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Necrotizing Fasciitis Diabetic Foot

Necrotizing Fasciitis

Necrotizing Fasciitis

Wounded? See a doctor right away if you have a fever, chills, or vomiting. Necrotizing fasciitis (neck-ro-tie-zing Fas-e-i-tis) is a serious bacterial skin infection that spreads quickly and kills the body’s soft tissue. (Necrotizing means “causing the death of tissues.”) Unfortunately, necrotizing fasciitis can be deadly in a very short amount of time. Accurate diagnosis, prompt antibiotic treatment (medicine that kills bacteria in the body), and surgery are important to stopping this infection. Although the media commonly calls it a “flesh-eating infection,” more than one type of bacterium can cause this rare disease. These bacteria include group A Streptococcus (group A strep), Klebsiella, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. Public health experts consider group A strep to be the most common cause of necrotizing fasciitis. Infections from group A strep bacteria are generally mild and are easily treated. But in cases of necrotizing fasciitis, bacteria spread quickly once they enter the body. They infect the fascia, connective tissue that surround muscles, nerves, fat, and blood vessels. The infection also damages the tissues next to the fascia. Sometimes toxins (poisons) made by these bacteria destroy the tissue they infect, causing it to die. When this happens, the infection is very serious and those infected can lose limbs or die. Good Wound Care Is Important Common sense and good wound care are the best ways to prevent a bacterial skin infection. Keep draining or open wounds covered with clean, dry bandages until healed. Don’t delay first aid of even minor, non-infected wounds (like blisters, scrapes, or any break in the skin). Avoid spending time in whirlpools, hot tubs, swimming pools, and natural bodies of w Continue reading >>

Infectious Emergencies In Patients With Diabetes

Infectious Emergencies In Patients With Diabetes

CLINICAL DIABETES VOL. 18 NO. 3 Summer 2000 FEATURE ARTICLE Douglas S. Paauw, MD, FACP IN BRIEF Several infectious diseases are strongly associated with diabetes, whereas others are more complicated or severe in the presence of diabetes. This article reviews the infectious diseases unique to or more complicated in patients with diabetes and offers therapy recommendations for each. Patients with diabetes appear to be at greater risk for a number of different kinds of infections. Good data delineating the risk of specific infections are lacking. Conflicting data exist on carriage rates of Staphylococcus aureus and risk of specific staphylococcal infections.1-3 This article will cover several serious infections that are strongly associated with diabetes. SOFT TISSUE INFECTIONS Pyomyositis Pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle. The clinical features include fever, localized muscle pain, and swelling of the involved muscles.4,5 The largest reported series of pyomyositis in the United States involved 84 patients, 15% of whom had diabetes.6 Numerous case reports of pyomyositis have involved patients with diabetes.7-10 Almost all cases (90%) of pyomyositis are due to S. aureus. The most useful diagnostic modality for pyomyositis is computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning.11-13 MRI is extremely helpful in delineating the extent of muscle involvement. CT- or MRI-guided muscle biopsy or open biopsy of the affected muscle is the definitive diagnostic test. The disease with the most similar presentation to pyomyositis in the differential diagnosis of the acutely swollen painful leg in patients with diabetes is diabetic muscle infarction.14,15 The MRI appearance can be similar to that of pyomyositis. Biopsy is the definitive test to Continue reading >>

Case Study: Treating Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused By Serratia Marcescens

Case Study: Treating Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused By Serratia Marcescens

Case Study: Treating Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused By Serratia Marcescens These authors detail the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a fast spreading necrotizing fasciitis and a severe infection. Necrotizing fasciits is an infection of the deep layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The disease consists of two variants, classified as Type I and Type II. Type I is a polymicrobial infection whereas Type II is a monomicrobial infection, mainly due to Group A Streptococcus. Since 2001, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been the most commonly reported bacteria causing necrotizing fasciitis. Early signs of the disease, such as an erythematous or edematous extremity, may be subtle. Other signs may consist of blister formation on the affected limb or systemic signs such as nausea and vomiting. A 52-year-old male presented to the emergency department after experiencing pain and redness of his right leg/foot. The morning of his admission, the patient noticed bulla formation on the dorsum of his right foot and it became worse in a matter of hours. The patient denied any trauma to the right foot but noted a fever and generalized malaise. The past medical history included lower extremity cellulitis, cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis C, acute renal failure, hyperkalemia, esophageal varices and morbid obesity. The patients current medications include pontoprazole (Protonix, Wyeth), propranolol, OsCal, multi-vitamins and folic acid. He has no known drug allergies. The patient does have a past social history of IV drug use but this concluded 15 years ago. The patient presents with blood pressure of 114/69, heart rate of 81, respiratory rate of 20 and temperature of 97. The patient has significant lab results with a white blood cell count of 11.5 tho Continue reading >>

(pdf) Surgical Outcome Of Necrotizing Fasciitis In Diabetic Lower Limbs

(pdf) Surgical Outcome Of Necrotizing Fasciitis In Diabetic Lower Limbs

threatening soft tissue infection. It is one of the most aggressive forms of soft tissue infection. increasing world wide, this rare infection is now Necrotizing fasciitis has a very high mortality rate. We reviewed retrospectively 44 diabetic patients who were operated for necrotizing fasciitis of the lower limb over a period of 1 amputations. The mortality due to necrotizing fasciitis in diabetic lower limbs at our institute compared to that reported in the literature. This series of necrotizing fasciitis in diabetic lower limbs over 1 year period is among the largest Key words: Necrotizing fasciitis, debridement, Address for Correspondence: Dr Ajit Kumar Varma, Professor, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetic lower limb and Podiatric surgery Ponekara P.O, Kochi-682041, Kerala, India. bewildered physicians for centuries. Hippocrates in the fifth century B.C gave the first description of The term necrotizing fasciitis was first introduced describing the most consistent and key feature of this disease, fascial necrosis. In the 1990s, necrotizing fasciitis became popularly known in media as the flesh eating bacteria disease. The mortality rates of this disease have remained alarmingly high with reported mortality rates diagnosis and consequently delayed operative debridement that has been shown in multiple studies rd for necrotizing fasciitis from January Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre at Kochi, India is a large tertiary, superspecialty referral hospital with 1450 Inpatient beds. Our department is the only one of its kind in India with a well established Podiatric Surgery wing. The division of Podiatric Surgery is partnered with the department of Endocrinology and Diabetes. This integrated team approach, so important in the problems, is availab Continue reading >>

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An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie

An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie This site uses cookies to improve performance. If your browser does not accept cookies, you cannot view this site. There are many reasons why a cookie could not be set correctly. Below are the most common reasons: You have cookies disabled in your browser. You need to reset your browser to accept cookies or to ask you if you want to accept cookies. Your browser asks you whether you want to accept cookies and you declined. To accept cookies from this site, use the Back button and accept the cookie. Your browser does not support cookies. Try a different browser if you suspect this. The date on your computer is in the past. If your computer's clock shows a date before 1 Jan 1970, the browser will automatically forget the cookie. To fix this, set the correct time and date on your computer. You have installed an application that monitors or blocks cookies from being set. You must disable the application while logging in or check with your system administrator. This site uses cookies to improve performance by remembering that you are logged in when you go from page to page. To provide access without cookies would require the site to create a new session for every page you visit, which slows the system down to an unacceptable level. This site stores nothing other than an automatically generated session ID in the cookie; no other information is captured. In general, only the information that you provide, or the choices you make while visiting a web site, can be stored in a cookie. For example, the site cannot determine your email name unless you choose to type it. Allowing a website to create a cookie does not give that or any other site access to the rest of your computer, and only the site that created the cookie can read it. Continue reading >>

Necrotizing Fasciitis (soft Tissue Inflammation)

Necrotizing Fasciitis (soft Tissue Inflammation)

Necrotizing fasciitis is a type of soft tissue infection. It can destroy the tissue in your skin and muscles as well as subcutaneous tissue, which is the tissue beneath your skin. Necrotizing fasciitis is most commonly caused by an infection with group A Streptococcus, commonly known as flesh-eating bacteria. This is the fastest moving form of the infection. When this infection is caused by other types of bacteria, it typically doesnt progress as quickly and isnt quite as dangerous. This bacterial skin infection is rare in healthy people, but its possible to get this infection from even a tiny cut, so its important to be aware of the symptoms if youre at risk. You should see your doctor immediately if you have symptoms or believe that you may have developed the infection. Because the condition can progress quickly, its vital to treat it as early as possible. Whatare the symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis? The first symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis may not seem serious. Your skin may become warm and red, and you may feel as if youve pulled a muscle. You may even feel like you simply have the flu. You can also develop a painful, red bump, which is typically small. However, the red bump doesnt stay small. The pain will become worse, and the affected area will grow quickly. There may be oozing from the infected area, or it may become discolored as it decays. Blisters, bumps, black dots, or other skin lesions might appear. In the early stages of the infection, the pain will be much worse than it looks. Other symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis include: To get necrotizing fasciitis, you need to have the bacteria in your body. This typically occurs when the skin is broken. For example, the bacteria can enter your body through a cut, scrape, or surgical wound. These injuries don Continue reading >>

Necrotizing Fasciitis: Pearls & Pitfalls

Necrotizing Fasciitis: Pearls & Pitfalls

A 39-year-old woman presents to the ED with leg pain and fever. She initially noted redness and pain above her knee 2 weeks ago and was evaluated at an outside hospital. She completed a 10-day course of oral antibiotics for cellulitis. Over the last two days, she has had progressive leg swelling of her entire right thigh. The pain is now so severe that she is having difficulty walking. Her past medical history is negative for diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, or alcohol and IV drug use. On exam, she is febrile to 102.7 F, heart rate is 96 bpm, and blood pressure is 112/65. She has a 12 cm area of faint erythema on her right thigh and tenderness to palpation of her entire right leg with diffuse edema. There is no ecchymosis or bullae formation. She is admitted for IV antibiotics to treat cellulitis. Overnight, she complains of severe pain requiring multiple doses of narcotics. In the morning, a CT scan is obtained that demonstrates fluid and gas along the rectus femoris muscle. Surgery is consulted for debridement of necrotizing fasciitis. Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) include necrotizing forms of cellulitis, fasciitis, and myositis. NSTIs are rare but deadly deep soft tissue infections associated with tissue destruction, systemic toxicity, and high morbidity and mortality. The estimated mortality rate of necrotizing fasciitis is estimated to be between 25-35% [1, 2]. Necrotizing infections can occur anywhere on the body but most commonly affect the extremities, perineum, and genitalia, while rarely arising on the trunk [2, 3]. Infection requires inoculation with the bacteria, which typically occurs via a break in the epithelial or mucosal surface secondary to trauma, IV drug use, insect or animal bites, or surgery. However, it has also been reported Continue reading >>

Necrotizing Diabetic Foot Infection: A Limb-threatening Emergency | Endocrinologa Y Nutricin (english Edition)

Necrotizing Diabetic Foot Infection: A Limb-threatening Emergency | Endocrinologa Y Nutricin (english Edition)

Endocrinologa y Nutricin (English Edition) Endocrinologa y Nutricin (English Edition) Inicio Endocrinologa y Nutricin (English Edition) Necrotizing diabetic foot infection: A limb-threatening emergency Endocrinologa y Nutricin es la revista rgano de expresin de la Sociedad Espaola de Endocrinologa y Nutricin (SEEN) y de la Sociedad Espaola de Diabetes (SED). La publicacin recoge el apasionante progreso registrado en el conocimiento de la fisiopatologa endocrina tanto en el mbito clnico como experimental, y es un fiel exponente de los avances de esta especialidad en nuestro pas. Adems de las secciones Originales y Notas clnicas, en las que se publican trabajos de gran calidad elaborados por diversos centros endocrinolgicos clnicos y experimentales, la revista publica artculos de Revisin y Editoriales escritos por reconocidos especialistas de la endocrinologa espaola con el fin de actualizar conocimientos y dar a conocer los avances ms relevantes en la actualidad. Index Medicus/MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, SCOPUS, Science Citation Index Expanded, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, IBECS El factor de impacto mide la media del nmero de citaciones recibidas en un ao por trabajos publicados en la publicacin durante los dos aos anteriores. Clarivate Analytics, Journal Citation Reports 2017 2017 SJR es una prestigiosa mtrica basada en la idea que todas las citaciones no son iguales. SJR usa un algoritmo similar al page rank de Google; es una medida cuantitativa y cualitativa al impacto de una publicacin. SNIP permite comparar el impacto de revistas de diferentes campos temticos, corrigiendo las diferencias en la probabilidad de ser citado que existe entre revistas de distintas materias. Necrotizing diabetic foot infection: A limb-threatening emergency Infeccin necro Continue reading >>

Necrotizing Fasciitis And The Diabetic Foot.

Necrotizing Fasciitis And The Diabetic Foot.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2015 Dec;14(4):316-27. doi: 10.1177/1534734615606534. Epub 2015 Sep 28. Necrotizing Fasciitis and The Diabetic Foot. Pisa University Hospital, Pisa, Italy [email protected] Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) represents a rapidly progressive, life-threatening infection involving skin, soft tissue, and deep fascia. An early diagnosis is crucial to treat NF effectively. The disease is generally due to an external trauma that occurs in predisposed patients: the most important risk factor is represented by diabetes mellitus. NF is classified into 3 different subtypes according to bacterial strains responsible: type 1 associated to polymicrobial infection, type 2 NF, generally associated to Streptococcus species, often associated to Staphylococcus aureus and, eventually, Type 3, due to Gram-negative strains, such as Clostridium difficile or Vibrio. NF is usually characterized by the presence of the classic triad of symptoms: local pain, swelling, and erythema. In daily clinical practice immune-compromised or neuropathic diabetic patients present with atypical symptomatology. This explains the high percentage of misdiagnosed cases in the emergency department and, consequently, the worse outcome presented by these patients. Prompt aggressive surgical debridement and antibiotic systemic therapy are the cornerstone of its treatment. These must be associated with an accurate systemic management, consisting in nutritional support, glycemic compensation, and hemodynamic stabilization. Innovative methods, such as negative pressure therapy, once the acute conditions have resolved, can help fasten the surgical wound closure. Prompt management can improve prognosis of patients affected from NF reducing limb loss and saving lives. diabetes; diabetic foot; necr Continue reading >>

Necrotizing Fasciitis In A Woman With A Diabetic Foot Infection And Peripheral Neuropathy.

Necrotizing Fasciitis In A Woman With A Diabetic Foot Infection And Peripheral Neuropathy.

Necrotizing fasciitis in a woman with a diabetic foot infection and peripheral neuropathy. Department of Emergency Medicine, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ, USA. [email protected] Postgrad Med. 2010 Jul;122(4):213-7. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2010.07.2189. We report the case of a 62-year-old African American woman with poorly controlled diabetes who presented with the complaint of not being able to remove her stockings from her left foot. The patient had long-standing peripheral neuropathy from diabetes. Her physical examination in the emergency department was challenging because of extensive infection in her left lower extremity. Careful removal of the stockings resulted in the debridement of the lower third of her left leg and entire foot. Her laboratory findings were notable for a white blood cell count of 11.7 x 10(3) cells/mm(3) with 18% bands, an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 100 mm/hour, and glycated hemoglobin of 11.5%. This case is unique in that the patient presented with both wet and dry gangrene of her lower extremities. We discuss the spectrum of infectious processes in diabetic foot infections and discuss the management of patients with necrotizing fasciitis. Continue reading >>

Necrotizing Fasciitis

Necrotizing Fasciitis

Author: Steven A Schulz, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD more... Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive inflammatory infection of the fascia, with secondary necrosis of the subcutaneous tissues. The speed of spread is directly proportional to the thickness of the subcutaneous layer. Necrotizing fasciitis moves along the fascial plane. [ 1 , 2 ] Necrotizing fasciitis has also been referred to as hemolytic streptococcal gangrene, Meleney ulcer, acute dermal gangrene, hospital gangrene, suppurative fasciitis, and synergistic necrotizing cellulitis. Fournier gangrene is a form of necrotizing fasciitis that is localized to the scrotum and perineal area. Necrotizing fasciitis may occur as a complication of a variety of surgical procedures or medical conditions, including cardiac catheterization, [ 3 ] vein sclerotherapy, [ 4 ] and diagnostic laparoscopy, [ 5 ] among others [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ] . It may also be idiopathic, as in scrotal or penile necrotizing fasciitis. The causative bacteria may be aerobic, anaerobic, or mixed flora. [ 12 ] A few distinct necrotizing fasciitis syndromes should be recognized. The 3 most important are as follows: Misiakos EP, Bagias G, Patapis P, Sotiropoulos D, Kanavidis P, Machairas A. Current concepts in the management of necrotizing fasciitis. Front Surg. 2014. 1:36. [Medline] . [Full Text] . Hakkarainen TW, Kopari NM, Pham TN, Evans HL. Necrotizing soft tissue infections: review and current concepts in treatment, systems of care, and outcomes. Curr Probl Surg. 2014 Aug. 51 (8):344-62. [Medline] . [Full Text] . Federman DG, Kravetz JD, Kirsner RS. Necrotizing fasciitis and cardiac catheterization. Cutis. 2004 Jan. 73(1):49-52. [Medline] . Chan HT, Low J, Wilson L, Harris OC, Cheng AC, Athan E. Case cluster of necr Continue reading >>

Necrotizing Fasciitis In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical Characteristics And Risk Factors For Mortality

Necrotizing Fasciitis In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical Characteristics And Risk Factors For Mortality

Necrotizing fasciitis in patients with diabetes mellitus: clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality Nai-Chen Cheng , Hao-Chih Tai , Shan-Chwen Chang , Chin-Hao Chang , and Hong-Shiee Lai Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100 Taiwan Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100 Taiwan Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100 Taiwan Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100 Taiwan Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100 Taiwan Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100 Taiwan Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100 Taiwan Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100 Taiwan Nai-Chen Cheng, Email: [email protected] . Received 2015 Mar 3; Accepted 2015 Sep 23. Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( ) applies to the data made avail Continue reading >>

Necrotizing Fasciitis (flesh-eating Disease)

Necrotizing Fasciitis (flesh-eating Disease)

Necrotizing fasciitis is a term that describes a disease condition of rapidly spreading infection, usually located in fascial planes of connective tissue that results in tissue necrosis (dead and/or damaged tissue). Fascial planes are bands of connective tissue that surround muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. Fascial planes can bind structures together as well as allow body structures to slide over each other effectively. The disease occurs infrequently, but it can occur in almost any area of the body. Although many cases have been caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci ( Streptococcus pyogenes), most investigators now agree that many different bacterial genera and species, either alone or together (polymicrobial infections), can cause this disease. Occasionally, mycotic (fungal) species cause necrotizing fasciitis. Popular publications and the media term necrotizing fasciitis as a "flesh eating" or "skin eating" disease or infection. In addition, the organisms that typically cause necrotizing fasciitis are termed "flesh-eating bacteria" or "flesh-eating parasites" because of the rapid rate with which they can infect and kill human tissue. Historically, several people described this rapidly advancing condition in the 1840s to 1870s; however, Dr. B. Wilson first termed the condition necrotizing fasciitis in 1952. It is likely that the disease had been occurring for many centuries before it was first described in the 1800s. Currently, there are many names that have been used loosely to mean the same disease as necrotizing fasciitis: flesh-eating bacterial infection or flesh-eating disease; suppurative fasciitis; dermal, Meleney, hospital, or Fournier's gangrene ; and necrotizing cellulitis . Body regions frequently have the term necrotizing placed before them to Continue reading >>

Necrotizing Fasciitis

Necrotizing Fasciitis

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of the body's soft tissue . [3] It is a severe disease of sudden onset that spreads rapidly. [3] Symptoms include red or purple skin in the affected area, severe pain, fever , and vomiting. [3] The most commonly affected areas are the limbs and perineum . [2] Flesh-eating bacteria, flesh-eating bacteria syndrome, [1] necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI), [2] fasciitis necroticans Person with necrotizing fasciitis. The left leg shows extensive redness and tissue death . Severe pain , fever , purple colored skin in the affected area [3] Typically, the infection enters the body through a break in the skin such as a cut or burn . [3] Risk factors include poor immune function such as from diabetes or cancer , obesity , alcoholism , intravenous drug use , and peripheral vascular disease . [2] [3] It is not typically spread between people. [3] The disease is classified into four types, depending on the infecting organism. [4] Between 55 and 80% of cases involve more than one type of bacteria . [4] Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is involved in up to a third of cases. [4] Medical imaging is helpful to confirm the diagnosis. [4] Necrotizing fasciitis may be prevented with proper wound care and handwashing . [3] It is usually treated with surgery to remove the infected tissue and intravenous antibiotics . [2] [3] Often, a combination of antibiotics is used, such as penicillin G , clindamycin , vancomycin , and gentamicin . [2] Delays in surgery are associated with a higher risk of death. [4] Despite high-quality treatment, the risk of death is between 25 and 35%. [2] Necrotizing fasciitis affects 0.4 to 1.0 person per 100,000 per year. [4] Both sex Continue reading >>

Necrotizing Fasciitis: All You Need To Know

Necrotizing Fasciitis: All You Need To Know

Rarely, it may affect children with chicken pox . Acne and eczema provide opportunities for infection. Punctures caused by pinpricks, insect bites, and tattoos are susceptible to the bacteria. Dental treatment or a mandibular fracture can lead to cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis. A physician will diagnose necrotizing fasciitis by examining the tissues. Samples of tissue are sent to a lab for analysis under a microscope. If the physician suspects or diagnoses necrotizing fasciitis, the patient will receive intravenous antibiotic therapy immediately, due to the risk of systemic shock. Patients will be treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly spreading infection, and it can cause extensive tissue death and damage. Prompt treatment is vital. Early detection minimizes the need for surgical removal of skin and soft tissue, and it reduces the risk of toxic shock. However, emergency surgery is often needed to remove infected tissue, as this can stop the infection from spreading. In advanced cases, major limb amputation is necessary. If necrotizing fasciitis starts deep under the skin, it may be some time before a diagnosis is made. The initial diagnosis might be inaccurate. When the disease spreads into other areas of the body, for example, the bloodstream, this can lead to an overwhelming bacterial infection and death. A high level of infection and toxicity in the system can cause all the bodily functions to shut down. There may be respiratory failure, heart failure , low blood pressure, and renal failure. When doctors are confident that the infection has been stopped, the wounds, either from the initial infection or from emergency surgical treatment, will either be closed or allowed to fill in. The recovery process involves extended phy Continue reading >>

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