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Microbiota Associated With Type 2 Diabetes And Its Related Complications

Type 1 Diabetes: Does The Gut Hold The Key To Prevention?

Type 1 Diabetes: Does The Gut Hold The Key To Prevention?

Type 1 diabetes: Does the gut hold the key to prevention? Targeting specific microbiota in the gut could be one way to protect against type 1 diabetes, a new study concludes. Researchers suggest that targeting the gut microbiota could lead to the prevention of type 1 diabetes. Researchers from the University of Queensland in Australia have found distinct gut microbiota alterations in rodents and humans that are at high risk of type 1 diabetes . Furthermore, the scientists found that these gut microbiota alterations were a result of genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes, as well as changes in immune system functioning. Study co-author Dr. Emma Hamilton-Williams from the Translational Research Institute at the University of Queensland and colleagues say that their findings suggest that targeting the gut microbiota might have the potential to prevent type 1 diabetes. The results were recently published in the journal Microbiome. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakingly attacks and destroys the beta cells, or those that produce insulin , of the pancreas. As a result, not enough insulin is made, and this can lead to an increase in blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes accounts for around 5 percent of all diabetes cases, and onset of the condition is most common in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Although the precise cause of type 1 diabetes remains unclear, it is known that those who possess certain genetic variants are at greater risk of the condition. For example, susceptibility to type 1 diabetes is higher among individuals who have variants of the human leukocyte antigen complex, such as the HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1 genes. These are genes that play a role in immune system functioning. Research also suggested that changes in gut microbiota Continue reading >>

Certain Gut Bacteria Linked To Type 2 Diabetes, Reveal Russian Scientists

Certain Gut Bacteria Linked To Type 2 Diabetes, Reveal Russian Scientists

A group of Russian scientists, including Dr Elena Kostryukova, the Head of the Laboratory of Postgenomic Research in Biology of the Scientific Research Institute of Physical-Chemical Medicine and a researcher at MIPT (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology), and Maria Vakhitova, an MIPT postgraduate student, has discovered that the presence of certain bacteria in the gut may be linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is a serious metabolic disorder. The disease causes the body’s cells to lose their ability to respond to insulin – the hormone that controls glucose uptake. As the cells are unable to interact with insulin, they stop absorbing glucose and are therefore starved of energy, even with adequate nutrition, a high level of glucose in the blood, and a sufficient amount of insulin (in type 1 diabetes the pancreas does not produce any insulin, which causes glucose deficiency in the body’s cells). According to the World Health Organization, there are approximately 285 million people with type 2 diabetes worldwide. The prevalence of the disease and the severity of its complications (people with diabetes are 20 times more at risk of developing gangrene of the lower limbs, for example) mean that doctors and scientists are not only looking for causes of the disorder, but also new methods of combating the disease. Recently, researchers have been developing serious arguments to support the theory that diabetes may be linked, among other things, to the composition of the microbial community living inside our intestines, the intestinal microbiota. Specialists from four Russian research centres studied changes in the microbiota of the large intestine, and their paper was recently published in the jo Continue reading >>

Our Science

Our Science

Millions of dollars in research spent at a premier National Lab, What is the difference between Viome and other gut microbiome companies? Viome is the only company whose gut microbiome test can be used to accurately make personalized diet and nutrition recommendations. The reason is our unique technology, which no other direct-to-consumer company possesses or offers. Most microbes in your gut can produce molecules that benefit you (humans evolved to depend on them), harm you, or have no impact on your health. The ONLY genomic test that can tell which molecules they are actually producing is called metatranscriptomic analysis. All other companies that claim they can infer functional data from DNA sequencing are not telling you the truth. Every living organism produces RNA molecules from their DNA. By sequencing all of the RNA in your stool, we can identify and quantify all of the living microorganisms in your gut (bacteria, viruses, bacteriophages, archaea, fungi, yeast, parasites, and more) at the species and strain level. The end result? A higher resolution view of your gut microbiome than has ever been available before. Every person is biochemically unique. As a result, you process macronutrients fats, protein and carbohydrates differently than others do. We measure your bodys response to a nutritional challenge to determine how quickly you regain your balance and how you metabolize different macronutrients.When we combine the results of this test with your Gut Intelligence test results, we can provide your ideal macronutrient ratio and make dietary recommendations that are unique to you. While identifying the microorganisms in your gut is important, we gain the most insight when we can also understand their function. This is because the microbes in your gut produce Continue reading >>

Microbiota Associated With Type 2 Diabetes And Its Related Complications

Microbiota Associated With Type 2 Diabetes And Its Related Complications

1. Introduction The rapid increase of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the past decades has made it a widespread metabolic disorder. In recent years, an increasing understanding of how our microflora is linked to obesity-related T2DM has provided a new potential target for reducing the risk of T2DM. The human body reservoir harbors trillions of bacteria and the genetic content of the gut microbiome is 150 times more than that of other parts of the human body [1]. However, the host–microbe interactions have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this review is to expand our view on key roles of microflora during the onset and development of T2DM as well as its complications. 1.1. Gut microbiota in the pathogensis of type 2 diabetes It is well established that the gut microbiota is involved in the process of energy harvest accounting for the development of obesity [2]. Some researches support the view that the gut microbiota is essential for the host immunity development [3]. As one of the most concerned obesity-related disorders, T2DM is associated with abnormal energy metabolism and low-level chronic inflammation in fat tissues [4,5]. Some hypotheses have proposed its relation with the presence of gut microbiota. Principally, the gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression of prediabetes conditions, such as insulin resistance. Growing evidence in clinical studies suggested that obese people with insulin resistance were characterized by an altered composition of gut microbiota, particularly an elevated Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio compared with healthy people [6,7]. Furthermore, transplantation of the obese gut microbiota in animals greatly affected the energy harvest of hosts [7]. Consequently, it is proposed that altered microbiota in obesit Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes mellitus type 1 (also known as type 1 diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.[4] This results in high blood sugar levels in the body.[1] The classical symptoms are frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, and weight loss.[4] Additional symptoms may include blurry vision, feeling tired, and poor healing.[2] Symptoms typically develop over a short period of time.[1] The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown.[4] However, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[1] Risk factors include having a family member with the condition.[5] The underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[2] Diabetes is diagnosed by testing the level of sugar or A1C in the blood.[5][7] Type 1 diabetes can be distinguished from type 2 by testing for the presence of autoantibodies.[5] There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes.[4] Treatment with insulin is required for survival.[1] Insulin therapy is usually given by injection just under the skin but can also be delivered by an insulin pump.[9] A diabetic diet and exercise are an important part of management.[2] Untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[4] Complications of relatively rapid onset include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma.[5] Long-term complications include heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes.[4] Furthermore, complications may arise from low blood sugar caused by excessive dosing of insulin.[5] Type 1 diabetes makes up an estimated 5–10% of all diabetes cases.[8] The number of people affected globally is unknown, although it is estimated that about 80,000 children develop the disease each year.[5] With Continue reading >>

Risk Factors Contributing To Type 2 Diabetes And Recent Advances In The Treatment And Prevention

Risk Factors Contributing To Type 2 Diabetes And Recent Advances In The Treatment And Prevention

Risk Factors Contributing to Type 2 Diabetes and Recent Advances in the Treatment and Prevention Yanling Wu ,1,2, Yanping Ding ,1,2 Yoshimasa Tanaka ,3 and Wen Zhang 2, 1. Lab of Molecular Immunology, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou, 310051, China; 2. Lab of Chemical Biology and Molecular Drug Design, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou, 310014, China; 1. Lab of Molecular Immunology, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou, 310051, China; 2. Lab of Chemical Biology and Molecular Drug Design, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou, 310014, China; 3. Center for Innovation in Immunoregulative Technology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan. 2. Lab of Chemical Biology and Molecular Drug Design, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou, 310014, China; 1. Lab of Molecular Immunology, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou, 310051, China; 2. Lab of Chemical Biology and Molecular Drug Design, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou, 310014, China; 3. Center for Innovation in Immunoregulative Technology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan. Corresponding author: Yanling Wu, Lab of Molecular Immunology, Virus Inspection Department of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou, 310051, PR China; Tel: +86-571-87115282; Fax: +86-571-87115282; e Continue reading >>

Gut Microbiome Changes Linked To Numerous Biomarkers Of Type 2 Diabetes

Gut Microbiome Changes Linked To Numerous Biomarkers Of Type 2 Diabetes

Gut microbiome changes linked to numerous biomarkers of type 2 diabetes Gut microbiome changes linked to numerous biomarkers of type 2 diabetes Low-carb breakfast synonymous with more thoughtful behaviour in new study 13 June 2017 A new study has identified links between alterations in gut microbial populations and multiple markers of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Changes to the gut microbiome and its associated genes are increasingly thought to be involved in obesity and type 2 diabetes through complex mechanisms that are not fully elucidated. Until now, scientists have focused on understanding the role of one gut microbial shift on one marker. This new research suggests that microbiome changes may in fact exert a more or less incidental influence on almost everything. Researchers have found over 27 metabolic markers, including body fat , HbA1c , insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), appetite regulation and inflammatory factors, that correlate with microbiome changes, suggesting that such a ripple effect exists. The team of scientists from Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine analysed gut DNA sequencing data in different populations: lean versus obese young Chinese as well as in adult Chinese who underwent bariatric surgery . They isolated groups of genes pertaining to specific microbe species with the aim to determine how much of a genetic control of obesity originated from the gut microbiome. The findings, which appeared in the journal Nature Medicine, show that there is about 200 of those microbial gene clusters that could impact more than 100 of known core genes playing a role in obesity. Researchers discovered what function serves certain of those identified gut microbial genes and, unsurprisingly, some have been found to play a role in fat accumulation while Continue reading >>

Toll-like Receptor 2 And Type 2 Diabetes

Toll-like Receptor 2 And Type 2 Diabetes

Innate immunity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and related complications. Since the toll-like receptors (TLRs) are central to innate immunity, it appears that they are important participants in the development and pathogenesis of the disease. Previous investigations demonstrated that TLR2 homodimers and TLR2 heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6 activate innate immunity upon recognition of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Several DAMPs are released during type 2 diabetes, so it may be hypothesized that TLR2 is significantly involved in its progression. Here, we review recent data on the important roles and status of TLR2 in type 2 diabetes and related complications. Type 2 diabetesTLR2ComplicationInnate immunityDAMPPAMPMYD88Activator protein 1NF-kBLeucine-rich repeats Type 2 diabetes, also referred to as adult-onset diabetes or as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is increasingly common [ 1 , 2 ]. The heightened levels of blood glucose are associated with several complications, including nerve damage (neuropathy), which is caused by injury to the walls of the capillaries that nourish the nerves and results in tingling, numbness, burning or pain [ 3 , 4 ]. Nephropathy is also associated with injuries to the glomeruli [ 5 ]. Eye damage or retinopathy is induced by glucose-related damage to the blood vessels of the retina [ 6 8 ]. Type 2 diabetes correlates significantly with cardiovascular disease, including heart attack, angina, stroke and atherosclerosis. Moreover, investigations have shown a link between type 2 diabetes and brain diseases, such as mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimers disease and vascular dementia [ 9 ]. Other complications include periodontitis [ 10 , 11 ], cystic fibrosis [ 12 ], hypertension [ 13 ] a Continue reading >>

Xiexin Tang Improves The Symptom Of Type 2 Diabetic Rats By Modulation Of The Gut Microbiota

Xiexin Tang Improves The Symptom Of Type 2 Diabetic Rats By Modulation Of The Gut Microbiota

Xiexin Tang improves the symptom of type 2 diabetic rats by modulation of the gut microbiota Scientific Reportsvolume8, Articlenumber:3685 (2018) Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a chronic metabolic disease which severely impairs peoples quality of life, currently attracted worldwide concerns. There are growing evidences that gut microbiota can exert a great impact on the development of T2DM. Xiexin Tang (XXT), a traditional Chinese medicine prescription, has been clinically used to treat diabetes for thousands of years. However, few researches are investigated on the modulation of gut microbiota community by XXT which will be very helpful to unravel how it works. In this study, bacterial communities were analyzed based on high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results indicated that XXT could notably shape the gut microbiota. T2DM rats treated with XXT exhibited obvious changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, especially for some short chain fatty acids producing and anti-inflammatory bacteria such as Adlercreutzia, Alloprevotella, Barnesiella, [Eubacterium] Ventriosum group, Blautia, Lachnospiraceae UCG-001, Papillibacter and Prevotellaceae NK3B31 group. Additionally, XXT could also significantly ameliorate hyperglycemia, lipid metabolism dysfunction and inflammation in T2DM rats. Moreover, the correlation analysis illustrated that the key microbiota had a close relationship with the T2DM related indexes. The results probably provided useful information for further investigation on its active mechanism and clinical application. T2DM, a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia as a result of insufficient insulin secretion, insulin action or both 1 , is estimated that its numbers in the adults will increase by 55% by 2035 2 . Its currently h Continue reading >>

The Role Of Gut Microbiota In The Development Of Type 1, Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The Role Of Gut Microbiota In The Development Of Type 1, Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The role of gut microbiota in the development of type 1, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus 1Section of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA 2Institute of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Rev Endocr Metab Disord See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia and has become a major public health concern. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) and insulin resistant type 2 diabetes (T2D) are the two main types. A combination of genetic and environmental factors contributes to the development of these diseases. Gut microbiota have emerged recently as an essential player in the development of T1D, obesity and T2D. Altered gut microbiota have been strongly linked to disease in both rodent models and humans. Both classic 16S rRNA sequencing and shot-gun metagenomic pyrosequencing analysis have been successfully applied to explore the gut microbiota composition and functionality. This review focuses on the association between gut microbiota and diabetes and discusses the potential mechanisms by which gut microbiota regulate disease development in type 1 diabetes, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Keywords: Gut microbiota, Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, Obesity Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia, which may result in long-term complications leading to damage to many of the bodys systems, especially kidneys, nerves, eyes, and blood vessels. The prevalence of diabetes has increased substantially in the past few decades. About 347 million people worldwide Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Your Microbiome

Type 2 Diabetes And Your Microbiome

The rapid increase in cases of people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has made it a widespread metabolic condition. It is well known that diabetes is influenced by genetic makeup and lifestyle. However, the new kid on the block, otherwise known as the microbiome, may also act as a potential and very important, modifiable risk factor. Genes in the human microbiome produce multitudes of compounds that can influence diabetes, including molecules of inflammation, hormones and neurotransmitters. Studies have shown associations both between the development of T2DM and its complications. Gut microbiota associated with developing T2DM The association between gut bacteria and obesity has been well established. The microbiota influences the calories that the body absorbs, and the bacterial group that generates more energy, known as Firmicutes, is found in high populations in obese individuals. Given the strong association T2DM has with obesity, it is not surprising that the microbiome also affects this disorder. T2DM is a condition very closely linked with abnormal energy metabolism and inflammation in fat tissues. These two factors have been found to be related to the presence of certain gut bacteria. Furthermore, In T2DM, people are unable to process insulin properly, otherwise known as insulin resistance. Majority of the gut microflora are one of two types: Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. In the case of T2DM, high ratios of the bacteria Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes have been found, compared to healthy people. These microbiota influence carbohydrate metabolism, and affect the production of short-chain fatty acids. Specifically, the production of short chain fatty acid, acetate is increased while butyrate is decreased. Low levels of this fatty acid may encourage low-grade inf Continue reading >>

Role Of The Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome In The Pathophysiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Role Of The Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome In The Pathophysiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Copyright © 2017 Muhammad U. Sohail et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The incidence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Although the exact cause of the disease is not fully clear, perhaps, genetics, ethnic origin, obesity, age, and lifestyle are considered as few of many contributory factors for the disease pathogenesis. In recent years, the disease progression is particularly linked with functional and taxonomic alterations in the gastrointestinal tract microbiome. A change in microbial diversity, referred as microbial dysbiosis, alters the gut fermentation profile and intestinal wall integrity and causes metabolic endotoxemia, low-grade inflammation, autoimmunity, and other affiliated metabolic disorders. This article aims to summarize the role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Additionally, we summarize gut microbial dysbiosis in preclinical and clinical diabetes cases reported in literature in the recent years. 1. Introduction The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harbors a dense and diverse microbial community, which includes archaea, bacteria, protozoans, and viruses, and is commonly referred to as microbiome. There are approximately 100 trillion bacteria that occupy the GIT mucosal surface, constantly interacting with metabolically and immunologically active cells. These microbes not only act as the first line of defense against foreign particles but also initiate a vast array of immunological activities that augment mucosal and systemic immunity [1]. The GIT microbiome displays very diverse physiological features: digestion Continue reading >>

Can Gut Microbiota Changes Lead To Type 2 Diabetes?

Can Gut Microbiota Changes Lead To Type 2 Diabetes?

Can Gut Microbiota Changes Lead to Type 2 Diabetes? Research corroborating an association between gut microbiota alterations and type 2 diabetes has become increasingly available, although studies in humans to date havent been able to clarify whether these disturbances are a cause or an effect of type 2 diabetes. Reviewed by Clifton Jackness, MD, Assistant Professor, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, New York, NY There has been an explosion of interest in the human microbiome, says Vallabh (Raj) Shah, PhD, a professor of internal medicine at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, in Albuquerque. The presence of dysbiosis has been established in patients with both local and systemic disease processes, he adds. In particular, an important connection between metabolic disorders and an altered microbial community in the gut has become increasingly apparent, as recent evidence in both humans and animals suggests.1,2 This link has initiated interest in the possible pathogenic relationship between gut microbiota disturbances and type 2 diabetes.3 Researchers speculate that an imbalanced gut microbiota may impair the immune system, alter signaling pathways that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism, and create low-grade inflammation, perhaps resulting in insulin resistance and eventually type 2 diabetes.4 Research in both humans and animals supports the relationship between gut dysbiosis and metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, although causal inferences in humans cant be made yet. Available research supports the hypothesis that gut microbiota may indeed modulate the influence of various environmental factorsa chronically unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, and repeated infectionsthat can elicit type 2 diabetes. Methodological issues in gut microb Continue reading >>

Microbiome And Type 1 Diabetes

Microbiome And Type 1 Diabetes

Creators: Linda Wampach , Paul Wilmes , Carine de Beaufort The human microbiome (the collective of microorganisms, which inhabit the human body) and changes therein (often referred to as microbial dysbiosis) is emerging as a potential player in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. This section discusses the human microbiome and its potential involvement in type 1 diabetes through its central roles in energy metabolism and modulation of the immune system. Microbiota: Communities of microorganisms comprising bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes (e.g. fungi, protists) and viruses. Microbiome: The entirety of microorganisms, including their genes, functional gene products and metabolites, found in a given habitat, e.g. the human host, at a given point in time. Dysbiosis: An imbalanced intestinal microbial community characterized by quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the microbiota itself, in its modified metabolic activities or in the local distribution of its members [1] . Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which leads to the destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas and thereby to the dependency on external supplies of insulin in order to regulate glucose metabolism. Regarding the factors that trigger the destruction of the beta cells, it is generally accepted that genetic predisposition is a major contributing factor. However, environmental factors are also thought to contribute significantly to the development of autoimmunity. In this context, the threshold hypothesis has been proposed as a model for type 1 diabetes by simultaneously considering the contributions of genetic and environmental determinants for developing the disease [2] . Many scientific studies have focused on such environmental factors, which range from Continue reading >>

Abundance And Diversity Of Microbiota In Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity

Abundance And Diversity Of Microbiota In Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity

Received date: January 17, 2013; Accepted date: February 18, 2013; Published date: February 22, 2013 Citation: Marlene R, Simone D, Berit H, Jutta Z, Eva A, et al. (2013) Abundance and Diversity of Microbiota in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity. J Diabetes Metab 4:253. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000253 Copyright: 2013 Marlene R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Inflammatory reactions leading to the progression of metabolic syndrome contribute to changes in composition of the GIT microbiota. We characterize fecal microbiota at three time points in fourteen obese participants, nineteen lean controls and twenty-four type 2 diabetes patients. Obese and type 2 diabetics received an intervention of nutritional counseling, type 2 diabetics an additional therapy with a GLP-1-Agonist.The microbiota composition was analyzed for abundance and diversity by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and high throughput sequencing. In type 2 diabetics an increase of diversity was observed with intervention whereas the values of lean controls remained unaffected. In the lean and obesity groups, a lower Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio correlated with lower BMI. In type 2 diabetics the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes increased throughout the intervention period. Type 2 diabetics showed a significantly enhanced proportion of lactic acid bacteria before and after intervention, also Akkermansia and Enterobacteria showed a higher abundance in type 2 diabetics, increasing throughout the study period. Archaea were significantly more frequent in Continue reading >>

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