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New Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

Immunotherapy Shows Promise In Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

Immunotherapy Shows Promise In Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

Around 1.25 million Americans are living with type 1 diabetes and 40,000 new cases are detected each year. In this condition body’s own immune system attacks and damages the insulin-producing β-cells inside the pancreas leading to impaired glucose metabolism in the body. There is no other treatment for this condition than regular painful insulin injections to maintain the normal insulin levels in the body. Type 1 diabetes is currently considered to be incurable. In a landmark study, researchers compared immunotherapy based treatment for type 1 diabetes with placebo and showed that the novel immune treatment can stop the progression of type 1 diabetes. The immune therapy was also deemed safe among subjects. The study was published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. Mohammad Alhadj Ali and colleagues for this study included 27 people who were within 100 days of being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and randomly divided them into two groups - to receive injections of either placebo or immunotherapy at two or four week intervals for six months. The new immune therapy they have developed is made to distract the T cells of the immune system that normally destroy the beta cells of the pancreas. It works by mimicking a portion of proinsulin peptide. Thus the immune cells attack this imposter and leave the insulin secreted intact. The injected drug also trains the T cells to recognize them as harmless so that they do not attack the beta cells that make proinsulin in the body. Therapy showed no toxic side effects and the progression of beta cell destruction was prevented to a great extent with this therapy not only during the trial but also six months beyond that. All eight subjects who received the placebo injection needed to increase their insulin doses over the y Continue reading >>

New Treatment On The Horizon For Type 1 Diabetes Sufferers

New Treatment On The Horizon For Type 1 Diabetes Sufferers

Patients suffering from type 1 diabetes may soon have access to improved approaches to treat the disease, courtesy of new research out of Sydney's Westmead Institute for Medical Research. The team of researchers, led by Professor Jenny Gunton, discovered that pancreatic islets transplants delivered into the quadriceps muscle work just as successfully as the current clinical practice of transplanting islets into a patient's liver via the portal vein. Lead researcher Ms Rebecca Stokes said that transplants into the liver can present certain risks for the patient, so their research investigated safer and more beneficial treatment options for transplant recipients. "Islets are cells in the pancreas that produce insulin," Ms Stokes explained. "Pancreatic islet transplantation is used as a cure for type 1 diabetes as it allows the recipient to produce and regulate insulin after their own islet cells have been destroyed by the disease. "Currently, islet transplants are infused into a patient's liver via the portal vein. This site is used for islet transplants due to its exposure to both nutrients and insulin in the body. "However, islet infusion into the liver also presents certain risks for the patient, including potential complications from bleeding, blood clots and portal hypertension. "This suggests that there may be better treatment options for patients receiving islet transplants. "We investigated alternative transplantation sites for human and mouse islets in recipient mice, comparing the portal vein with quadriceps muscle and kidney, liver and spleen capsules. "Colleagues in Professor Wayne Hawthorne's group also tested similar sites for pig islet transplants in their companion paper. "Professor Hawthorne's research examining xenotransplantation - the process of transp Continue reading >>

City Of Hope Aims To Cure Type 1 Diabetes In Six Years

City Of Hope Aims To Cure Type 1 Diabetes In Six Years

It’s an extraordinary goal powered by an extraordinary gift. City of Hope’s Diabetes & Metabolism Research Institute is committed to developing a cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D) within six years, fueled by a $50 million funding program led by the Wanek family. It seems an audacious goal for a comprehensive cancer center, but City of Hope has a long history of groundbreaking work in diabetes. Research conducted by City of Hope led to the development of synthetic human insulin, which is still used today by many of the estimated 1.5 million Americans with T1D and 27 million with type 2 diabetes (T2D). “City of Hope is best positioned to take on this challenge,” said Robert W. Stone, president and chief executive officer of City of Hope. “This is thanks to our 40-year institutional legacy of pioneering treatment and research advances in diabetes.” The funding for the transformative research needed to embark on such an endeavor is led by a gift from the Wanek family, which owns Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest home furniture manufacturer. “City of Hope scientists’ research has revolutionized the understanding and treatment of diabetes,” said Todd Wanek, chief executive officer of Ashley Furniture, speaking on behalf of his family. “It continues today as physicians and scientists gain systemic understanding of diabetes as a complex, multifaceted disease.” Through the generosity of the family and gifts from an anonymous donor, City of Hope will be able to devote more than $50 million over the next six years to an unprecedented research effort: The Wanek Family Project for Type 1 Diabetes at City of Hope. A Multifaceted Approach The Wanek Family Project will result in the creation of a series of highly focused programs at City of Hope. The Continue reading >>

9 Diabetes Breakthroughs You Need To Know About

9 Diabetes Breakthroughs You Need To Know About

Diabetes is not just one condition - but whether your body is struggling with blood sugar levels due to type 1, or type 2, or even only during pregnancy, it's a serious condition that requires daily care and still doesn't have a cure. But scientists have been working hard to find cures, new treatments, and better management techniques for the millions of people worldwide dealing with diabetes. Here are some of the latest developments you need to know about. 1. Brand new beta cells. Type 1 diabetes develops when a person's immune system wipes out insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. But it turns out that another type of immature beta cell has been hiding in our pancreases all along, and scientists think it might be possible to use these 'virgin beta cells' to restore the functionality of the pancreas. 2. A preventative vaccine. Finnish researchers are about to embark on the first-ever clinical trial for a type 1 diabetes prevention vaccine. While it's not a cure for those who already have the condition, a successful vaccine could potentially prevent thousands of cases each year, as the vaccine targets a virus linked with the development of an autoimmune reaction in the pancreas. 3. A unique transplant. One woman with severe type 1 diabetes has spent a year without insulin injections thanks to an experimental transplant. Doctors implanted insulin-producing cells into a fatty membrane in the stomach cavity, and the success of the operation is paving the way towards more people receiving artificial pancreases. 4. New pancreas tissue. Earlier this year scientists announced that they reversed type 1 diabetes in mice by giving them a transplant of pancreatic tissue. The tissue was grown using stem cells from non-diabetic mice, and the success of this method suggests i Continue reading >>

New Type 1 Diabetes Treatment And Prevention Options On The Horizon

New Type 1 Diabetes Treatment And Prevention Options On The Horizon

There’s new hope on the horizon for those with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Biopharmaceutical company TetraGenetics is working on an innovative drug therapy that can stop or prevent the body’s immune system from attacking its own pancreas. How T1D Develops Most people who develop T1D do so as a result of a particular virus that triggers an exaggerated autoimmune response. In the pancreas, the cells that produce insulin are called beta cells. In people that have a particular type of gene associated with T1D, the beta cells have a quality (an antigen) that closely resembles the antigens found in the virus. When you are exposed to the virus, your immune system activates its T cells to start combating the infection by creating antibodies. However, these antibodies can’t distinguish between the beta cells and the virus cells. They look too similar, so the antibodies destroy them all in an attempt to protect against the viral infection. Unfortunately, by killing off your beta cells, your immune system has also eliminated your body’s ability to produce insulin. You are now diabetic. Both Genes and Virus Necessary for T1D to Develop There are four viruses that can cause the autoimmune cascade that results in T1D: German measles, mumps, rotavirus, and the B4 strain of the coxsackie B virus. These viruses all possess antigens that are similar to the antigens in the beta cells of the pancreas. It’s important to note that not everyone who is exposed to these viruses will develop T1D. You have to already possess the genetic makeup associated with T1D. If you do carry the T1D genes but don’t get any of these viruses, you may never actually develop the disease. You have to have both. In other words, if you do have these genes and you contract one of the viruses, then you will li Continue reading >>

8 Amazing Breakthroughs In Diabetes Research That Are Giving Us Hope

8 Amazing Breakthroughs In Diabetes Research That Are Giving Us Hope

8 Amazing Breakthroughs in Diabetes Research That Are Giving Us Hope According to recent research , we're not entirely sure how many diseases the label 'diabetes' covers. But no matter what causes our bodies to struggle with their blood sugar levels, it's a serious condition that requires daily care. Scientists have been working hard to find cures, new treatments, and better management techniques for the millions of people worldwide dealing with diabetes. Here are some of the latest developments you need to know about. 1. Insulin producing implants made from stem cells Clinical trials began last year for testing for ViaCyte's PEC-Direct device ; a credit-card sized implant containing insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells. Previous research had shown the implants could mature and function inside patients. Together with a cohort of volunteers who started testing in January, the new research should tell us soon whether the technology can help people with type-1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops when a person's immune system wipes out insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. But it turns out that another type of immature beta cell has been hiding in our pancreases all along, and scientists think it might be possible to use these 'virgin beta cells' to restore the functionality of the pancreas. A drug on the World Health Organisation's list of essential drugs could have another purpose ; blocking a molecule implemented in the autoimmune response that can give rise to type-1 diabetes. Called methyldopa, the compound already has an important job treating high blood pressure in pregnant women and children. It's left to be seen if it could help reduce the incidence of diabetes in some way, but the fact it's already being used - rather than being stuck in the lab Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can live long, happy lives with proper care and disease management. Advancements in medication types and delivery methods give people the freedom to choose which treatment options work best with their particular circumstance. T1D prognoses can be greatly improved with a combination of treatments and lifestyle choices. Insulin and other medications Insulin Type 1 diabetes is managed through use of a variety of insulins. People with T1D must work closely with their medical team to find the right insulin treatment for their condition. Further information about the types of insulin and their effects are available on our insulin page. Insulin can be delivered via syringes or pens, pumps or new artificial pancreas systems. Though the administration method, frequency and type of insulin dosage vary on a case-by-case basis, injections may be needed multiple times per day. Metformin and other medications Metformin: Combined with insulin, diet and exercise, type 2 diabetes (T2D) drug metformin is sometimes prescribed to people with T1D to help treat their diabetes. Metformin helps control the body’s blood-sugar levels and how the liver processes sugar. Pramlintide (Symlin): Used in conjunction with insulin, pramlintide is often prescribed after other medications prove not as effective as needed. It acts as a hormone to help the body better control blood sugar. Blood pressure drugs, cholesterol medications and aspirin: Medications for high blood pressure and high cholesterol as well as aspirin can be prescribed with insulin to help the overall health and treatment of diabetes. Since people with diabetes have an increased chance of cardiovascular disease, these drugs are used in combination with other diabetes medications. Side effects of medicat Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Atom RSS Feed Type 1 diabetes (also known as diabetes mellitus) is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack and destroy the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. The loss of insulin leads to the inability to regulate blood sugar levels. Patients are usually treated by insulin-replacement therapy. Continue reading >>

A Quest: Insulin-releasing Implant For Type-1 Diabetes

A Quest: Insulin-releasing Implant For Type-1 Diabetes

Scientists in California think they may have found a way to transplant insulin-producing cells into diabetic patients who lack those cells — and protect the little insulin-producers from immune rejection. Their system, one of several promising approaches under development, hasn't yet been tested in people. But if it works, it could make living with diabetes much less of a burden. For now, patients with Type-1 diabetes have to regularly test their blood sugar levels, and inject themselves with insulin when it's needed. Some researchers are developing machines to automate that process. But Crystal Nyitray, founder and CEO of the biotechnology startup Encellin, in San Francisco, didn't want to use a machine to treat diabetes. As a graduate student in bioengineering at the University of California, San Francisco a few years ago, Nyitray wanted to try something different: living cells. "Cells are the ultimate smart machine," she says. Clinical trials that transplant insulin-making pancreatic cells into people with diabetes have been underway for several years, with some success. But the recipient's immune system is hard on these transplanted cells, and most patients still need insulin injections eventually. Nyitray and colleagues designed a system that would encase live islet cells from the pancreas in a flexible membrane that could be implanted under the skin. Insulin and blood sugar could pass through the membrane, but cells from the recipient's immune system would be kept out, preventing immune rejection. "I think of it like if you're sitting in a house and you have the window open with a screen," Nyitray says. "So you can feel the breeze of the air outside, and smell everything, but the bugs and the flies aren't able to get through because you have the screen in place. Continue reading >>

New Diabetes Treatment Teaches Rogue Immune Cells To Behave

New Diabetes Treatment Teaches Rogue Immune Cells To Behave

(Getty Images) A treatment targeting wayward immune cells in people with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes may help even years later, a new study finds. For the treatment, researchers take blood from a person with diabetes and separate out the immune system cells (lymphocytes). They briefly expose those cells to stem cells from umbilical cord blood from an unrelated infant. Then they return the lymphocytes to the patient's body. The researchers have dubbed this treatment "stem cell educator therapy," because when exposed to the stem cells, the errant lymphocytes seem to re-learn how they should behave. "Stem cell educator therapy is a safe approach" with long-term effectiveness, said the study's lead author, Dr. Yong Zhao, an associate scientist at Hackensack University Medical Center in New Jersey. Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease, occurs when the body's immune system cells mistakenly attack the insulin-producing (beta) cells in the pancreas. This leaves people with Type 1 diabetes with little to no insulin. They need insulin injections to survive. Researchers have long thought that any cure for Type 1 diabetes would have to stop the autoimmune attack, while regenerating or transplanting beta cells. But Zhao and his team developed a new approach to the problem — educating the immune cells that had been destroying beta cells so they stop attacking. In Type 2 diabetes, Zhao said immune cell dysfunction is responsible for chronic inflammation that causes insulin resistance. When someone is insulin-resistant, their body's cells can't properly use insulin to usher sugar from foods into cells for use as energy. Instead, the sugar builds up in the blood. The researchers hoped the stem cell educator would help decrease insulin resistance for people with Type 2 diabetes. In ear Continue reading >>

Scientists May Have Found A Functional Cure For Type-1 Diabetes

Scientists May Have Found A Functional Cure For Type-1 Diabetes

Type-1 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects an estimated 42 million people worldwide, and occurs when the pancreas produces little to no insulin. Those with the condition must take supplemental insulin so their bodies can process sugars. But now, researchers at ViaCyte, a regenerative medicine company, have some good news: They're working on a therapy based on stem cells that can automatically release insulin into the body when it's needed. The treatment is specifically aimed at patients with high-risk type-1 diabetes. ViaCyte estimates that around 140,000 people in the US and Canada suffer from the condition, which can cause life-threatening events. The use of stem cells to replace pancreatic insulin cells has been tried before, but without much success. ViaCyte's approach shows promise because the stem cells can mature within the body itself through an implant the company calls PEC-Direct. There has already been a round of clinical trials to test whether the stem cells could fully grow into the type of cells necessary to produce insulin -- called islet cells. That was a success. But the number of cells within the implants wasn't enough to actually treat the patients; it was solely to test whether the cells could, in fact, be grown. Now, in coordination with JDRF, an organization that funds type-1 diabetes research, ViaCyte has implanted PEC-Directs into two patients as a trial. It's important to note that this isn't a full cure. It's what ViaCyte President and CEO Paul Laikind calls "a functional cure." It doesn't address and treat the specific causes of the condition. Additionally, patients using this treatment would be required to take immunosuppressive drugs to protect the created cells from the body's immune system, according to New Scientist. Regardless, Continue reading >>

Dr Bart Roep: The Man Who Wants To Cure Type 1 Diabetes Within Six Years

Dr Bart Roep: The Man Who Wants To Cure Type 1 Diabetes Within Six Years

'The C-word is controversial within diabetes circles, yet the City of Hope had no reticence about making the claim.' - Jack Woodfield. Dr Bart Roep is the director of the diabetes research facilityat the City of Hope's Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute. Born in the Netherlands, he leads a team whose mission is to cure type 1 diabetes, and while their ambitions are lofty, so is their early success. In March, Dr Roep's team published the results of a 14-year-boy with type 1 diabetes who underwent stem cell transplantation. The boy has since been free from insulin without any side effects for eight years. This, Dr Roep said, was the first definitive proof that type 1 diabetes can be cured. But there are still several critical questions to be answered. Dr Roep acknowledges that cure is "a dangerous word to use" in regard to type 1 diabetes research. "What we are trying to do is understand why people get type 1 diabetes and to translate this to find a cure," Roep said. "That is, of course, a dangerous word to use. But we think that we are onto a couple of leads." One of these leads is islet cell transplantation, a procedure that involves transplanting islet (insulin-producing) cells into patients from donor pancreases. In some cases, the transplants can help a patient come off insulin, but other times the cells are rejected or attacked by the immune system unless immunosuppressant drugs are also given, which can cause side effects. Dr Roep's team made a significant discovery along the way: by reading the immune signatures of patients they were able to predict how successful transplantation would be. Dr Roep says this is the first step towards personalising medicine in type 1 diabetes. "It turns out we can predict before surgery who has a fantastic chance of lasting Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment & Management

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment & Management

Approach Considerations Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) require lifelong insulin therapy. Most require 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Long-term management requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes physicians, nurses, dietitians, and selected specialists. In some patients, the onset of type 1 DM is marked by an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but is followed by a symptom-free “honeymoon period” in which the symptoms remit and the patient requires little or no insulin. This remission is caused by a partial return of endogenous insulin secretion, and it may last for several weeks or months (sometimes for as long as 1-2 years). Ultimately, however, the disease recurs, and patients require insulin therapy. Often, the patient with new-onset type 1 DM who presents with mild manifestations and who is judged to be compliant can begin insulin therapy as an outpatient. However, this approach requires close follow-up and the ability to provide immediate and thorough education about the use of insulin; the signs, symptoms, and treatment of hypoglycemia; and the need to self-monitor blood glucose levels. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends using patient age as one consideration in the establishment of glycemic goals, with targets for preprandial, bedtime/overnight, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. [5] In 2014, the ADA released a position statement on the diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes in all age groups. The statement includes a new pediatric glycemic control target of HbA1c of less than 7.5% across all pediatric age groups, replacing earlier guidelines that specified different glycemic control targets by age. The adult HbA1c target of les Continue reading >>

New Developments In The Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

New Developments In The Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

1. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1999;107 Suppl 3:S108-13. New developments in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. (1)Medical Department I, Center of Internal Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. [email protected] Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus has made tremendous advances within thelast decades. With concern to insulin delivery there are two promising newapproaches. One is the intrapulmonary insulin delivery which has become feasible by the development of new inhalation devices which provide a sufficient degree ofintrapulmonary drug retention. Also oral insulin delivery seems feasible whensurface active substances are used to cross the mucosal membrane in the gut.Clinical research has also focussed on coatings for the insulin molecules tosolve the problem raised by the proteolytic activity of the digestive system. Avery new agent produced by a fungus called Pseudomassaria has been demonstratedto reverse the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus in mice. The compound diffusesthrough the cell membrane, binds to the inner part of the insulin receptor andactivates the insulin typical biological effects. Nowadays a variety of insulinanalogs are designed and tested for their clinical use. By shifting theisoelectric point towards to a slightly acidic pH, HOE 901 precipitates atphysiologic pH resulting in a constant and peakless insulin delivery. NN 304 is a14-carbon aliphatic fatty acid acylated analog that binds to serum albuminresulting in a flatter time-action profile than NPH insulin. Also rapid actinginsulin analogs are or will be launched in the near future aiming to ensure animproved postprandial glucose regulation. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)improves metabolic control by a variety of effects, e.g. the enhanc Continue reading >>

Immune Systems Of Type 1 Diabetics Can Be Retrained To Stop Destroying Insulin, Scientists Show

Immune Systems Of Type 1 Diabetics Can Be Retrained To Stop Destroying Insulin, Scientists Show

Immune systems of type 1 diabetics can be retrained to stop destroying insulin, scientists show Scientists have shown for the first time that the immune system can be retrained to stop it attacking insulin producing beta cellsCredit:Bill Cheyrou / Alamy The damaged immune systems of diabetics can be retrained to stop them destroying insulin, scientists believe, following successful trials of a pioneering new therapy. Researchers at Kings College London and Cardiff University showed that injecting patients with tiny protein fragments prevented immune cells from targeting vital insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops when a patient's immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Without treatment the number of beta cells will slowly decrease and the body will no longer be able to maintain normal blood sugar (blood glucose) levels, leading to patients needing daily injections. involving 27 people showed it was possible to halt the loss of beta cells with fortnightly or monthly injections for six months. There were also no toxic side-effects. The new treatment stops immune cells (t-cells) attacking beta cells which produce insulin A placebo group who were not given the new treatment declined over the same period, while the trial patients all remained stable. The team is now planning larger trials. Professor Mark Peakman, of Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, said: "When someone is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes they still typically have between 15 per cent and 20 per cent of their beta cells. We wanted to see if we could protect these remaining cells by retraining the immune system to stop attacking them. "We still have a long way to go, but these early results suggest we are heading in the right direction. T Continue reading >>

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