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Obesity And Diabetes Risk

Obesity And Cancer

Obesity And Cancer

What is obesity? Obesity is a condition in which a person has an unhealthy amount and/or distribution of body fat. To measure obesity, researchers commonly use a scale known as the body mass index (BMI). BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by their height (in meters) squared (commonly expressed as kg/m2). BMI provides a more accurate measure of obesity than weight alone, and for most people it is a fairly good (although indirect) indicator of body fatness. Other measurements that reflect the distribution of body fat—that is, whether more fat is carried around the hips or the abdomen—are increasingly being used along with BMI as indicators of obesity and disease risks. These measurements include waist circumference and the waist-to-hip ratio (the waist circumference divided by the hip circumference). The standard weight categories based on BMI for adults age 20 years or older are BMI in kg/m2 Weight Category Below 18.5 Underweight 18.5 to 24.9 Normal 25.0 to 29.9 Overweight 30.0 to 39.9 Obese 40.0 or higher Severely obese The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute has a BMI calculator at For children and adolescents (younger than 20 years of age), overweight and obesity are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) BMI-for-age growth charts, which are available at BMI Weight Category BMI-for-age at or above sex-specific 85th percentile, but less than 95th percentile Overweight BMI-for-age at or above sex-specific 95th percentile Obese The CDC has a BMI percentile calculator for children and teens at Compared with people of normal weight, those who are overweight or obese are at greater risk for many diseases, including diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and many cancers. Extreme or Continue reading >>

What Increases My Risk Of Diabetes?

What Increases My Risk Of Diabetes?

There are three major types of the disease: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. With all three, your body can't make or use insulin. One of every four people with diabetes doesn't know they have it. That amounts to about 7 million Americans. Might you be one of them? Read on to see if your risk of having diabetes is high. This type usually starts in childhood. Your pancreas stops making insulin. You have type 1 diabetes for life. The main things that lead to it are: Family history. If you have relatives with diabetes, chances are strong you’ll get it, too. Anyone who has a mother, father, sister, or brother with type 1 diabetes should get checked. A simple blood test can diagnose it. Diseases of the pancreas. They can slow its ability to make insulin. Infection or illness. Some infections and illnesses, mostly rare ones, can damage your pancreas. If you have this kind, your body can't use the insulin it makes. This is called insulin resistance. Type 2 usually affects adults, but it can begin at any time in your life. The main things that lead to it are: Obesity or being overweight. Research shows this is a top reason for type 2 diabetes. Because of the rise in obesity among U.S. children, this type is affecting more teenagers. Impaired glucose tolerance. Prediabetes is a milder form of this condition. It can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. If you have it, there’s a strong chance you’ll get type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes often starts with cells that are resistant to insulin. That means your pancreas has to work extra hard to make enough insulin to meet your body's needs. Ethnic background. Diabetes happens more often in Hispanic/Latino Americans, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Alaska n Continue reading >>

Anti-stress Compound Reduces Obesity And Diabetes Risk

Anti-stress Compound Reduces Obesity And Diabetes Risk

Summary: A protein associated with anxiety and depression has been found to act as a link between the stress regulatory system and metabolic processes, research report. Source: Max Planck Institute. For the first time, scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich could prove that a stress protein found in muscle has a diabetes promoting effect. This finding could pave the way to a completely new treatment approach. For some time, researchers have known that the protein FKBP51 is associated with depression and anxiety disorders. It is involved in the regulation of the stress system – when the system does not function properly; mental disorders may develop. Now, researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry have discovered a new, surprising role for this protein: It acts as a molecular link between the stress regulatory system and metabolic processes in the body. “FKBP51 influences a signaling cascade in muscle tissue, which with excessive calorie intake leads to the development of glucose intolerance, i.e., the key indicator of diabetes type 2,” project leader Mathias Schmidt summarizes. An unhealthy diet, rich in fat means stress for the body. If FKBP51 is increasingly produced in the muscle it leads to reduced absorption of glucose – as a result, diabetes and obesity may develop. If FKBP51 is blocked, diabetes will not develop, even if too many calories are consumed or the body is still stressed. Less FKBP51 in the muscle tissue means reduced glucose intolerance and thus maintenance of normal metabolism. If FKBP51 is blocked, diabetes will not develop, even if too many calories are consumed or the body is still stressed. Less FKBP51 in the muscle tissue means reduced glucose intolerance and thus maintenance of normal metabolism. Neur Continue reading >>

Obesity And Diabetes As Risk Factors For Severe Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria: Results From A Swedish Nationwide Study.

Obesity And Diabetes As Risk Factors For Severe Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria: Results From A Swedish Nationwide Study.

Abstract Background: Noncommunicable diseases and obesity are increasing in prevalence globally, also in populations at risk of malaria. We sought to investigate if comorbidity, in terms of chronic diseases and obesity, is associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study in adults (≥18 years of age) diagnosed with malaria in Sweden between January 1995 and May 2015. We identified cases through the surveillance database at the Public Health Agency of Sweden and reviewed clinical data from 18 hospitals. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between comorbidities and severe malaria. Results: Among 937 adults (median age, 37 years; 66.5% were male), patients with severe malaria had higher prevalence of chronic diseases (28/92 [30.4%]) compared with nonsevere cases (151/845 [17.9%]) (P = .004). Charlson comorbidity score ≥1 was associated with severe malaria (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.63 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.45-4.77), as was diabetes among individual diagnoses (aOR, 2.98 [95% CI, 1.25-7.09]). Median body mass index was higher among severe (29.3 kg/m2) than nonsevere cases (24.7 kg/m2) (P < .001). Obesity was strongly associated with severe malaria, both independently (aOR, 5.58 [95% CI, 2.03-15.36]) and in combination with an additional metabolic risk factor (hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes) (aOR, 6.54 [95% CI, 1.87-22.88]). The associations were observed among nonimmune travelers as well as immigrants from endemic areas. Conclusions: Comorbidities, specifically obesity and diabetes, are previously unidentified risk factors for severe malaria in adults diagnosed with P. falciparum. Noncommunicable diseases should be considered in the acute management and prev Continue reading >>

Everyday Chemicals May Up Obesity And Diabetes Risk

Everyday Chemicals May Up Obesity And Diabetes Risk

Man-made chemicals in everyday items such as paint, plastics and mattresses may be linked to the sharp rise in obesity and diabetes in western societies, researchers have warned. Analysis of 240 scientific papers on obesity, pollution and type 2 diabetes suggests increasing exposure to chemicals, such as pesticides, paint additives, flame retardants, diesel and common substances in food packaging and plastic bottles, play an important role in the development of both conditions. The chemicals enter the food chain and build up in the body where they mimic or interfere with the effect of hormones to encourage the storage of fat, alter appetite and slow the rate at which fat is burned, the researchers claim. Co-author Professor Miquel Porta, from the School of Public health at the University of North Carolina, said: “The epidemics in obesity and diabetes are extremely worrying. The role of hormone disrupting chemicals in this must be addressed. The number of such chemicals that contaminate humans is considerable.” “We must encourage new policies that help minimise human exposure to all relevant hormone disrupters, especially women planning pregnancy, as it appears to be the foetus developing in utero that is at greatest risk. He added that the link between environmental chemicals and diabetes in people was first made more than 15 years ago and that the volume and strength of evidence has been ‘particularly persuasive’ since 2006. Continue reading >>

Studies On Uk Couples Suggest They Share The Risk Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Studies On Uk Couples Suggest They Share The Risk Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

In people aged 50 or older, having an obese wife substantially increases a man's risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to the first study to investigate the sex-specific effect of spousal obesity on diabetes risk. The research, being presented at this year's European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) Annual Meeting in Lisbon, Portugal (11-15 September), also suggests that the over 55s with a spouse with T2D tend to be more obese than their peers without a diabetic partner. The authors say that obesity or T2D in one partner could lead to T2D in the other due to the many risk behaviours that lead to diabetes shared by couples, such as poor eating habits and little physical activity. People who are obese or have a family history of T2D are already known to have a much higher risk of T2D. But until now, the sex-specific effect of spousal obesity beyond the person's own obesity level on the risk of developing T2D was unclear. These are the first studies that specifically analyse these links. In the first of two studies, Adam Hulman from Aarhus University in Denmark and colleagues examined the association of spousal diabetes and obesity with the risk of developing T2D in 3650 men and 3478 women (aged 50 or older) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)--a nationally representative sample of older men and women living in England. Participants were interviewed every 2.5 years during 1998-2015, and incidence of T2D was identified from self-reports or clinical examination. The results were adjusted for potential factors that might contribute to the risk of developing T2D such as age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and an individual's own obesity level (i.e., body mass index and waist circumference). Over the median follow-up of 11.5 years, Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Obesity

Diabetes And Obesity

Tweet The UK currently ranks as the country with the highest level of obesity in Europe, with more than 1 in 4 (28.1%) adults obese and nearly two out of three (63.4%) overweight. Over the next 20 years, the number of obese adults in the country is forecast to soar to 26 million people. According to health experts, such a rise would result in more than a million extra cases of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer.[10] Obesity is also no longer a condition that just affects older people, although the likelihood does increase with age, and increasing numbers of young people have been diagnosed with obesity. Data from Public Health England suggests that nearly a third (31.2%) of children aged 2 to 15 years old are obese. Links between obesity and type 2 diabetes While the exact causes of diabetes are still not fully understood, it is known that factors up the risk of developing different types of diabetes mellitus. For type 2 diabetes, this includes being overweight or obese (having a body mass index - BMI - of 30 or greater). In fact, obesity is believed to account for 80-85% of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while recent research suggests that obese people are up to 80 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those with a BMI of less than 22. How does obesity cause type 2 diabetes? It is a well-known fact that if you are overweight or obese, you are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes, particularly if you have excess weight around your tummy (abdomen). Inflammatory response Studies suggest that abdominal fat causes fat cells to release ‘pro-inflammatory’ chemicals, which can make the body less sensitive to the insulin it produces by disrupting the function of insulin responsive cells and their ability to respond to insulin. This is kn Continue reading >>

Increased Risk For Obesity And Diabetes With Neurodegeneration In Developing Countries

Increased Risk For Obesity And Diabetes With Neurodegeneration In Developing Countries

1Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer’s Disease Research and Care, School of Medical Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, 6027, Australia 2School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, 6009, Australia 3McCusker Alzheimer's Research Foundation, Hollywood Medical Centre, 85 Monash Avenue, Suite 22, Nedlands, 6009, Australia Citation: Martins IJ (2013) Increased Risk for Obesity and Diabetes with Neurodegeneration in Developing Countries. J Mol Genet Med S1:001. doi:10.4172/1747-0862.S1-001 Copyright: © 2013 Martins IJ. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Visit for more related articles at Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine Abstract The incidence of global obesity and Type 2 diabetes has increased and is predicted to rise to 30% of the global population. Diet and lifestyle factors are incapable to resolve the increased incidence for obesity and diabetes in various populations of the world. Developing countries have come to the forefront because of the higher diabetic epidemic. The urbanization may possibly provide an explanation for the global diabetic epidemic. In Western countries the metabolic syndrome and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have reached 30 % of the population and now at present NAFLD afflicts 20% of developing populations. Western diets and sedentary lifestyles cause metabolic disorders in developing countries which may increase neurodegenerative diseases by the disrupted metabolism of xenobiotics in urban populations. In developing countries access to high calorie Continue reading >>

Maternal Obesity, Diabetes Tied To Increased Autism Risk In Kids

Maternal Obesity, Diabetes Tied To Increased Autism Risk In Kids

By Lisa Rapaport Mothers who are obese during pregnancy have almost twice the odds of having a child with autism as women who weigh less, a U.S. study suggests. When women are both obese and have diabetes, the autism risk for their child is at least quadrupled, researchers reported online January 29 in Pediatrics. "In terms of absolute risk, compared to common pediatric diseases such as obesity and asthma, the rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the U.S. population is relatively low, however, the personal, family and societal impact of ASD is enormous," said senior study author Dr. Xiaobin Wang, a public health and pediatrics researcher at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. About one in 68 children have ASD, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or about 1.5 percent of U.S. children. The study findings suggest the risk rises closer to about 3 percent of babies born to women who are obese or have diabetes, and approaches 5 percent to 6 percent when mothers have the combination of obesity and diabetes. Wang and colleagues analyzed data on 2,734 mother-child pairs followed at Boston Medical Center between 1998 and 2014. Most of the children, 64 percent, weren't diagnosed with any other development disorders, but there were 102 kids who did receive an ASD diagnosis. Compared with typically developing kids, those with ASD were more likely to be boys, born preterm and at a low birth weight. Mothers of children with ASD were likely to be older, obese and to have diabetes diagnosed before or during pregnancy. Maternal obesity was linked to a 92 percent increased risk for autism on its own, while diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy was associated with more than triple the risk. When women both had diabetes and were obese, the autism risk com Continue reading >>

Why Does Obesity Cause Diabetes?

Why Does Obesity Cause Diabetes?

Being overweight or obese increases the chances of developing the common type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes. In this disease, the body makes enough insulin but the cells in the body have become resistant to the salutary action of insulin. Why does this happen? New Research: A report this week in Science proposes that being overweight stresses the insides of individual cells. Specifically, overeating stresses the membranous network inside of cells called endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When the ER has more nutrients to process than it can handle, it sends out an alarm signal telling the cell to dampen down the insulin receptors on the cell surface. This translates to insulin resistance and to persistently high concentrations of the sugar glucose in the blood -- one of the sure signs of diabetes. Comment: Research into diabetes today is far ranging. It ranges from the environment to the deep dark recesses of the single cell. It is much easier to look at the environment, for example, "Super Size Me" in a fast-food culture, than it is to sort out what is going on inside the workings of an individual cell. Barbara K. Hecht, Ph.D. Frederick Hecht, M.D. Medical Editors, MedicineNet.com Study Suggests How Obesity Causes Diabetes HealthDay Reporter THURSDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDayNews) -- Scientists know that obesity is a key player in the development of type 2 diabetes, but exactly how excess weight causes the disease isn't clear. While trying to answer that question, Harvard University researchers have discovered a new pathway that sets in motion a series of reactions that leads to the development of insulin resistance, a precursor of type 2 diabetes, a new study reports. The researchers found that obesity causes stress in a system of cellular membranes called endoplasmic reticulum (ER Continue reading >>

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes by Joanne Z. Rogers, MSN, RN, CNSN, APRN, BC-AD, and Christopher D. Still, DO, FACN, FACP To view a PDF Version of this article, please click here. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are diseases that can substantially decrease life expectancy, diminish quality of life and increase healthcare costs. The incidence of obesity and diabetes continues to rise by epidemic proportions. The term “diabesity” has been coined to describe obesity-dependent diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, in 2002 18.2 million people, or 6.3 percent of the population, had diabetes. Diabetes was the sixth leading cause of death listed on U.S. death certificates in 2000. The direct and indirect cost of diabetes in the U.S. in 2002 was estimated at $132 billion. It has been estimated that the annual cost of overweight and obesity in the U.S. is $122.9 billion. This estimate accounts for $64.1 billion in direct costs and $58.8 billion in indirect costs. What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action or both. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body’s immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells, the only cells in the body that make the hormone insulin that regulates blood glucose. This form of diabetes usually strikes children and young adults, although disease onset can occur at any age. Type 1 diabetes accounts for only five to 10 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes include autoimmune, genetic and environmental factors. Type 2 diabetes accounts for some 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. It usually begins as insulin resistance, a disorder in which the cells do not use insulin properly. As the nee Continue reading >>

Obesity And Diabetes

Obesity And Diabetes

Doctors and researchers have found that obesity and diabetes are connected. Persons who are obese are at high risk for developing Type 2 diabetes (also known as "insulin-resistant" or "adult-onset" diabetes), particularly if a close family member is affected with diabetes. Therefore, it becomes very important to maintain a healthy body weight throughout your life in order to protect yourself from developing a chronic disease like diabetes. As nurses associated with the Genetics of the Acadian People projects, we have been asked questions at public forums concerning obesity and diabetes. The following is a list of some of the most commonly asked questions, together with our answers and advice. Is obesity caused by a specific genetic defect? Researchers have not yet discovered a specific gene that causes obesity, although several genes are considered to be important in playing a part. However, we have come to understand that a person's genetic make-up can result in a predisposition to becoming obese. This means that a person may be particularly susceptible to becoming obese through experiencing risk factors in their life, like high calorie or high fat diets and lack of exercise. Your genetic make-up, which you have inherited from your parents, may contribute to your general body type, including how and where your body deposits fat in certain places such as buttocks or thighs. There seems to be a strong connection between abdominal fat and diabetes. What, then, is the major cause of obesity? The environment plays a much larger role in a person's likelihood of becoming obese than does any specific gene. By "environment," we mean not only what the outside world does to a person's body but also what enters a person's body through eating and drinking. The two main factors that Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

Edcs Linked To Rising Diabetes, Obesity Risk

Edcs Linked To Rising Diabetes, Obesity Risk

Endocrine Society releases Scientific Statement on Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals Emerging evidence ties endocrine-disrupting chemical exposure to two of the biggest public health threats facing society – diabetes and obesity, according to the executive summary of an upcoming Scientific Statement issued today by the Endocrine Society. The statement’s release comes as Society experts are addressing a global meeting, the International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM4), in Geneva, Switzerland, on the importance of using scientific approaches to limit health risks of EDC exposure. The statement builds upon the Society’s groundbreaking 2009 report, which examined the state of scientific evidence on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the risks posed to human health. In the ensuing years, additional research has found that exposure is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes and obesity. Mounting evidence also indicates EDC exposure is connected to infertility, hormone-related cancers, neurological issues and other disorders. EDCs contribute to health problems by mimicking, blocking or otherwise interfering with the body’s natural hormones. By hijacking the body’s chemical messengers, EDCs can alter the way cells develop and grow. Known EDCs include bisphenol A (BPA) found in food can linings and cash register receipts, phthalates found in plastics and cosmetics, flame retardants and pesticides. The chemicals are so common that nearly every person on Earth has been exposed to one or more. An economic analysis published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism in March estimated that EDC exposure likely costs the European Union €157 billion ($209 billion) a year in actual health care expenses and lost earning potential. Continue reading >>

The Magnitude Of Association Between Overweight And Obesity And The Risk Of Diabetes: A Meta-analysis Of Prospective Cohort Studies

The Magnitude Of Association Between Overweight And Obesity And The Risk Of Diabetes: A Meta-analysis Of Prospective Cohort Studies

Abstract The objectives of this meta-analysis were to examine the magnitude of the relative risk (RR) of developing type 2 diabetes for overweight and obese populations, compared to those with normal weight, and to determine causes of the variation in RR between various cohort studies. The magnitude of the RR was analyzed by combining 18 prospective cohort studies that matched defined criteria. The variance in RR between studies was explored. The overall RR of diabetes for obese persons compared to those with normal weight was 7.19, 95% CI: 5.74, 9.00 and for overweight was 2.99, 95% CI: 2.42, 3.72. The variation in RR among studies was explored and it was found that the effect of heterogeneity was highly related with sample size, method of assessment of body mass index (BMI) and method of ascertainment of type 2 diabetes. By combining only cohort studies with more than 400 cases of incident diabetes (>median), adjusted by at least three main confounding variables (age, family history of type 2 diabetes, physical activity), measured BMI, and diabetes determined by clinical diagnosis, the RR was 7.28, 95% CI: 6.47, 8.28 for obesity and 2.92, 95% CI: 2.57, 3.32 for overweight. Continue reading >>

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