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New Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

Immunotherapy Shows Promise In Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

Immunotherapy Shows Promise In Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

Around 1.25 million Americans are living with type 1 diabetes and 40,000 new cases are detected each year. In this condition body’s own immune system attacks and damages the insulin-producing β-cells inside the pancreas leading to impaired glucose metabolism in the body. There is no other treatment for this condition than regular painful insulin injections to maintain the normal insulin levels in the body. Type 1 diabetes is currently considered to be incurable. In a landmark study, researchers compared immunotherapy based treatment for type 1 diabetes with placebo and showed that the novel immune treatment can stop the progression of type 1 diabetes. The immune therapy was also deemed safe among subjects. The study was published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. Mohammad Alhadj Ali and colleagues for this study included 27 people who were within 100 days of being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and randomly divided them into two groups - to receive injections of either placebo or immunotherapy at two or four week intervals for six months. The new immune therapy they have developed is made to distract the T cells of the immune system that normally destroy the beta cells of the pancreas. It works by mimicking a portion of proinsulin peptide. Thus the immune cells attack this imposter and leave the insulin secreted intact. The injected drug also trains the T cells to recognize them as harmless so that they do not attack the beta cells that make proinsulin in the body. Therapy showed no toxic side effects and the progression of beta cell destruction was prevented to a great extent with this therapy not only during the trial but also six months beyond that. All eight subjects who received the placebo injection needed to increase their insulin doses over the y Continue reading >>

Clinical Trials Of Stem Cell-based

Clinical Trials Of Stem Cell-based "functional Cure" For Type 1 Diabetes Underway

2 pictures A human clinical trial examining the safety and efficacy of a "functional cure" for type 1 diabetes is currently underway. Trials of the novel islet cell replacement therapy developed by ViaCyte involve a device containing stem cells being implanted into a patient with type 1 diabetes. It's hoped these cells will then mature into human islet tissue with insulin-producing beta cells that produce insulin on demand. So far, 2017 is proving to be an exciting year for breakthroughs in diabetes research, particularly in regards to treatments for type 1 diabetes. We have seen two very promising developments based in gene therapy, while a human trial for a type 1 diabetes vaccine is currently underway in Finland targeting a viral group known to trigger the disease. The new treatment developed by ViaCyte is being described as a "functional cure" in that it could replace the missing insulin cells in a diabetic patient, as opposed to a more direct "cure" which would address the autoimmune roots of the disease. The treatment being trialed piggybacks off prior working knowledge of islet cell transplantation being successful in patients with type 1 diabetes. For some time, patients with the disease have been treated with pancreatic cells from organ donors, successfully liberating them from insulin injections. "Islet transplants have been used to successfully treat patients with unstable, high-risk type 1 diabetes, but the procedure has limitations, including a very limited supply of donor organs and challenges in obtaining reliable and consistent islet preparations," says trial investigator James Shapiro. "An effective stem cell-derived islet replacement therapy would solve these issues and has the potential to help a greater number of people." The new treatment involves a Continue reading >>

City Of Hope Aims To Cure Type 1 Diabetes In Six Years

City Of Hope Aims To Cure Type 1 Diabetes In Six Years

It’s an extraordinary goal powered by an extraordinary gift. City of Hope’s Diabetes & Metabolism Research Institute is committed to developing a cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D) within six years, fueled by a $50 million funding program led by the Wanek family. It seems an audacious goal for a comprehensive cancer center, but City of Hope has a long history of groundbreaking work in diabetes. Research conducted by City of Hope led to the development of synthetic human insulin, which is still used today by many of the estimated 1.5 million Americans with T1D and 27 million with type 2 diabetes (T2D). “City of Hope is best positioned to take on this challenge,” said Robert W. Stone, president and chief executive officer of City of Hope. “This is thanks to our 40-year institutional legacy of pioneering treatment and research advances in diabetes.” The funding for the transformative research needed to embark on such an endeavor is led by a gift from the Wanek family, which owns Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest home furniture manufacturer. “City of Hope scientists’ research has revolutionized the understanding and treatment of diabetes,” said Todd Wanek, chief executive officer of Ashley Furniture, speaking on behalf of his family. “It continues today as physicians and scientists gain systemic understanding of diabetes as a complex, multifaceted disease.” Through the generosity of the family and gifts from an anonymous donor, City of Hope will be able to devote more than $50 million over the next six years to an unprecedented research effort: The Wanek Family Project for Type 1 Diabetes at City of Hope. A Multifaceted Approach The Wanek Family Project will result in the creation of a series of highly focused programs at City of Hope. The Continue reading >>

9 Diabetes Breakthroughs You Need To Know About

9 Diabetes Breakthroughs You Need To Know About

Diabetes is not just one condition - but whether your body is struggling with blood sugar levels due to type 1, or type 2, or even only during pregnancy, it's a serious condition that requires daily care and still doesn't have a cure. But scientists have been working hard to find cures, new treatments, and better management techniques for the millions of people worldwide dealing with diabetes. Here are some of the latest developments you need to know about. 1. Brand new beta cells. Type 1 diabetes develops when a person's immune system wipes out insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. But it turns out that another type of immature beta cell has been hiding in our pancreases all along, and scientists think it might be possible to use these 'virgin beta cells' to restore the functionality of the pancreas. 2. A preventative vaccine. Finnish researchers are about to embark on the first-ever clinical trial for a type 1 diabetes prevention vaccine. While it's not a cure for those who already have the condition, a successful vaccine could potentially prevent thousands of cases each year, as the vaccine targets a virus linked with the development of an autoimmune reaction in the pancreas. 3. A unique transplant. One woman with severe type 1 diabetes has spent a year without insulin injections thanks to an experimental transplant. Doctors implanted insulin-producing cells into a fatty membrane in the stomach cavity, and the success of the operation is paving the way towards more people receiving artificial pancreases. 4. New pancreas tissue. Earlier this year scientists announced that they reversed type 1 diabetes in mice by giving them a transplant of pancreatic tissue. The tissue was grown using stem cells from non-diabetic mice, and the success of this method suggests i Continue reading >>

New Developments In The Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

New Developments In The Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

1. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1999;107 Suppl 3:S108-13. New developments in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. (1)Medical Department I, Center of Internal Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. [email protected] Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus has made tremendous advances within thelast decades. With concern to insulin delivery there are two promising newapproaches. One is the intrapulmonary insulin delivery which has become feasible by the development of new inhalation devices which provide a sufficient degree ofintrapulmonary drug retention. Also oral insulin delivery seems feasible whensurface active substances are used to cross the mucosal membrane in the gut.Clinical research has also focussed on coatings for the insulin molecules tosolve the problem raised by the proteolytic activity of the digestive system. Avery new agent produced by a fungus called Pseudomassaria has been demonstratedto reverse the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus in mice. The compound diffusesthrough the cell membrane, binds to the inner part of the insulin receptor andactivates the insulin typical biological effects. Nowadays a variety of insulinanalogs are designed and tested for their clinical use. By shifting theisoelectric point towards to a slightly acidic pH, HOE 901 precipitates atphysiologic pH resulting in a constant and peakless insulin delivery. NN 304 is a14-carbon aliphatic fatty acid acylated analog that binds to serum albuminresulting in a flatter time-action profile than NPH insulin. Also rapid actinginsulin analogs are or will be launched in the near future aiming to ensure animproved postprandial glucose regulation. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)improves metabolic control by a variety of effects, e.g. the enhanc Continue reading >>

New Treatment On The Horizon For Type 1 Diabetes Sufferers

New Treatment On The Horizon For Type 1 Diabetes Sufferers

Patients suffering from type 1 diabetes may soon have access to improved approaches to treat the disease, courtesy of new research out of Sydney's Westmead Institute for Medical Research. The team of researchers, led by Professor Jenny Gunton, discovered that pancreatic islets transplants delivered into the quadriceps muscle work just as successfully as the current clinical practice of transplanting islets into a patient's liver via the portal vein. Lead researcher Ms Rebecca Stokes said that transplants into the liver can present certain risks for the patient, so their research investigated safer and more beneficial treatment options for transplant recipients. "Islets are cells in the pancreas that produce insulin," Ms Stokes explained. "Pancreatic islet transplantation is used as a cure for type 1 diabetes as it allows the recipient to produce and regulate insulin after their own islet cells have been destroyed by the disease. "Currently, islet transplants are infused into a patient's liver via the portal vein. This site is used for islet transplants due to its exposure to both nutrients and insulin in the body. "However, islet infusion into the liver also presents certain risks for the patient, including potential complications from bleeding, blood clots and portal hypertension. "This suggests that there may be better treatment options for patients receiving islet transplants. "We investigated alternative transplantation sites for human and mouse islets in recipient mice, comparing the portal vein with quadriceps muscle and kidney, liver and spleen capsules. "Colleagues in Professor Wayne Hawthorne's group also tested similar sites for pig islet transplants in their companion paper. "Professor Hawthorne's research examining xenotransplantation - the process of transp Continue reading >>

This Scientific Breakthrough Could Be The Next Miracle Cure For Type 1 Diabetes

This Scientific Breakthrough Could Be The Next Miracle Cure For Type 1 Diabetes

Attention, all type 1 diabetics: Your days of insulin injections may be numbered, thanks to a revolutionary new medicine. California-based company ViaCyte just developed a stem cell implant called PEC-Direct, and it could be the next miracle cure for diabetes. The implant grows insulin-producing cells from stem cells, which would eventually help manage glucose levels in type 1 diabetes patients. If the implant successfully passes the clinical trials, patients would no longer need to inject themselves with insulin. (And, more good news: researchers are looking into ways to reverse type 1 diabetes.) “Patients with high-risk type 1 diabetes complications, such as hypoglycemia unawareness, are at constant risk of life-threatening low blood glucose,” clinical trial investigator Jeremy Pettus from University of California, San Diego, said in a press release. “The PEC-Direct islet cell replacement therapy is designed to help patients with the most urgent medical need.” Placed just below the skin, these implants are no larger than credit cards—but they could have a life-changing impact for diabetics. As the stem cells mature inside the human body, they will become specialized pancreas cells that release insulin automatically when needed. “There are limited treatment options for patients with high-risk type 1 diabetes to manage life-threatening hypoglycemic episodes,” added ViaCyte president and CEO Paul Laikind. “We believe that the PEC-Direct product candidate has the potential to transform the lives of these patients.” Clinical trials just began last week. Two patients received injections of PEC-Direct implants and will be monitored for the next several months. If all goes according to plan, the cells will mature in three months and begin releasing insulin a Continue reading >>

Diabetes Cure: A Researcher With Type 1 Works To Understand The Cause Of The Disease As A Way To Cure It

Diabetes Cure: A Researcher With Type 1 Works To Understand The Cause Of The Disease As A Way To Cure It

Diabetes Cure: A Researcher with Type 1 Works to Understand the Cause of the Disease As a Way to Cure It Diabetes Cure: A Researcher with Type 1 Works to Understand the Cause of the Disease As a Way to Cure It Thomas Delong's work investigating the mysteries of the immune system may eventually stop the misguided attack that causes diabetes. Diabetes researcher Thomas Delong lives with type 1 diabetes. His work to understand what triggers the disease may pave the way to preventing type 1 diabetes to develop in the first place. Thomas Delong was just 12 years old when he was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes more than 30 years ago. And while he learned to accept the many life challenges that come with this diagnosis, he never completely accepted that his disease was incurable. As a young teenager, he was driven to work in the field of diabetes research. Mostly, he wanted to pursue what he saw as his mission in lifeto find a cure for type 1 diabetes. When the father of a friend told him that he needed to do well in chemistry if he wanted to pursue life sciences, he made studying for chemistry his priority. Born in Germany, he was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 1986, when he fell ill while away at a youth camp. Originally from Bavaria, in Southern Germany, he worked hard to get his PhD in chemistry and biochemistry. After getting in touch with labs all over the world, he landed a position in Denver, at the University of Colorado for his post-doc work. That was more than a decade ago, and just last year, Dr. Delong was hired to a tenure-track position. In the more than three decades since his diagnosis, his hard work has paid off: Dr. Delong, now a dad of two who lives with his family in Denver recently discovered a new type of hybrid-protein in the body that the immune sys Continue reading >>

A Quest: Insulin-releasing Implant For Type-1 Diabetes

A Quest: Insulin-releasing Implant For Type-1 Diabetes

Scientists in California think they may have found a way to transplant insulin-producing cells into diabetic patients who lack those cells — and protect the little insulin-producers from immune rejection. Their system, one of several promising approaches under development, hasn't yet been tested in people. But if it works, it could make living with diabetes much less of a burden. For now, patients with Type-1 diabetes have to regularly test their blood sugar levels, and inject themselves with insulin when it's needed. Some researchers are developing machines to automate that process. But Crystal Nyitray, founder and CEO of the biotechnology startup Encellin, in San Francisco, didn't want to use a machine to treat diabetes. As a graduate student in bioengineering at the University of California, San Francisco a few years ago, Nyitray wanted to try something different: living cells. "Cells are the ultimate smart machine," she says. Clinical trials that transplant insulin-making pancreatic cells into people with diabetes have been underway for several years, with some success. But the recipient's immune system is hard on these transplanted cells, and most patients still need insulin injections eventually. Nyitray and colleagues designed a system that would encase live islet cells from the pancreas in a flexible membrane that could be implanted under the skin. Insulin and blood sugar could pass through the membrane, but cells from the recipient's immune system would be kept out, preventing immune rejection. "I think of it like if you're sitting in a house and you have the window open with a screen," Nyitray says. "So you can feel the breeze of the air outside, and smell everything, but the bugs and the flies aren't able to get through because you have the screen in place. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Could Modified Blood Stem Cells Lead To A Cure?

Type 1 Diabetes: Could Modified Blood Stem Cells Lead To A Cure?

Increasing levels of a certain protein in blood stem cells so that the immune system stops attacking insulin cells in the pancreas could be a way to halt type 1 diabetes, according to a new study reported in Science Translational Medicine. Researchers led by those at Harvard Medical School's Boston Children's Hospital in Massachusetts found that they could reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by modifying their defective blood stem cells to increase production of a protein called PD-L1. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin. Without sufficient insulin, the body cannot convert blood sugar, or glucose, into energy for cells, with the result that it builds up in the bloodstream. Over time, high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, leads to serious complications such as vision problems and damage to blood vessels, nerves, and kidneys. Immune system attacks beta cells Around 5 percent of the 23.1 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the United States have type 1 diabetes. The body produces insulin in the pancreas, which is an organ that sits just behind the stomach. It contains insulin-producing beta cells that normally sense glucose levels in the blood and release just the right amount of insulin to keep sugar levels normal. In type 1 diabetes, a fault in the immune system makes inflammatory T cells — which usually react to "foreign" material — attack beta cells in the pancreas. Nobody knows exactly how this comes about, but scientists suspect that a virus, or some other trigger in the environment, sets it off in people with certain inherited genes. The "holy grail" of scientists seeking a cure for type 1 diabetes is to find a way to prevent or stop the immune attack on the beta cells. Several approaches have been tried, including "cytostatic Continue reading >>

Dr Bart Roep: The Man Who Wants To Cure Type 1 Diabetes Within Six Years

Dr Bart Roep: The Man Who Wants To Cure Type 1 Diabetes Within Six Years

'The C-word is controversial within diabetes circles, yet the City of Hope had no reticence about making the claim.' - Jack Woodfield. Dr Bart Roep is the director of the diabetes research facilityat the City of Hope's Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute. Born in the Netherlands, he leads a team whose mission is to cure type 1 diabetes, and while their ambitions are lofty, so is their early success. In March, Dr Roep's team published the results of a 14-year-boy with type 1 diabetes who underwent stem cell transplantation. The boy has since been free from insulin without any side effects for eight years. This, Dr Roep said, was the first definitive proof that type 1 diabetes can be cured. But there are still several critical questions to be answered. Dr Roep acknowledges that cure is "a dangerous word to use" in regard to type 1 diabetes research. "What we are trying to do is understand why people get type 1 diabetes and to translate this to find a cure," Roep said. "That is, of course, a dangerous word to use. But we think that we are onto a couple of leads." One of these leads is islet cell transplantation, a procedure that involves transplanting islet (insulin-producing) cells into patients from donor pancreases. In some cases, the transplants can help a patient come off insulin, but other times the cells are rejected or attacked by the immune system unless immunosuppressant drugs are also given, which can cause side effects. Dr Roep's team made a significant discovery along the way: by reading the immune signatures of patients they were able to predict how successful transplantation would be. Dr Roep says this is the first step towards personalising medicine in type 1 diabetes. "It turns out we can predict before surgery who has a fantastic chance of lasting Continue reading >>

New Compound Approach Offers New Treatment Promise In Type 1 Diabetes

New Compound Approach Offers New Treatment Promise In Type 1 Diabetes

New compound approach offers new treatment promise in type 1 diabetes New compound approach offers new treatment promise in type 1 diabetes Journalist praised for recovering from hypo live on air 04 December 2017 Russian scientists have modelled type 1 diabetes in an experiment to understand recovery processes in the pancreas, in a bid to develop new treatment approaches. Researchers tested a number of compounds on rat models of type 1 diabetes to examine whether they could activate regeneration processes in cells damaged by diabetes. The rats were given alloxan which destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas . Using derivatives of a compound known as 1,3,4-thiadiazine, researchers were able to lower glucose levels and HbA1c of the rats, and insulin levels increased, indicating heightened beta cell activity. "The compounds that block the aforementioned pathogenetic mechanism may potentially be turned into medicinal drugs for the treatment of this socially significant disease," said lead author Irina Danilova, head of the morphology and biochemistry lab at the Ural Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Danilova and colleagues investigated this new approach to help eliminate metabolic stress and inflammation associated with diabetes. Because high blood sugar levels can activate oxidative stress , which damages protein and fat cells and DNA molecules, preventing this process could reduce diabetes-associated damage. "We decided to create new approaches to prevention and treatment of diabetes by using synthesized anti-diabetic chemical compounds. It was important for us to understand the mode of their action on cell, tissue, organ, and body levels," added Danilova. The derivative substances of the 1,3,4-thiadiazine compound all had anti-oxidising an Continue reading >>

New Diabetes Treatment Teaches Rogue Immune Cells To Behave

New Diabetes Treatment Teaches Rogue Immune Cells To Behave

(Getty Images) A treatment targeting wayward immune cells in people with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes may help even years later, a new study finds. For the treatment, researchers take blood from a person with diabetes and separate out the immune system cells (lymphocytes). They briefly expose those cells to stem cells from umbilical cord blood from an unrelated infant. Then they return the lymphocytes to the patient's body. The researchers have dubbed this treatment "stem cell educator therapy," because when exposed to the stem cells, the errant lymphocytes seem to re-learn how they should behave. "Stem cell educator therapy is a safe approach" with long-term effectiveness, said the study's lead author, Dr. Yong Zhao, an associate scientist at Hackensack University Medical Center in New Jersey. Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease, occurs when the body's immune system cells mistakenly attack the insulin-producing (beta) cells in the pancreas. This leaves people with Type 1 diabetes with little to no insulin. They need insulin injections to survive. Researchers have long thought that any cure for Type 1 diabetes would have to stop the autoimmune attack, while regenerating or transplanting beta cells. But Zhao and his team developed a new approach to the problem — educating the immune cells that had been destroying beta cells so they stop attacking. In Type 2 diabetes, Zhao said immune cell dysfunction is responsible for chronic inflammation that causes insulin resistance. When someone is insulin-resistant, their body's cells can't properly use insulin to usher sugar from foods into cells for use as energy. Instead, the sugar builds up in the blood. The researchers hoped the stem cell educator would help decrease insulin resistance for people with Type 2 diabetes. In ear Continue reading >>

New Type 1 Diabetes Treatment And Prevention Options On The Horizon

New Type 1 Diabetes Treatment And Prevention Options On The Horizon

There’s new hope on the horizon for those with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Biopharmaceutical company TetraGenetics is working on an innovative drug therapy that can stop or prevent the body’s immune system from attacking its own pancreas. How T1D Develops Most people who develop T1D do so as a result of a particular virus that triggers an exaggerated autoimmune response. In the pancreas, the cells that produce insulin are called beta cells. In people that have a particular type of gene associated with T1D, the beta cells have a quality (an antigen) that closely resembles the antigens found in the virus. When you are exposed to the virus, your immune system activates its T cells to start combating the infection by creating antibodies. However, these antibodies can’t distinguish between the beta cells and the virus cells. They look too similar, so the antibodies destroy them all in an attempt to protect against the viral infection. Unfortunately, by killing off your beta cells, your immune system has also eliminated your body’s ability to produce insulin. You are now diabetic. Both Genes and Virus Necessary for T1D to Develop There are four viruses that can cause the autoimmune cascade that results in T1D: German measles, mumps, rotavirus, and the B4 strain of the coxsackie B virus. These viruses all possess antigens that are similar to the antigens in the beta cells of the pancreas. It’s important to note that not everyone who is exposed to these viruses will develop T1D. You have to already possess the genetic makeup associated with T1D. If you do carry the T1D genes but don’t get any of these viruses, you may never actually develop the disease. You have to have both. In other words, if you do have these genes and you contract one of the viruses, then you will li Continue reading >>

Scientists May Have Found A Functional Cure For Type-1 Diabetes

Scientists May Have Found A Functional Cure For Type-1 Diabetes

Type-1 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects an estimated 42 million people worldwide, and occurs when the pancreas produces little to no insulin. Those with the condition must take supplemental insulin so their bodies can process sugars. But now, researchers at ViaCyte, a regenerative medicine company, have some good news: They're working on a therapy based on stem cells that can automatically release insulin into the body when it's needed. The treatment is specifically aimed at patients with high-risk type-1 diabetes. ViaCyte estimates that around 140,000 people in the US and Canada suffer from the condition, which can cause life-threatening events. The use of stem cells to replace pancreatic insulin cells has been tried before, but without much success. ViaCyte's approach shows promise because the stem cells can mature within the body itself through an implant the company calls PEC-Direct. There has already been a round of clinical trials to test whether the stem cells could fully grow into the type of cells necessary to produce insulin -- called islet cells. That was a success. But the number of cells within the implants wasn't enough to actually treat the patients; it was solely to test whether the cells could, in fact, be grown. Now, in coordination with JDRF, an organization that funds type-1 diabetes research, ViaCyte has implanted PEC-Directs into two patients as a trial. It's important to note that this isn't a full cure. It's what ViaCyte President and CEO Paul Laikind calls "a functional cure." It doesn't address and treat the specific causes of the condition. Additionally, patients using this treatment would be required to take immunosuppressive drugs to protect the created cells from the body's immune system, according to New Scientist. Regardless, Continue reading >>

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