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Metformin Side Effect

Quantifying The Effect Of Metformin Treatment And Dose On Glycemic Control

Quantifying The Effect Of Metformin Treatment And Dose On Glycemic Control

Abstract OBJECTIVE Metformin is the first-line oral medication recommended for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. We reviewed the literature to quantify the effect of metformin treatment on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in all types of diabetes and examine the impact of differing doses on glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1950 to June 2010 for trials of at least 12 weeks’ duration in which diabetic patients were treated with either metformin monotherapy or as an add-on therapy. Data on change in HbA1c were pooled in a meta-analysis. Data from dose-comparison trials were separately pooled. RESULTS A total of 35 trials were identified for the main analysis and 7 for the dose-comparison analysis. Metformin monotherapy lowered HbA1c by 1.12% (95% CI 0.92–1.32; I2 = 80%) versus placebo, metformin added to oral therapy lowered HbA1c by 0.95% (0.77–1.13; I2 = 77%) versus placebo added to oral therapy, and metformin added to insulin therapy lowered HbA1c by 0.60% (0.30–0.91; I2 = 79.8%) versus insulin only. There was a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c using higher doses of metformin compared with lower doses of metformin with no significant increase in side effects. CONCLUSIONS Evidence supports the effectiveness of metformin therapy in a clinically important lowering of HbA1c used as monotherapy and in combination with other therapeutic agents. There is potential for using higher doses of metformin to maximize glycemic control in diabetic patients without increasing gastrointestinal effects. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed antihyperglycemic medication for diabetes in the U.S. (1) and the U.K. (2) and is the recommended first choice for oral therapy (2–4). T Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type 2

Diabetes Type 2

Many people with type 2 diabetes are prescribed tablets to help control their blood glucose levels. Metformin is the first-line medication for diabetes in the UK but there are many more types of medication for type 2 diabetes discussed below. Most people had tried initially to control their blood glucose with a regimen of diet and exercise before being given oral medication. Many people took metformin alone to control blood glucose, and some were taking metformin and gliclazide. Both medications help to reduce blood glucose but work differently. Metformin reduces the amount of glucose produced in the liver, and also makes muscle tissue absorb more glucose; gliclazide increases the amount of insulin produced by the pancreas. While people found that the medication they took had helped reduce and control their blood glucose, many had experienced side effects. Metformin can cause diarrhoea and other digestive problems and many people went back to their GPs for advice. Some people felt concerned about the risks they might face from certain drugs after reading negative reports in the media (see 'Misunderstandings about diabetes'). Rosiglitazone has been linked to an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Since these interviews were conducted in 2008, there has been growing concern about the potential harmful effects of rosiglitazone (Avandia, but also contained in Avandamet and Avaglim) and from September 2010 in the UK and Europe, new prescribing of this drug has stopped, and most people who were taking the drug have been changed to alternative medication. Most people we interviewed had been prescribed higher dosages of medication to control their blood glucose as their diabetes got worse over time. Some people had transferred to insulin while continuing on metformin (se Continue reading >>

Metformin Side Effects

Metformin Side Effects

For the Consumer Applies to metformin: oral solution, oral tablet, oral tablet extended release Along with its needed effects, metformin may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking metformin: More common Abdominal or stomach discomfort cough or hoarseness decreased appetite diarrhea fast or shallow breathing fever or chills general feeling of discomfort lower back or side pain muscle pain or cramping painful or difficult urination sleepiness Less common Anxiety blurred vision chest discomfort cold sweats coma confusion cool, pale skin depression difficult or labored breathing dizziness fast, irregular, pounding, or racing heartbeat or pulse feeling of warmth headache increased hunger increased sweating nausea nervousness nightmares redness of the face, neck, arms, and occasionally, upper chest seizures shakiness shortness of breath slurred speech tightness in the chest unusual tiredness or weakness Rare Behavior change similar to being drunk difficulty with concentrating drowsiness lack or loss of strength restless sleep unusual sleepiness Some side effects of metformin may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them: More common Acid or sour stomach belching bloated excess air or gas in the stomach or intestines full feeling heartburn indiges Continue reading >>

Avoid The Metformin Bandwagon

Avoid The Metformin Bandwagon

From diabetes to cancer, berberine matches - or beats - this patent medicine every time! As many know, metformin is the number one prescription medication for type-2 diabetes. The patent for the name-brand of this patent medicine, Glucophage®, expired years ago and as a result generic-brand competition (metformin) brought this patent medicine’s price down so that it’s relatively inexpensive, especially when compared with nearly any other medication still covered by a patent. Mainstream medical research has found other uses for this un-natural molecule, including (but not limited to) lipid, blood pressure, and insulin resistance lowering effects, anti-cancer effects, improvement of polycystic ovarian syndrome, combatting Alzheimer’s disease, and extending life span in mice. Surprising guests on the metformin bandwagon Some proponents of natural therapies – including, surprisingly, two nationally and internationally circulated health magazines – have climbed on the metformin bandwagon, writing articles about the “health benefits” of metformin, and even advocating that otherwise healthy people take this patent medicine every day as a preventive. They admit that there are known side effects, but write that these are few, and that the benefits outweigh the risks. If there aren’t any natural treatment alternatives that are as effective, or more effective, than a patent medicine or other un-natural molecule – especially in serious or life-threatening situations – then the use of a patent medication of course makes sense. But when there are natural alternatives that work just as well or better, the rule is – and always should be – to “Copy Nature.” Human bodies are formed from the molecules of planet Earth, and powered by the energies of this planet Continue reading >>

Metformin Weight Loss – Does It Work?

Metformin Weight Loss – Does It Work?

Metformin weight loss claims are something that are often talked about by health professionals to be one of the benefits of commencing metformin therapy, but are they true? At myheart.net we’ve helped millions of people through our articles and answers. Now our authors are keeping readers up to date with cutting edge heart disease information through twitter. Follow Dr Ahmed on Twitter @MustafaAhmedMD Metformin is possibly one of the most important treatments in Type II Diabetes, so the question of metformin weight loss is of the utmost importance, as if true it could provide a means to lose weight as well as control high sugar levels found in diabetes. What is Metformin? Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic medication – meaning it reduces levels of sugar, or more specifically glucose in the blood. It is so effective that the American Diabetes Association says that unless there is a strong reason not to, metformin should be commenced at the onset of Type II Diabetes. Metformin comes in tablet form and the dose is gradually increased until the maximum dose required is achieved. How Does Metformin Work & Why Would it Cause Weight Loss? Metformin works by three major mechanisms – each of which could explain the “metformin weight loss” claims. These are: Decrease sugar production by the liver – the liver can actually make sugars from other substances, but metformin inhibits an enzyme in the pathway resulting in less sugar being released into the blood. Increase in the amount of sugar utilization in the muscles and the liver – Given that the muscles are a major “sink” for excess sugar, by driving sugar into them metformin is able to reduce the amount of sugar in the blood. Preventing the breakdown of fats (lipolysis) – this in turn reduces the amount of fatt Continue reading >>

Metformin Side Effects

Metformin Side Effects

Summary Common metformin side effects include gastrointestinal problems such as nausea, vomiting, cramps and diarrhea. Hypoglycemia and lactic acid build-up are other more serious—but more rare—side effects of metformin. Some women may also experience vitamin B12 deficiency, and children specifically may possibly experience abnormal taste bud function and appetite loss. Common Metformin Side Effects The most common side effects of metformin are gastrointestinal, and include the following: Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Cramps Other common side effects are represented by abnormal stools, muscle pain, changes in taste sensations and occasionally difficulties in breathing. Some patients may experience side effects in the shape of dizziness, light-headedness or flu-like symptoms, while others may have nail problems, palpitations, flushing of the face or an increase in thirst and/ or sweating. Serious Metformin Side Effects Occasionally, patients may experience side effects of a more serious nature. These side effects include allergic reactions, which may be manifested through unexplained swellings hives rashes itching wheezing and / or severe breathing difficulties. In some cases, the Metformin may cause a disturbance in electrolytes, causing the body to function within an acidic environment, a condition known as lactic acidosis. Often occurring severely and suddenly, lactic acidosis is the result of increased levels of lactic acid, in particular when Metformin is used to inhibit the process of glucose production, hepatic gluconeogenesis. This condition is sometimes the result of a metformin overdose and can cause severe muscle soreness. Another more serious side effect of metformin is hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. This occurs in individuals whose bodies are particularly Continue reading >>

Act Metformin

Act Metformin

How does this medication work? What will it do for me? Metformin belongs to the class of medications called oral hypoglycemics, which are medications that lower blood sugar. It is used to control blood glucose (blood sugar) for people with type 2 diabetes. It is used when diet, exercise, and weight reduction have not been found to lower blood glucose well enough on their own. Metformin works by reducing the amount of glucose made by the liver and by making it easier for glucose to enter into the tissues of the body. Metformin has been found to be especially useful in delaying problems associated with diabetes for overweight people with diabetes. This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here. Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor. Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it. What form(s) does this medication come in? 500 mg Each white-to-off-white, round, film-coated, biconvex tablet with logo on one side and "M" over "M" on the other contains 500 mg of metformin HCl. Nonmedicinal ingredients: crospovidone, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, talc, and titan Continue reading >>

Metformin (glucophage) Side Effects & Complications

Metformin (glucophage) Side Effects & Complications

The fascinating compound called metformin was discovered nearly a century ago. Scientists realized that it could lower blood sugar in an animal model (rabbits) as early as 1929, but it wasn’t until the late 1950s that a French researcher came up with the name Glucophage (roughly translated as glucose eater). The FDA gave metformin (Glucophage) the green light for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in 1994, 36 years after it had been approved for this use in Britain. Uses of Generic Metformin: Glucophage lost its patent protection in the U.S. in 2002 and now most prescriptions are filled with generic metformin. This drug is recognized as a first line treatment to control blood sugar by improving the cells’ response to insulin and reducing the amount of sugar that the liver makes. Unlike some other oral diabetes drugs, it doesn’t lead to weight gain and may even help people get their weight under control. Starting early in 2000, sales of metformin (Glucophage) were challenged by a new class of diabetes drugs. First Avandia and then Actos challenged metformin for leadership in diabetes treatment. Avandia later lost its luster because it was linked to heart attacks and strokes. Sales of this drug are now miniscule because of tight FDA regulations. Actos is coming under increasing scrutiny as well. The drug has been banned in France and Germany because of a link to bladder cancer. The FDA has also required Actos to carry its strictest black box warning about an increased risk of congestive heart failure brought on by the drug. Newer diabetes drugs like liraglutide (Victoza), saxagliptin (Onglyza) and sitagliptin (Januvia) have become very successful. But metformin remains a mainstay of diabetes treatment. It is prescribed on its own or sometimes combined with the newer d Continue reading >>

Metformin Sandoz®

Metformin Sandoz®

PDFLARGE FONT PDF metformin hydrochloride tablets Consumer Medicine Information WHAT IS IN THIS LEAFLET This leaflet answers some common questions about Metformin Sandoz. It does not contain all the available information. It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist. All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you taking this medicine against the benefits they expect it will have for you. If you have any concerns about taking this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist. Keep this leaflet with the medicine. You may need to read it again. WHAT METFORMIN SANDOZ IS USED FOR This medicine is used to control blood sugar (glucose) in patients with diabetes mellitus. Metformin Sandoz is used to treat Type 2 diabetes when it cannot be properly controlled by diet and exercise. It can also be used in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus where insulin alone is not enough to control your blood glucose levels. Metformin Sandoz can be used alone, or in combination with other medicines for treating diabetes. It contains the active ingredient metformin hydrochloride. Metformin belongs to a group of medicines called oral hypoglycaemics. It works to reduce high levels of blood glucose by helping your body to make better use of the insulin produced by your pancreas. Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the blood glucose levels are not adequately controlled. People with type 2 diabetes are not able to make enough insulin or do not respond normally to the insulin their bodies make. When this happens, sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood. This can lead to serious medical problems including kidney damage, amputation and blindness. If your blood glucose is not properly controlled, you may experience hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose Continue reading >>

Metformin Weight Loss – How It Works, Benefits, And Side Effects

Metformin Weight Loss – How It Works, Benefits, And Side Effects

Do you find it extremely difficult to refrain from eating all the time? Have you gained too much weight? Or did your doctor just tell you that you have polycystic ovaries? If you answered “yes” to any one of these questions, chances are your body is resistant to insulin. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, insulin resistance can lead to diabetes type 2, prediabetes, and infertility. This can take a toll on your physical and emotional health (1). To counteract these health problems, doctors often prescribe the drug Metformin. This drug has helped many to lose weight and improve insulin sensitivity, and it can definitely help you too. So, read on to find out how Metformin can help you lose weight, the dosage, side effects, and much more. What Is Metformin? Metformin is a drug that helps to control the blood glucose levels. It is a derivative of biguanide (a group of drugs that prevent the production of glucose by the liver) that helps to improve insulin sensitivity, thereby reducing the sugar levels in the blood and the risk of diabetes type 2. It also helps regulate the amount of sugar absorbed in the intestine. Metformin was first synthesized in the 1920s. But only in 1957, it was made available in the market as an effective antidiabetic drug. It is generally sold under the brand name Glucophage and is taken orally. It is taken by people who are obese and at the risk of developing diabetes type 2 and by women who have irregular periods and are at a risk of PCOs and infertility (2). So, how does Metformin aid weight loss? Find out next. Metformin And Weight Loss – How It Works ? In obese individuals, metformin acts by suppressing the production of sugar by the liver. It reduces the rate of gluconeogenesis and glycogeno Continue reading >>

Galvumet (vildagliptin/metformin Hydrochloride) Drug / Medicine Information

Galvumet (vildagliptin/metformin Hydrochloride) Drug / Medicine Information

This leaflet answers some common questions about Galvumet. It does not contain all the available information. It does not take the place of talking to your doctor, pharmacist or diabetes educator. The information in this leaflet was last updated on the date listed on the final page. More recent information on the medicine may be available. You should ensure that you speak to your pharmacist or doctor to obtain the most up to date information on the medicine. You can also download the most up to date leaflet from www.novartis.com.au. Those updates may contain important information about the medicine and its use of which you should be aware. All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you taking this medicine against the benefits they expect it will provide. If you have any concerns about this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist. Galvumet is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus in people who are already taking vildagliptin and metformin tablets separately, or whose diabetes cannot be controlled by metformin alone. Galvumet is also used with a sulfonylurea by patients whose blood sugar levels are not adequately controlled when taking only metformin and a sulfonylurea. Galvumet is also added to insulin in patients when a stable dose of insulin and metformin do not provide adequate blood sugar control. It is prescribed by your doctor together with diet and exercise. Galvumet contains two ingredients: vildagliptin, which belongs to a class of medicines called 'islet enhancers', and metformin, which belongs to the 'biguanide' class. Type 2 diabetes mellitus used to be known as 'non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)' or 'maturity onset diabetes'. Type 2 diabetes develops if the body does not produce enough insulin, or where the i Continue reading >>

Metformin: Side Effects And Precautions

Metformin: Side Effects And Precautions

Most people who are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are given a prescription for metformin – and for a good reason. It’s a cheap, effective generic pill whose safety has been proven for more than 50 years. But like any prescription drug, there are possible side effects, drug interactions, and other issues that you should know about. What metformin does With type 2 diabetes, the body doesn’t make enough insulin or isn’t able to use it properly to control glucose (blood sugar) levels. Metformin reduces the amount of glucose your liver produces, and also improves your body’s ability to use the insulin it makes. Metformin doesn’t cure diabetes, but it provides better blood sugar control. And that’s not all. By lowering your triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels, metformin helps reduce the increased risk of heart disease or stroke that comes with type 2 diabetes. Also, by controlling blood sugar levels it helps to reduce your chances of diabetic complications in the eyes, kidneys, feet and elsewhere. Of course, even with a drug as powerful as metformin you still need to eat and exercise properly to successfully manage diabetes. What are some common side effects of metformin? Many patients find that metformin takes some getting used to. It may cause diarrhea, vomiting or an upset stomach at first, especially if taken on an empty stomach. You may also notice gas or a metallic taste in your mouth. Not everyone has such problems, but they are the reason why your doctor may start you out on a small dose and carefully increase it over time. The good news: these unpleasant symptoms usually go away within a few weeks. Rare side effects to watch for include pain in your muscles, headaches, heartburn, constipation, and flushed skin. Tell your doctor about these or any o Continue reading >>

Metformin Can Cause Night Sweats

Metformin Can Cause Night Sweats

Dear Dr. Roach • As a preventive measure for prediabetes, my doctor recommended I take 500 mg of metformin twice a day (morning and evening). I have been following this regimen for two months. I am a female, 58, and other than needing to lose about 20 pounds, am in good health, exercise every day and eat a healthy diet. The same day I started the medication, my night sweats started up again, with a vengeance. On the metformin, my quality of sleep was negatively affected by four to five episodes of bad hot flashes every night. Because hot flashes/night sweats were not mentioned as a side effect either by my doctor or on the information pamphlet, I notified my doctor. He suggested stopping the metformin for two to four weeks to see if the night sweats subsided. I had immediate relief with the night sweats the first day I stopped the medication. Some research indicates that metformin causes hypoglycemia, which then causes the night sweats. A sometimes-mentioned desirable side effect is weight loss. What is your take on metformin and whether it is a help or a hindrance to good health? — R.M.T. Answer • Metformin was tested in a large trial to see whether it could help prevent people at high risk for diabetes from developing overt diabetes, and it was successful at doing so. It wasn’t quite as successful as a good diet and regular exercise, but many experts do use metformin, especially in overweight people, to help them lose weight and reduce their diabetes risk. In my opinion, it works best when combined with a healthy diet and regular exercise. However, it does have side effects. Gastrointestinal side effects, especially diarrhea but also nausea, are the most common. Hot flashes are listed as occurring in 1 to 10 percent of people taking the medication, and I found Continue reading >>

Is It Safe To Use Metformin During Pregnancy?

Is It Safe To Use Metformin During Pregnancy?

Metformin is a commonly used drug for managing type 2 diabetes. It is considered an effective treatment option for many people with diabetes, but is it safe for pregnant women? Metformin is a drug that helps to lower blood sugar. It is considered one of the best first line treatments for type 2 diabetes. A review posted to Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome notes that metformin helps to lower blood sugar levels, strengthens the endocrine system, improves insulin resistance, and reduces fat distribution in the body. Before taking any drugs, including metformin, a pregnant woman has to be absolutely sure that the drugs will not affect her or her baby. Effects of metformin use during and after pregnancy Some people are concerned about using metformin during and after pregnancy because it crosses the placenta. This means that when a pregnant woman takes metformin, so does her baby. However, the results of the few studies that have been carried out so far into the effects of taking metformin during pregnancy have been positive. A 2014 review posted to Human Reproduction Update found that the drug did not cause birth defects, complications, or diseases. The researchers did note, however, that larger studies should be carried out to make this evidence more conclusive. Metformin and gestational diabetes A separate review posted to Human Reproduction Update noted that women who took metformin to treat gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) gained less weight than women who took insulin. A 2-year follow-up study found that babies born to the women treated with metformin had less fat around their organs, which could make them less prone to insulin resistance later in life. This could mean that children who are exposed to metformin at a young age could gain long-term benefi Continue reading >>

Pcos: Insulin And Metformin

Pcos: Insulin And Metformin

Young women with PCOS often have elevated insulin levels and are more likely to develop diabetes. Metformin is a medication often prescribed for women with PCOS to help prevent diabetes. A lifestyle that includes healthy nutrition and daily exercise is the most important part of a PCOS treatment plan. What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ in the body called the pancreas. The food you eat is broken down into simple sugar (glucose) during digestion. Glucose is absorbed into the blood after you eat. Insulin helps glucose enter the cells of the body to be used as energy. If there’s not enough insulin in the body, or if the body can’t use the insulin, sugar levels in the blood become higher. What is insulin resistance? If your body is resistant to insulin, it means you need high levels of insulin to keep your blood sugar normal. Certain medical conditions such as being overweight or having PCOS can cause insulin resistance. Insulin resistance tends to run in families. What can insulin resistance do to me? High insulin levels can cause thickening and darkening of the skin (acanthosis nigricans) on the back of the neck, axilla (under the arms), and groin area. In young women with PCOS, high insulin levels can cause the ovaries to make more androgen hormones such as testosterone. This can cause increased body hair, acne, and irregular or few periods. Having insulin resistance can increase your risk of developing diabetes. How can I lower my insulin levels? You can help lower your insulin levels naturally by eating fewer starches and sugars, and more foods that are high in fiber and low in refined carbohydrates. Low glycemic foods, on the other hand, don’t raise your blood sugar or insulin levels as much as foods that are high in sugar or refined carbohydr Continue reading >>

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