wives who pack on the pounds may be hazardous to their hubby’s health, according to a new study. Researchers found that middle-aged men who have obese wives are at greater risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. They pointed to a shared lifestyle — including poor diet and exercise habits — and fatter women negatively influencing their partners’ eating and activity patterns as being behind the correlation. The results were presented this week at the 2017 European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting in Lisbon, Portugal, according to Medscape Medical News. “There is the regular question — whether your parents or a sibling have diabetes — and this study calls attention that there are [also] other connections within the family” that could be a factor in diabetes risk, said Adam Hulman, of Aarhus University in Denmark, who led the study. He added, “If you find that the spouse has obesity, pay attention on the other half of the couple.” Hulman and Danish scientists took a look at 3,500 English couples over the age of 50 and tracked their weight and health every two-and-a-half years between 1998 and 2015. They found that for every additional five points a woman increased in the body mass index scale, her husband’s risk of developing Type 2 diabetes was 21 percent higher. “One explanation could be that at the end of the 1990s in the UK, women were more responsible for or the ones who determined the diet of the family or the household,” Hulman said. Researchers did not find the same findings in reverse situations — obese hubbies had no adverse effect on their wives developing the chronic condition. In a further study, individuals over age 55 living with a spouse with Type 2 Diabetes were more likely to be obese than those with no spousal d Continue reading >>

Worldwide Burden Of Cancer Attributable To Diabetes And High Body-mass Index: A Comparative Risk Assessment

Worldwide Burden Of Cancer Attributable To Diabetes And High Body-mass Index: A Comparative Risk Assessment

Jump to Section Summary Diabetes and high body-mass index (BMI) are associated with increased risk of several cancers, and are increasing in prevalence in most countries. We estimated the cancer incidence attributable to diabetes and high BMI as individual risk factors and in combination, by country and sex. We estimated population attributable fractions for 12 cancers by age and sex for 175 countries in 2012. We defined high BMI as a BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2. We used comprehensive prevalence estimates of diabetes and BMI categories in 2002, assuming a 10-year lag between exposure to diabetes or high BMI and incidence of cancer, combined with relative risks from published estimates, to quantify contribution of diabetes and high BMI to site-specific cancers, individually and combined as independent risk factors and in a conservative scenario in which we assumed full overlap of risk of diabetes and high BMI. We then used GLOBOCAN cancer incidence data to estimate the number of cancer cases attributable to the two risk factors. We also estimated the number of cancer cases in 2012 that were attributable to increases in the prevalence of diabetes and high BMI from 1980 to 2002. All analyses were done at individual country level and grouped by region for reporting. We estimated that 5·6% of all incident cancers in 2012 were attributable to the combined effects of diabetes and high BMI as independent risk factors, corresponding to 792 600 new cases. 187 600 (24·5%) of 766 000 cases of liver cancer and 121 700 (38·4%) of 317 000 cases of endometrial cancer were attributable to these risk factors. In the conservative scenario, about 4·5% (626 900 new cases) of all incident cancers assessed were attributable to diabetes and high BMI combined. Individually, high B Continue reading >>

Two Hidden Cancer Causes: Diabetes And Obesity

Two Hidden Cancer Causes: Diabetes And Obesity

Does a widening waistline put you at risk for cancer? Apparently so. According to a new study, nearly 6 percent of cancers are attributable at least in part to obesity and diabetes. Researchers compared incidence data for 12 cancers in 175 countries in 2012 with body mass index and diabetes prevalence figures from 2002, on the assumption that it takes at least ten years for cancer to develop. They found that in 2012, diabetes and a B.M.I. above 25 were independent risk factors for 792,600 new cases of cancer, about 5.6 percent of the 14,067,894 cases reported to a worldwide cancer registry. Among the cancers associated with diabetes and high B.M.I. were tumors of the colon, gallbladder, liver and pancreas. Obesity and diabetes weren’t the only causes of these cancers, but the conditions played a role. “We know a lot about what causes obesity and diabetes, but what it is about being obese or diabetic that causes cancer is less clear,” said the lead author, Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, a clinical fellow at Imperial College London. “It may be that exposure to high insulin levels or insulin resistance may also be a cause of cancer.” The study, in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, found considerable differences in the proportions of cancer cases attributable to B.M.I. on the one hand and to diabetes on the other. For example, high B.M.I. was associated with about twice as many cases of colorectal cancer as diabetes, and nearly three times as many cases of breast and endometrial cancers. Diabetes was not associated with kidney cancer at all, but high B.M.I. was linked to about a fifth of kidney cancer cases. High B.M.I. and diabetes combined accounted for 38.4 percent of endometrial cancers but only 8.9 percent of breast cancers. In men, the two conditions combin Continue reading >>

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