Metformin (glucophage) Side Effects & Complications
The fascinating compound called metformin was discovered nearly a century ago. Scientists realized that it could lower blood sugar in an animal model (rabbits) as early as 1929, but it wasn’t until the late 1950s that a French researcher came up with the name Glucophage (roughly translated as glucose eater). The FDA gave metformin (Glucophage) the green light for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in 1994, 36 years after it had been approved for this use in Britain. Uses of Generic Metformin: Glucophage lost its patent protection in the U.S. in 2002 and now most prescriptions are filled with generic metformin. This drug is recognized as a first line treatment to control blood sugar by improving the cells’ response to insulin and reducing the amount of sugar that the liver makes. Unlike some other oral diabetes drugs, it doesn’t lead to weight gain and may even help people get their weight under control. Starting early in 2000, sales of metformin (Glucophage) were challenged by a new class of diabetes drugs. First Avandia and then Actos challenged metformin for leadership in diabetes treatment. Avandia later lost its luster because it was linked to heart attacks and strokes. Sales of this drug are now miniscule because of tight FDA regulations. Actos is coming under increasing scrutiny as well. The drug has been banned in France and Germany because of a link to bladder cancer. The FDA has also required Actos to carry its strictest black box warning about an increased risk of congestive heart failure brought on by the drug. Newer diabetes drugs like liraglutide (Victoza), saxagliptin (Onglyza) and sitagliptin (Januvia) have become very successful. But metformin remains a mainstay of diabetes treatment. It is prescribed on its own or sometimes combined with the newer d Continue reading >>
Effects Of Metformin On The Gut Microbiome
Collection of health news, health articles and useful medical information you can use in everyday life. Effects Of Metformin On The Gut Microbiome By Ray Schilling | Alzheimers disease , Anti-aging medicine , autoimmune disease , blood brain barrier , Cardiovascular disease , fiber , Gastrointestinal Disease , heart attack , High Blood Pressure , Inflammation , Multiple sclerosis , Nutrition , Obesity , Parkinsons disease , Stroke , telomeres , Weight loss Matthew Andry, MD talked about the effects of metformin on the gut microbiome. This talk was delivered at the 24th Annual World Congress on Anti-Aging Medicine. The congress took place from Dec. 9 to Dec. 11, 2016 in Las Vegas. A lot of the sessions that I attended dealt with the gut flora and how it affects our health. This talk belongs to the theme of what a healthy gut microbiome can do for us. Dr. Andry is a clinical associate professor of the Indiana School Of Medicine. He pointed out that metformin has been used for a long time for type 2 diabetes, particularly, if fasting insulin levels are high. Metformin is a biguanide, which was isolated from French lilac (also known as Goats Rue). In the middle ages this herb was used to treat thirst and urination. In retrospect we recognize these as symptoms of diabetes. Chemists were able to synthesize the active ingredient in this herb in the 1920s. Since then it is known as metformin. Dr. Jean Stern was able to show in the 1950s in clinical studies that Glucophage, the brand name of metformin was able to reduce blood sugar without raising insulin levels. Between 1977 and 1997 metformin enjoyed wide spread acceptance for treating diabetics. Several clinical investigators demonstrated that diabetic patients on metformin lived longer and had less heart attacks than patien Continue reading >>
Metformin Wonder Drug
A while back I wrote about why metformin is the number one treatment for Type 2 diabetes. Now new research finds metformin prevents cancer and heart disease and may actually slow aging! Where can I get this stuff? A study from Scotland found that people on metformin had only roughly half the cancer rate of people with diabetes who weren’t on the drug. This is important, because diabetes is associated with higher risks of liver, pancreas, endometrial, colon and rectum, breast, and bladder cancer. Nobody could explain how metformin helped, but then Canadian researchers showed that metformin reduces cell mutations and DNA damage. Since mutations and DNA damage promote both cancer and aging, this is striking news. No one thought we could limit mutations before, but perhaps metformin can do it. A study on mice exposed to cigarette smoke showed that those given metformin had 70% less tumor growth. A small study of humans in Japan showed similar improvements in colorectal cancer outcomes. Metformin is now being studied in clinical trials for breast cancer. The researchers write, “Women with early-stage breast cancer taking metformin for diabetes have higher response rates to [presurgical cancer therapies] than diabetic patients not taking metformin.” They also had better results than people without diabetes. How Does It Work? According to Michael Pollak, MD, professor in McGill’s Medicine and Oncology Departments, metformin is a powerful antioxidant. It slows DNA damage by reducing levels of “reactive oxygen species” (ROS). ROS are produced as byproducts when cells burn glucose. Just as oxygen helps fires burn or metals rust, ROS will oxidize (“burn” or “rust”) the nuclei or other parts of cells. ROS are what the antioxidant vitamins are supposed to block. Continue reading >>
Metformin, Antibiotic with Autoimmune Side Effects Metformin is commonly used in the treatment of diabetes. Metformin is structurally and chemically related to arginine, guanine and Canavanine. Side effects of Metformin include GI upset and autoimmune lupus (same with Canavanine.) Metformin also kills bacteria, i.e. it is an antibiotic . Many pharmaceuticals, e.g. statins, were first identified as antibiotics produced by fungi. Antibiotics select for antibiotic resistance genes, i.e. essential bacterial genes that have mutated to no longer be inactivated by antibiotics. New antibiotic resistance genes are combined with other resistance genes on multiple resistance plasmids that are transferred as a group. Because of its wide use, resistance to Metformin (and statins ) as an antibiotic probably already exists and has been incorporated into multiple drug resistance plasmids. Many common pharmaceuticals are also antibiotics and probably select for multiple drug resistance. A major contributor to multiple drug resistance, super bugs, and the rapid loss of efficacy of antibiotics is the over use of pharmaceuticals in general, in addition to the specific abuse of antibiotics designed to kill pathogens. Metformin is a Good Anti-Diabetic, but... Metformin is the treatment of choice for type 2 diabetes and yet, like many other common drugs, the full extent of its impact on the body (and the bodys essential microbiome of bacteria and fungi) has not been studied. This article should not be seen as a criticism of the pharmacologicalefficacy ofMetformin in lowering blood sugar. The point here is that Metformin alters gut flora and its majorpharmacologicalimpact may result from alteration of the gut flora and not direct action on cells of body organs. Metformin, because of its struc Continue reading >>
Metformin And Inflammation
I've been taking Metformin for about 6 months now, 2000mg. Since the beginning I've been having problems with diarrhea. Not all the time, but often within a couple of hours of taking the Metformin. The XR version was even worse. A couple of weeks ago, I started a new experiment, taking aspirin (4x 325mg per day) to try to reduce inflammation. My HS-CRP is 3.1 ('normal' range goes up to 3, but being much lower is better), indicating that I have inflammation somewhere. I realized the other day that since I started the aspirin, I haven't had any trouble at all with the Metformin. I can now take it with meals or on an empty stomach, or even 2 pills at once with absolutely no problem. Hmm. Could my inflammation be in my intestines, and that was causing the bad interaction with the Metformin?? This diabetes stuff is SO complicated. I've been taking Metformin for about 6 months now, 2000mg. Since the beginning I've been having problems with diarrhea. Not all the time, but often within a couple of hours of taking the Metformin. The XR version was even worse. A couple of weeks ago, I started a new experiment, taking aspirin (4x 325mg per day) to try to reduce inflammation. My HS-CRP is 3.1 ('normal' range goes up to 3, but being much lower is better), indicating that I have inflammation somewhere. I realized the other day that since I started the aspirin, I haven't had any trouble at all with the Metformin. I can now take it with meals or on an empty stomach, or even 2 pills at once with absolutely no problem. Hmm. Could my inflammation be in my intestines, and that was causing the bad interaction with the Metformin?? This diabetes stuff is SO complicated. Sounds probable. The original herb that Metformin is made from was used in Europe for killing intestinal parasites. Doesn't Continue reading >>
Side Effects Of Metformin: What You Should Know
Metformin is a prescription drug used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of medications called biguanides. People with type 2 diabetes have blood sugar (glucose) levels that rise higher than normal. Metformin doesn’t cure diabetes. Instead, it helps lower your blood sugar levels to a safe range. Metformin needs to be taken long-term. This may make you wonder what side effects it can cause. Metformin can cause mild and serious side effects, which are the same in men and women. Here’s what you need to know about these side effects and when you should call your doctor. Find out: Can metformin be used to treat type 1 diabetes? » Metformin causes some common side effects. These can occur when you first start taking metformin, but usually go away over time. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or cause a problem for you. The more common side effects of metformin include: heartburn stomach pain nausea or vomiting bloating gas diarrhea constipation weight loss headache unpleasant metallic taste in mouth Lactic acidosis The most serious side effect metformin can cause is lactic acidosis. In fact, metformin has a boxed warning about this risk. A boxed warning is the most severe warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious problem that can occur due to a buildup of metformin in your body. It’s a medical emergency that must be treated right away in the hospital. See Precautions for factors that raise your risk of lactic acidosis. Call your doctor right away if you have any of the following symptoms of lactic acidosis. If you have trouble breathing, call 911 right away or go to the nearest emergency room. extreme tiredness weakness decreased appetite nausea vomiting trouble breathing dizziness lighthea Continue reading >>
Metformin, The Liver, And Diabetes
Most people think diabetes comes from pancreas damage, due to autoimmune problems or insulin resistance. But for many people diagnosed “Type 2,” the big problems are in the liver. What are these problems, and what can we do about them? First, some basic physiology you may already know. The liver is one of the most complicated organs in the body, and possibly the least understood. It plays a huge role in handling sugars and starches, making sure our bodies have enough fuel to function. When there’s a lot of sugar in the system, it stores some of the excess in a storage form of carbohydrate called glycogen. When blood sugar levels get low, as in times of hunger or at night, it converts some of the glycogen to glucose and makes it available for the body to use. Easy to say, but how does the liver know what to do and when to do it? Scientists have found a “molecular switch” called CRTC2 that controls this process. When the CRTC2 switch is on, the liver pours sugar into the system. When there’s enough sugar circulating, CRTC2 should be turned off. The turnoff signal is thought to be insulin. This may be an oversimplification, though. According to Salk Institute researchers quoted on RxPG news, “In many patients with type II diabetes, CRTC2 no longer responds to rising insulin levels, and as a result, the liver acts like a sugar factory on overtime, churning out glucose [day and night], even when blood sugar levels are high.” Because of this, the “average” person with Type 2 diabetes has three times the normal rate of glucose production by the liver, according to a Diabetes Care article. Diabetes Self-Management reader Jim Snell brought the whole “leaky liver” phenomenon to my attention. He has frequently posted here about his own struggles with soarin Continue reading >>
Metformin - Oral, Glucophage
are allergic to dapagliflozin or any of the ingredients in FARXIGA. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction may include skin rash, raised red patches on your skin (hives), swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing. If you have any of these symptoms, stop taking FARXIGA and contact your healthcare provider or go to the nearest hospital emergency room right away have severe kidney problems or are on dialysis. Your healthcare provider should do blood tests to check how well your kidneys are working before and during your treatment with FARXIGA Dehydration (the loss of body water and salt), which may cause you to feel dizzy, faint, lightheaded, or weak, especially when you stand up (orthostatic hypotension). You may be at a higher risk of dehydration if you have low blood pressure; take medicines to lower your blood pressure, including water pills (diuretics); are 65 years of age or older; are on a low salt diet, or have kidney problems Ketoacidosis occurred in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes during treatment with FARXIGA. Ketoacidosis is a serious condition which may require hospitalization and may lead to death. Symptoms may include nausea, tiredness, vomiting, trouble breathing, and abdominal pain. If you get any of these symptoms, stop taking FARXIGA and call your healthcare provider right away. If possible, check for ketones in your urine or blood, even if your blood sugar is less than 250 mg/dL Kidney problems. Sudden kidney injury occurred in people taking FARXIGA. Talk to your doctor right away if you reduce the amount you eat or drink, or if you lose liquids; for example, from vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive heat exposure Serious urinary tract infections (UTI), some that lead to hospitalization, occu Continue reading >>
Does Metform Cause Indigestion/gastritis?
Does Metform Cause Indigestion/Gastritis? Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please,join our community todayto contribute and support the site. This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies. Does Metform Cause Indigestion/Gastritis? Does anyone have any experience of suffering gastritis/indigestion whilst taking Metformin? My partner has been taking Metformin since diagnosed (almost 3 years ago) and has tolerated them quite well - none of the usual diarrhoea - but a few months ago, he started to suffer indigestion, on and off. The doc has given him various remedies for this, but they've only helped temporarily. Strangely enough, at the time this problem started, his BG took an upward turn - I don't know if this is related or not - might just be a coincidence (?) (He always takes the Metformin with food). Has anyone had any experience of this please? All help and advise gratefully received - thanks guys When I was taking metformin to help me get preggers, I was taking 3000mg dialy. It made me very gassy. Fun to get busy with a gassy girl! Yes I think Metformin does seem to have that effect on some people - although with guys, it's hard to tell the difference sometimes Q7. What kind of side effects can GLUCOPHAGE cause? If side effects occur, they usually occur during the first few weeks of therapy. They are normally minor ones such as diarrhea, nausea and upset stomach. Taking your GLUCOPHAGE with meals can help reduce these side effects. Although these side effects are likely to go away, call your doctor if you have severe discomfort or if these effects last for more than a few weeks. Some patients may need to have their dose lowered or stop taking GLUCOPHAGE, either temporarily or permanently. Although these problems occur in up to one-t Continue reading >>
Asymptomatic Gastritis Associated With Metformin Side Effects In Type 2 Patients
Asymptomatic gastritis associated with metformin side effects in type 2 patients Asymptomatic gastritis associated with metformin side effects in type 2 patients Non-symptomatic gastritis is linked with metformin-related gastrointestinal side effects in patients with type 2 diabetes , a study finds. Gastritis occurs when the stomach lining becomes inflamed, which can cause stomach pain, vomiting and bloating following eating. This research comes from Yuxin Huang, MD, and colleagues from Shanghai Huadong Hospital, who obtained data - including demographic and laboratory data - from 144 patients with type 2 diabetes not put on to metformin . All subjects then began metformin treatment at 500 mg per day. This progressively increased over four weeks to 1500 mg per day, with gastrointestinal side effects, such as vomiting and nausea , monitored each week. The dose of metformin was adjusted accordingly depending on patients' symptoms. Following an endoscopy, 64 patients were categorised as non-gastritis subjects, with 80 classed as chronic gastritis subjects. At the beginning of the study, there were no differences in the groups for gastrointestinal symptoms. The mean final metformin dose was 706.24 mg for gastritis patients, which was significantly less than the mean dose used by non-gastritis patients, which was 1,101.56 mg. "Our data show for the first time that asymptomatic chronic gastritis predisposes to metformin-related gastrointestinal side effects," the researchers concluded. "However, the molecular mechanisms are still unclear and merit further investigation." Continue reading >>
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Anyone Experiencing Pain From Taking Metformin?
Anyone Experiencing Pain From Taking Metformin? Thank you. I've tried time release, regular & the liquid, Riomet. I seem to have trouble no matter the version. HEALTH_NOW There is another post on here, she said she was giving time release and that almost completely took care of her problems. Yes I've had some of those symptoms & others. Problem with taking many medications is figuring out the ones causing the problem & wondering if it is the combination rather than just one med. Very frustrating especially since no doctor helping so I'm trying to do it on my own. This has been an interesting week. I had my diabetes class tuesday and it was really good. I ended up asking about all of these symptoms I have been having for 3 years and the doctor said all these symptoms aren't from diabetes..He told me to stop Metformin for 2 weeks and see how I feel? The next day a lot of the symptoms went away! Wow! I have been going through this for 3 years. Since I have been eating good and have lost 7 lbs now, my A1C went from 7.5 to 7. I went to the doctor today and that was an interesting experience, different doctor than the doctor at my diabetes class. It turns out I have asthma. My echocardiogram was good. Here are some of the symptoms I was having numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs feeling dizzy, light-headed, tired, or very weak diarrhea, or a metallic taste in the mouth may occur. actic acidosis. Symptoms include: tiredness. unusual muscle pain. trouble breathing. unusual sleepiness. dizziness or lightheadedness. ... low blood sugar. Symptoms include: headache. weakness. confusion. shaking or feeling jittery. drowsiness. dizziness. I know this is an old post, but I've been suffering all year with feeling hot even in winter & with ac in summer, burning back sensation, b Continue reading >>
Metformin And The Gastrointestinal Tract
Go to: Introduction Metformin—dimethylbiguanide—is an oral glucose-lowering agent. Its origins can be traced to Galega officinalis, also known as French lilac or goat’s rue . In the early 20th century it was noted to lower blood glucose concentrations in animals, but it was not until the 1950s that Jean Sterne studied dimethylbiguanide and subsequently developed ‘Glucophage’ . Over the last 15 years, metformin has become the first-line agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, as noted in several international guidelines, including the ADA-EASD guidelines . Metformin has had a chequered history—it was initially eclipsed by phenformin, which was withdrawn in the late 1970s after it was discovered to be associated with lactic acidosis . The lower propensity of metformin for hyperlactataemia  and success in several large randomised controlled clinical trials, such as the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) , confirmed its clinical benefit. It is widely recognised that metformin improves glycaemic control with a good safety profile, weight neutrality or weight loss, lack of associated hypoglycaemia, reduced cardiovascular mortality and low cost . However, a large proportion of patients cannot tolerate the medication in adequate amounts because of its associated side effects. Up to 25% of patients suffer metformin-associated gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects, with approximately 5% unable to tolerate metformin at all . In addition to this interindividual variation in side effects, there is variability in the efficacy of metformin. There are likely to be a number of factors to account for this variability in efficacy, for example, our group (Zhou et al) recently established that the glycaemic response to metformin is moderately heritabl Continue reading >>
The Multiple Benefits Of Metformin
Metformin (brand name "Glucophage") has been used in the treatment of type II diabetes for the past 40 years.1 This drug counteracts many of the underlying factors that result in the manifestation of this insidious disease. Metformin also produces helpful side benefits that can protect against the lethal complications of type II diabetes. Frequently prescribed anti-diabetic drugs fail to address the fundamental causes of type II diabetes and can induce serious side effects. Type II diabetes affects between 16 to 19 million Americans. About 75% of type II diabetics will die from a cardiovascular-related disease. Conventional doctors often prescribe drugs for the purpose of lowering blood sugar levels. These drugs do not adequately address the multiple underlying pathologies associated with the type II diabetic state. Type II diabetes is characterized by cellular insulin resistence. The result is excess accumulation of glucose in the bloodstream as cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. Type II diabetes is characterized by cellular insulin resistence. The result is excess accumulation of glucose in the bloodstream because cells become resistant to the effects of insulin and fail to take up glucose As the type II diabetic condition progresses, many people gain weight and develop more fat cells.2 Treating type II diabetes with insulin-enhancing therapy increases the risk of cardiovascular complications, induces weight gain, and fails to correct the underlying cause of the disease. Many type II diabetics produce too much insulin in a futile attempt to drive glucose into insulin-resistant cells. When doctors prescribe insulin-enhancing drugs to these type II diabetics, a temporarily reduction of serum glucose may occur, but the long-term effects of this excess insu Continue reading >>
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Metformin And Stomach (not Bowel) Issues?
Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Metformin and Stomach (not bowel) issues? I've been on regular-release metformin since November last year and although I did have a few bowel troubles with them to begin with, everything settled down quite quickly and I have been taking them without problems every since. However, for the Iast six weeks are so I have been suffering some stomach (not bowel, very definitely stomach) aches which don't seem related to what I eat or drink. The aches are not constant (one day on, one or a few days off, that sort of pattern) The pain is not shooting,just a general ache, nor is it very strong (say 2 out of 10) but it is beginning to get me down. I have seen a doc and was prescribed some antacids which did appear to help but it could have been co-incidental (it does come and go). I also had a stool test for H-pylori and occult blood in stool and it came back clear. I am planning on going back to the docs but I was wondering if it could be the metformin irritating my stomach lining? Has anyone else developed problems with met after being fine on them for a while, particularly stomach problems? I'd not be keen to come off the metformin as it seems to be working well for me but really I would just like the aches to stop! I started on the metformin in January and by June was having all the problems of stomach pain, other digestive upsets (mostly all upper GI) and tested low for iron. Had the endoscopy in early July. They wanted me to take Nexium for acid blocking, but within a couple of days I was having all the GI symptoms I used to have before going gluten/grain free, so stopped taking it. I've read speculation on some celiac forums that taking a PPI long term ca Continue reading >>
Drug information provided by: Micromedex Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur: More common Abdominal or stomach discomfort cough or hoarseness decreased appetite diarrhea fast or shallow breathing fever or chills general feeling of discomfort lower back or side pain muscle pain or cramping painful or difficult urination sleepiness Less common Anxiety blurred vision chest discomfort cold sweats coma confusion cool, pale skin depression difficult or labored breathing dizziness fast, irregular, pounding, or racing heartbeat or pulse feeling of warmth headache increased hunger increased sweating nausea nervousness nightmares redness of the face, neck, arms, and occasionally, upper chest seizures shakiness shortness of breath slurred speech tightness in the chest unusual tiredness or weakness wheezing Rare Behavior change similar to being drunk difficulty with concentrating drowsiness lack or loss of strength restless sleep unusual sleepiness Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them: More common Acid or sour stomach belching bloated excess air or gas in the stomach or intestines full feeling heartburn indigestion loss of appetite metallic taste in the mouth passing of gas stomachache stom Continue reading >>