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National Diabetes Control Programme Slideshare

Primary Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes: Integrative Public Health And Primary Care Opportunities, Challenges And Strategies

Primary Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes: Integrative Public Health And Primary Care Opportunities, Challenges And Strategies

Diabetes has emerged as a major public health problem in the 21st century. In the USA, an estimated 26 million people (8% of the entire population) have diabetes; 7 million of them are not even aware that they have the disease.1 Over the last several decades, diabetes prevalence has increased 5- to 7-fold in the USA. In the USA, ∼1.9 million new cases were diagnosed in adults in 2010.1 For Americans born in the year 2000, the lifetime risk of developing diabetes is ∼40% among females and 30% among males.2 Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, reductions in quality of life and premature death. In addition to causing much human suffering, it imparts major economic burdens, costing an estimated annual $174 billion in the USA alone, and an increasing burden on medical care systems and resources everywhere.1 Effective management is essential for reducing morbidity and premature mortality related to diabetes and the tools for treating diabetes are stronger than ever before.3–6 Primary prevention, however, is highly attractive as a complementary and integrated strategy for Type 2 diabetes for several reasons (Fig. 1). Firstly, the immense public health burden imposed by diabetes justifies action at the population level. Secondly, currently available treatments, while valuable, are costly, convey risks of harmful side effects (e.g. hypoglycemia), still have limited efficacy and are less likely to be effective for persons who have problems accessing medical care or adhering to self-care regimens. Thirdly, prevention of Type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification is likely to produce beneficial other effects (e.g. reduction in risk of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart disease and certain cancers). Fourthly, most of the determinants Continue reading >>

Njgasp New Jersey Global Advisors On Smokefree Policy

Njgasp New Jersey Global Advisors On Smokefree Policy

U.S. Centers for Disease Controls Tobacco-Related Diabetes Integration Project In 2009, the New Jersey State Department of Healths Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) and its Chronic Disease Prevention and Control (CDPC) program, partnered to form the Centers for Disease Controls Tobacco-Diabetes Integration Project, under the CDCs Collaborative Chronic Disease, Health Promotion, and Surveillance Project. GASP is a Project Partner, providing resource information on tobacco prevention and diabetes, and offering advocacy training modules on tobacco control advocacy, to diabetes prevention partners. GASP presented a powerpoint entitled,Effect of Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke on Diabetes, at the NJ Chronic Disease Advisory Council Meeting on January 18, 2011. Please contact us for more information on this presentation New Jersey Department of Healths Office on Tobacco Control Partners on the Project include: Two New Jersey state laws establish diabetes awareness programs NJSA 26:2-138 through 142: Establishes the Diabetes Control Program within the NJ State Department of Health, to minimize the incidence of death and disability so often attributed to diabetes. NJSA 26:2-160 through 167.3: Establishes the New Jersey Office on Minority and Multicultural Health, renamed from the New Jersey Office on Minority Health, which shall seek to address minority racial and ethnic health concerns, and reduce disparities in the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular disease and stroke, chemical dependency, diabetes, asthma, homicide, suicide, accidental injury, infant mortality, child immunization rates and HIV/AIDS; with the ultimate goal of enabling all members of racial and ethnic minority populations in this State to have access to high-quality health care. New Jersey Diabet Continue reading >>

Directorate General Of Health Services

Directorate General Of Health Services

Home Health Programmes National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes,Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes,Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) India is experiencing a rapid health transition with a rising burden of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) surpassing the burden of Communicable diseases like water-borne or vector-borne diseases, TB, HIV, etc. The Non-Communicable Diseases like Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD), Cancer, Chronic Respiratory Diseases, Diabetes and other NCDs are estimated to account for around 60% of all deaths, thus making them the leading causes of death. Losses due to premature deaths due to these NCDs are also projected to increase over the years. Therefore, the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) was launched in 2010 in 100 districts across 21 States, in order to prevent and control the major NCDs. The main focus of the programme is on health promotion, early diagnosis, management and referral of cases, besides strengthening the infrastructure and capacity building. The main strategies of the programme are as follows: a) Health promotion through behavior change with involvement of community, civil society, community based organizations, media etc. b) Outreach Camps are envisaged for opportunistic screening at all levels in the health care delivery system from sub-centre and above for early detection of diabetes, hypertension and common cancers. c) Management of chronic Non-Communicable diseases, especially Cancer, Diabetes, CVDs and Stroke through early diagnosis, treatment and follow Continue reading >>

The National Diabetes Education Program At 20 Years: Lessons Learned And Plans For The Future

The National Diabetes Education Program At 20 Years: Lessons Learned And Plans For The Future

The National Diabetes Education Program at 20 Years: Lessons Learned and Plans for the Future 1University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 2Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 3National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 4Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Corresponding author: Linda M. Siminerio, simineriol{at}upmc.edu. Diabetes Care 2018 Feb; 41(2): 209-218. Pay Per Article - You may access this article (from the computer you are currently using) for 1 day for US$35.00 Regain Access - You can regain access to a recent Pay per Article purchase if your access period has not yet expired. Sign In to Email Alerts with your Email Address Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Diabetes Care. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Diabetes Care (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page from the Diabetes Care web site. The National Diabetes Education Program at 20 Years: Lessons Learned and Plans for the Future Linda M. Siminerio, Ann Albright, Judith Fradkin, Joanne Gallivan, Jude McDivitt, Betsy Rodrguez, Diane Tuncer, Faye Wong Diabetes Care Feb 2018, 41 (2) 209-218; DOI: 10.2337/dc17-0976 Continue reading >>

The Early Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes

The Early Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes

Jump to Section Abstract The growing epidemic of type 2 diabetes is one of the leading causes of premature morbidity and mortality worldwide, mainly due to the micro- and macrovascular complications associated with the disease. A growing body of evidence suggests that although the risk of developing complications is greater with glucose levels beyond the established threshold for diagnosis – increasing in parallel with rising hyperglycemia—individuals with glucose levels in the prediabetic range are already at increased risk. Early intervention, ideally as soon as abnormalities in glucose homeostasis are detected, is of great importance to minimize the burden of the disease. However, as the early stages of the disease are asymptomatic, diagnosing prediabetes and early overt type 2 diabetes is challenging. The aim of this article is to discuss these challenges, the benefits of early intervention—with emphasis on the prevention trials showing that progression to type 2 diabetes can be delayed by addressing prediabetes—and the existing evidence-based guidelines that have been drawn to optimize the standards of care at the prediabetes and overt type 2 diabetes stages. Continue reading >>

National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme

National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme

National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme Home : NHM Components : National Disease Control Programmes (NDCPs) : National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme Formerly known as, "National Goitre Programme (NGCP)" Iodine is an essential micro nutrient. It is required at 100-150 micrograms daily for normal human growth and development. The disorders caused due to deficiency of nutritional iodine in the food/diet are called iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs). Iodine Deficiency Disorders are a worldwide major public health problem. These affect a large segment of populations in all continents of our planet and have been with us from generation. As per information available, more than 1.5 billion people all over the world are at risk of IDD. The important objectives and components of National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP) are as follows:- Surveys to assess the magnitude of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Supply of iodated salt in place of common salt. Resurvey after every 5 years to assess the extent of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and the impact of lodated salt. Laboratory monitoring of iodated salt and urinary iodine excretion. Continue reading >>

National Health Programmes Related To Child Health

National Health Programmes Related To Child Health

NATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAMMES RELATED TO CHILD HEALTH Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites . This Presentation is Public Favorites: NATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAMME RELATED TO CHILD WELFARE : N ATIONAL H EALTH P ROGRAMME R ELATED T O C HILD W ELFARE PRESENTED BY Mahaveer Swarnkar M.Sc. Pediatric Nursing INTRODUCTION: The ministry of health, Government of India , central health council launch programs aimed at controlling or eradicating diseases which cause considerable morbidity and mortality in India. HEALTH PROGRAMME NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH MISSION NATIONAL PROGRAMS RELATED TO MOTHER AND CHILD CARE Maternal and child health program (MCH) Integrated child development service scheme (ICDS) Child survival and safe motherhood program(CSSM) Reproductive and child health program(RCH) Integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness NATIONAL PROGRAMS RELATED TO COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: NATIONAL PROGRAMS RELATED TO COMMUNICABLE DISEASES National program of immunization Acute respiratory infection control program Diarrheal disease control program Revised national tuberculosis control program Leprosy eradication program National vector borne disease control programs National malaria eradication program National Filarial control program KALA AZAR control program National AIDS control program NATIONAL PROGRAMS RELATED TO CONTROL OF NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISORDERS: NATIONAL PROGRAMS RELATED TO CONTROL OF NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISORDERS Special Nutritional program 1970 Mid-day meal program. 1957 Anemia prophylaxis program. 1970 National iodine deficiency disorders control program. 1962 NATIONAL PROGRAMS RELATED TO CONTROL OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASE: NATIONAL PROGRAMS RELATED TO CONTROL OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASE Na Continue reading >>

Diabetes Resources - Michigan Primary Care Association

Diabetes Resources - Michigan Primary Care Association

The resources on this page are organized by presentations , resource documents (reports, issue briefs, fact sheets, websites), and tools and templates (spreadsheets, modifiable Word documents, job descriptions). If you don't find what you are looking for you can search by keyword using the search field at the top of this page. Population Health Management (Diabetes and Hypertension with EHR Technology 2015 | Slideshare | Source: Michigan Primary Care Association Hypertension and diabetes are the biggest contributors to heart attacks and strokes, but are not managed as well as they could be. The tactical issue for physicians lies in the ongoing identification and management of patients who have hypertension and diabetes as well as uncovering those at risk or on the cusp that may not realize it.This webinar teaches providers how to utilize their existing EHR technology to help health care teams monitor and regulate this population. Practical Approaches to Enhance Diabetic Patient Engagement 2015 | Slideshare | Source: Michigan Primary Care Association This presentation will provide evidence-based, practical strategies for facilitating and enhancing shared decision-making and patient engagement to ease the burden and distress resulting from diabetes and its management. 2018 | PDF | Source: American Diabetes Association Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support in Type 2 Diabetes 2015 | PDF | Source: American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Diabetesself-management education and supportprovides the foundation to help people withdiabetes to navigate these decisions and activities and hasbeen shown to improve health outcomes. 2014 | Slideshare | Source: Michigan Primary Care Association This Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusworkup

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusworkup

Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more... The American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes are any of the following [ 1 ] : An HbA1c level of 6.5% or higher; the test should be performed in a laboratory using a method that is certified by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) and standardized or traceable to the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) reference assay, or A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher; fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 hours, or A 2-hour plasma glucose level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or A random plasma glucose of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher in a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia (ie, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss) or hyperglycemic crisis The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, however, recommends that HbA1c be considered an additional optional diagnostic criterion, rather than a primary criterion for diagnosis of diabetes. [ 105 ] If unequivocal hyperglycemia is absent, then HbA1c, FPG, and OGTT results should be confirmed by repeat testing. The ADA recommends repeating the same test for confirmation, since there will be a greater likelihood of concurrence. However, the diagnosis of diabetes is also confirmed if the results of 2 different tests are above the diagnostic thresholds. [ 2 ] If a patient has had 2 different tests and the results are discordant, the test that has a result above the diagnostic threshold should be repeated. A second abnormal result on this test will confirm the diagnosis. [ 106 ] In asymptomatic patients whose random serum glucose level suggests diabetes ( Continue reading >>

Role Of Self-care In Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

Role Of Self-care In Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic progressive metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia mainly due to absolute (Type 1 DM) or relative (Type 2 DM) deficiency of insulin hormone. World Health Organization estimates that more than 346 million people worldwide have DM. This number is likely to more than double by 2030 without any intervention. The needs of diabetic patients are not only limited to adequate glycemic control but also correspond with preventing complications; disability limitation and rehabilitation. There are seven essential self-care behaviors in people with diabetes which predict good outcomes namely healthy eating, being physically active, monitoring of blood sugar, compliant with medications, good problem-solving skills, healthy coping skills and risk-reduction behaviors. All these seven behaviors have been found to be positively correlated with good glycemic control, reduction of complications and improvement in quality of life. Individuals with diabetes have been shown to make a dramatic impact on the progression and development of their disease by participating in their own care. Despite this fact, compliance or adherence to these activities has been found to be low, especially when looking at long-term changes. Though multiple demographic, socio-economic and social support factors can be considered as positive contributors in facilitating self-care activities in diabetic patients, role of clinicians in promoting self-care is vital and has to be emphasized. Realizing the multi-faceted nature of the problem, a systematic, multi-pronged and an integrated approach is required for promoting self-care practices among diabetic patients to avert any long-term complications. Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic progressive metab Continue reading >>

Yehuda Handelsman Md, Facp, Face, Fnla

Yehuda Handelsman Md, Facp, Face, Fnla

AACE Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus Writing Committee Task Force 2 Timothy S. Bailey, MD, FACP, FACE, ECNU Lawrence Blonde MD, FACP, FACE George A. Bray, MD, MACP, MACE A. Jay Cohen MD, FACE, FAAP Samuel Dagogo-Jack, MD, DM, FRCP, FACE Jaime A. Davidson, MD, FACP, MACE Daniel Einhorn, MD, FACP, FACE Om P. Ganda, MD, FACE Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE W. Timothy Garvey, MD Robert R. Henry, MD Irl B. Hirsch, MD Edward S. Horton, MD, FACP, FACE Daniel L. Hurley, MD, FACE Paul S. Jellinger, MD, MACE Lois JovanoviÄ, MD, MACE Harold E. Lebovitz, MD, FACE Derek LeRoith, MD, PhD, FACE Philip Levy, MD, MACE Janet B. McGill, MD, MA, FACE Jeffrey I. Mechanick, MD, FACP, FACE, FACN, ECNU Jorge H. Mestman, MD Etie S. Moghissi, MD, FACP, FACE Eric A. Orzeck, MD, FACP, FACE Paul D. Rosenblit, MD, PhD, FACE, FNLA Aaron I. Vinik, MD, PhD, FCP, MACP, FACE Kathleen Wyne, MD, PhD, FNLA, FACE Farhad Zangeneh, MD, FACP, FACE  Reviewers Lawrence Blonde MD, FACP, FACE Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE Copyright © 2015 AACE. May not be reprinted in any form without express written permission from AACE. AACE DM CPG Objectives and Structure This CPG aims to provide the following: An evidence-based education resource for the development of a diabetes comprehensive care plan Easy-to-follow structure 24 diabetes management questions 67 practical recommendations Concise, practical format that complements existing DM textbooks A document suitable for electronic implementation to assist with clinical decision-making for patients with DM 3 Copyright © 2015 AACE. May not be reprinted in any form without express written permission from AACE. AACE DM CPG Evidence Ratings and Grades 4 Evidence level Evidence grade Semantic descriptor 1 A Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Continue reading >>

Community Health Workers For Non-communicable Diseases Prevention And Control In Developing Countries: Evidence And Implications

Community Health Workers For Non-communicable Diseases Prevention And Control In Developing Countries: Evidence And Implications

Community health workers for non-communicable diseases prevention and control in developing countries: Evidence and implications Affiliation: School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Affiliation: School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Affiliation: School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Affiliation: Advanced Paediatric Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India National programs for non-communicable diseases (NCD) prevention and control in different low middle income countries have a strong community component. A community health worker (CHW) delivers NCD preventive services using informational as well as behavioural approaches. Community education and interpersonal communication on lifestyle modifications is imparted with focus on primordial prevention of NCDs and screening is conducted as part of early diagnosis and management. However, the effectiveness of health promotion and screening interventions delivered through community health workers needs to be established. This review synthesised evidence on effectiveness of CHW delivered NCD primary prevention interventions in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). A systematic review of trials that utilised community health workers for primary prevention/ early detection strategy in the management of NCDs (Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancers, stroke, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)) in LMICs was conducted. Digital databases like PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, Cochrane library, dissertation abstracts, clinical trials registry web sites of different LMIC were searched for such p Continue reading >>

National Programme On Prevention And Control Of Diabetes In India: Need To Focus

National Programme On Prevention And Control Of Diabetes In India: Need To Focus

Diabetes is part of a larger global epidemic of non- communicable diseases. It has become a major public health challenge globally. This disease affects 6.6% (285 million people) of the world's population in the 20-79 years age group.1 According to the International Diabetic Federation (IDF), this number is expected to grow to 380 million by 2025.2-4 The IDF published findings revealing that in 2007, the country with the largest numbers of people with diabetes is India (40.9 million), followed by China (39.8 million), the United States (19.2 million), Russia (9.6 million) and Germany (7.4 million).5-8 India is home to 40.9 million people with diabetes – nearly 15% of the global diabetes burden; it contributes 1% of the world's diabetes research.9 Projections show that this will increase to 70 million by 2025. As India has a population of 1.2 billion, 40% of whom are under the age of 18, investment in the health of India's future workforce is crucial.10 With the largest number of diabetic patients, India leads the world with earning the dubious distinction of being termed the “Diabetes Capital of the World”. The problem has been well documented in a battery of recent papers.5-7 Between 5% and 10% of the nation's health budget is spent on the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Projections show that in the next decade, India will lose US$237 billion due to diabetes, stroke and heart disease.11 Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is also a mounting problem in India. It has been noticed that with every diagnosed case of diabetes there is at least one undiagnosed case of glucose intolerance. So the actual population at risk would be much greater than our current estimate. The prevalence of IGT is thought to be around 8.7% in urban areas and 7.9& in rural areas. Around 3 Continue reading >>

National Diabetes Control Programme This Year - Tamil Nadu - The Hindu

National Diabetes Control Programme This Year - Tamil Nadu - The Hindu

National Diabetes Control Programme this year National Diabetes Control Programme this year INAUGURATION: The Additional Director-General of Health Services, Union Government, Ashok Kumar Das, speaking at the inauguration of the 5th winter symposium on Endocrinology, at the CMC in Vellore on Thursday. T. Sadagopan, State Secretary of the IMA, Tamil Nadu (extreme right) and CMC Principal Jayaprakash Muliyil (third from right) are also in the picture. Photo D. Gopalakrishnan| Photo Credit: Photo D. Gopalakrishnan Rs.100 crore has been allotted for it, says Ashok Kumar Das CMC holds symposium on `Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism'"Prevalence of thyroid disorders continues to be very high" VELLORE: The Centre will be launching a National Diabetes Control Programme this year, and a sum of Rs.100 crore has been allotted for it, according to Ashok Kumar Das, Additional Director-General of Health Services, Union Government. Inaugurating the three-day 5th Winter Symposium 2007 on `Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism from Bench to Bedside' organised by the Christian Medical College here on Thursday, Dr. Das said the prevalence of diabetes among the people has gone up from 25 million to 40.9 million as per the latest survey. The prevalence is expected to go up to 69.9 million by 2010. Diseases linked to endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism form the greatest challenges in India today. Endocrine diseases are mostly prevalent among the poor, and are an outcome of environmental and preventable factors. Dr. Das said that despite the implementation of the National Iodine-Deficiency Disorders Control Programme throughout the country, the prevalence of thyroid disorders continues to be very high, and tackling them has become extremely important. Despite a national goitre contro Continue reading >>

Idf Clinical Practice Recommendations For Managing Type 2 Diabetes In Primary Care

Idf Clinical Practice Recommendations For Managing Type 2 Diabetes In Primary Care

IDF Clinical Practice Recommendations for managing Type 2 Diabetes in Primary Care - 2017 2 IDF Working Group Chair: Pablo Aschner, MD,MSc, Javeriana University and San Ignacio University Hospital, Bogota, Colombia. Core Contributors: Amanda Adler, MD, PhD, FRCP, Addenbrooke´s Hospital and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence(NICE), Cambridge, UK Cliff Bailey, PhD, FRCP(Edin), FRCPath, Aston University, Birmingham,UK Juliana CN Chan, MB ChB, MD, MRCP (UK), FRCP (Lond), FRCP (Edin), FRCP (Glasgow), FHKAM (Medicine), Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity, The Chinese University of Hong Kong and Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China. Stephen Colagiuri, MB, BS Honours Class II, FRACP, The Boden Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Caroline Day, PhD, FRSB, MedEd UK and Aston University, Birmingham, UK Juan Jose Gagliardino, MD, Cenexa (Unlp-Conicet), La Plata, Argentina Lawrence A. Leiter, MD, FRCPC, FACP, FACE, FAHA, Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute at St. Michael’s Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Shaukat Sadikot, MD, President International Diabetes Federation (2016-2017), Diabetes India and Jaslok Hospital, Mumbai, India Nam Han Cho, MD, PhD, President-Elect International Diabetes Federation (2016-17), Department of Preventive Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea Eugene Sobngwi, MD, MPhil, PhD, Central Hospital and University of Yaounde, Yaounde, Cameroon Acknowledgements Milena Garcia, MD, MSc, Javeriana University and San Ignacio University Hospital, Bogota, Colombia. Co-chaired the consensus meeting and contributed to the appraisal of the guidelines Chris Parkin - Medical writing support, CGParkin Communications, USA Martine V Continue reading >>

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