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Metformin Research

Anti-aging Human Study On Metformin Wins Fda Approval

Anti-aging Human Study On Metformin Wins Fda Approval

News Reports around World Describe Multiple Benefits The media has caught up to the potential health benefits of metformin, something our long-term supporters discovered long ago. What caught the media’s attention was the FDA’s approval of the first human study to see if metformin can protect against the multiple diseases of aging. Prominent headlines around the world proclaimed: “New Anti-Aging Drug Could Extend Human Life Span to 120 Years” Metformin of course is not a new drug. It was approved in England in 1957 and made available to type II diabetics around the world shortly thereafter. It took the FDA a staggering 37 years to approve it in the United States. Here are some accurate quotes from worldwide news sources: “Although it might seem like science fiction, researchers have already proven that the diabetes drug metformin extends the life of animals, and the Food and Drug Administration in the US has now given the go-ahead for a trial to see if the same effects can be replicated in humans.” “I have been doing research into aging for 25 years and the idea that we would be talking about a clinical trial in humans for an anti-aging drug would have been thought inconceivable…20 years ago aging was a biological mystery. Now we are starting to understand what is going on.” “Scientists think the best candidate for an anti-aging drug is metformin, the world’s most widely used diabetes drug, which costs just 10p [15 cents] a day. Metformin increases the number of oxygen molecules released into a cell, which appears to boost robustness and longevity.” “If we can slow aging in humans, even by just a little bit, it would be monumental. People could be older, and feel young.” “This would be the most important medical intervention in the modern e Continue reading >>

Reduction In The Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes With Lifestyle Intervention Or Metformin

Reduction In The Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes With Lifestyle Intervention Or Metformin

Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors — elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle — are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes. We randomly assigned 3234 nondiabetic persons with elevated fasting and post-load plasma glucose concentrations to placebo, metformin (850 mg twice daily), or a lifestyle-modification program with the goals of at least a 7 percent weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The mean age of the participants was 51 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34.0; 68 percent were women, and 45 percent were members of minority groups. The average follow-up was 2.8 years. The incidence of diabetes was 11.0, 7.8, and 4.8 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence by 58 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 48 to 66 percent) and metformin by 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent), as compared with placebo; the lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than metformin. To prevent one case of diabetes during a period of three years, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle-intervention program, and 13.9 would have to receive metformin. Lifestyle changes and treatment with metformin both reduced the incidence of diabetes in persons at high risk. The lifestyle intervention was more effective than metformin. Continue reading >>

Metformin Linked To Dementia, Parkinson's In Patients With T2dm

Metformin Linked To Dementia, Parkinson's In Patients With T2dm

Metformin Use Linked to Increased Dementia, Parkinson's Risk in Patients With Diabetes VIENNA, Austria — Long-term use of the diabetes medication metformin may increase the risk for neurodegenerative disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), new research suggests. In a cohort study that followed about 9300 patients with T2DM in Taiwan for up to 12 years, the risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) or Alzheimer's dementia was more than double during a 12-year period for those who took metformin vs those who did not — even after adjusting for multiple confounders. In addition, outcome risks increased progressively with higher dosage and longer duration of treatment. The results were presented here at AD/PD 2017: The 13th International Conference on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases by Yi-Chun Kuan, MD, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Interestingly, recent research has suggested that use of metformin may protect against neurodegenerative diseases. When asked about that, Dr Kuan told Medscape Medical News that "some studies have actually found positive [outcomes] but some have been negative ." So the researchers wanted to look into this using their own data. "We'd heard about a possible protective effect from metformin. However, we found the reverse," she said, but stressed that large-scale, prospective studies in other countries are needed to clarify the results. The investigators note that past research has shown a link between T2DM and increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases, but there's been "some question" about the association with specific diabetes medications. They examined records for patients with T2DM from the National Health Insurance research database of Taiwan, including 4651 who had metformin pre Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,[4][5] particularly in people who are overweight.[6] It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.[4] Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer complications of diabetes.[7][8] It is not associated with weight gain.[8] It is taken by mouth.[4] Metformin is generally well tolerated.[9] Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain.[4] It has a low risk of causing low blood sugar.[4] High blood lactic acid level is a concern if the medication is prescribed inappropriately and in overly large doses.[10] It should not be used in those with significant liver disease or kidney problems.[4] While no clear harm comes from use during pregnancy, insulin is generally preferred for gestational diabetes.[4][11] Metformin is in the biguanide class.[4] It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver and increasing the insulin sensitivity of body tissues.[4] Metformin was discovered in 1922.[12] French physician Jean Sterne began study in humans in the 1950s.[12] It was introduced as a medication in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995.[4][13] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[14] Metformin is believed to be the most widely used medication for diabetes which is taken by mouth.[12] It is available as a generic medication.[4] The wholesale price in the developed world is between 0.21 and 5.55 USD per month as of 2014.[15] In the United States, it costs 5 to 25 USD per month.[4] Medical uses[edit] Metformin is primarily used for type 2 diabetes, but is increasingly be Continue reading >>

Will Metformin Become The First Anti-aging Drug?

Will Metformin Become The First Anti-aging Drug?

A committed group of scientists is seeking to validate metformin as the first-ever anti-aging medication.1,2 In this day of staggering drug prices, metformin is available as a low-cost generic. One mechanism by which metformin works is by activating AMPK, an enzyme inside cells that lowers blood sugar by promoting energy utilization. Activating AMPK has broad-ranging effects that extend far beyond blood sugar control. Studies show that boosting AMPK activity can prevent—and even reverse—the life-shortening effects of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and more.3 In this article, we’ll review data that persuaded the FDA to allow metformin to be studied in humans as the first anti-aging drug.1 Broad-Spectrum Effects The most commonly prescribed antidiabetic drug is metformin. It has been in use in England since 1958 and in the United States since 1995. Derived from a compound found in the French Lilac, metformin has a track record of safety and effectiveness at routine doses of up to 2,000 mg daily.4-7 So what evidence is there for the FDA to consider this drug as an anti-aging medication? The reason is simple: Metformin can block or diminish many of the fundamental factors that accelerate aging.8-12 These include protecting against DNA damage glycation, poor mitochondrial function, and chronic inflammation. Metformin has been shown to facilitate DNA repair, which is critical for cancer prevention. By attacking these fundamental degenerative processes, metformin can prevent the development of aging’s most troubling diseases. Metformin has also been shown to increase the production of known longevity-promoting signaling molecules in cells, such as mTOR and AMPK—all of which reduce fat and sugar storage and increas Continue reading >>

Moreevidence For Metformin

Moreevidence For Metformin

Apopular diabetes drug could one day be used to treat malignant tumors Computer-generated imageryof an abnormal growth in the colon. A*STARscientists have now provided compelling evidence that metformin might be auseful clinical agent to treat such life-threatening malignancies. Juan Gaertner/SciencePhoto Library/Getty A*STARresearchers have provided strong evidence, using patient tumor grafts, thatmetformin, a common diabetes drug, might help fight colorectal cancer inhumans. Metforminspotential as a tumor-suppressing agent, to prevent the growth of breast, colon,lung and prostate cancers, has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies. However,the experimental models used in these studies do not accurately recreate thenatural manifestations of the disease, and require toxic levels of metformin todemonstrate beneficial effects. Min-HanTan and a group of researchers from A*STARs Institute of Bioengineering andNanotechnology (IBN), the Biological Resource Centre, and the Genome Institute of Singapore, with collaborators from hospitals across Singapore, have now tested metforminscancer-fighting abilities on a model of colorectal cancer that is more representativeof how the disease appears in humans. Theteam took samples of cancer tissue from two patients and implanted them in mice,then assessed how the tumors responded to metformin as well as 5-fluorouracil, thecurrent front-line treatment for colorectal cancer. They found that metformin inhibited tumor growth by at least 50 per cent after24 days and, when combined with 5-fluorouracil, inhibited the tumor grafts fromone patient by 85 per cent. The experiments used concentrations of metforminequivalent to that used to treat diabetes in humans. Inprevious studies, scientists typically injected cancer cells into host animals Continue reading >>

Reduction In The Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes With Lifestyle Intervention Or Metformin

Reduction In The Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes With Lifestyle Intervention Or Metformin

Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes. We randomly assigned 3234 nondiabetic persons with elevated fasting and post-load plasma glucose concentrations to placebo, metformin (850 mg twice daily), or a lifestyle-modification program with the goals of at least a 7 percent weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The mean age of the participants was 51 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34.0; 68 percent were women, and 45 percent were members of minority groups. The average follow-up was 2.8 years. The incidence of diabetes was 11.0, 7.8, and 4.8 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence by 58 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 48 to 66 percent) and metformin by 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent), as compared with placebo; the lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than metformin. To prevent one case of diabetes during a period of three years, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle-intervention program, and 13.9 would have to receive metformin. Lifestyle changes and treatment with metformin both reduced Continue reading >>

American Federation For Aging Research : Tame

American Federation For Aging Research : Tame

As seen in a Ron Howard-directed National Geographic special and featured in TEDMED , the TODAY Show , Business Insider , WIRED , The Sunday Times , The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , The Washington Post, CNN.com , The Sunday Times , and more, the Targeting Aging with Metformin (TAME) Trial shows promise for revolutionizing the way age-related diseases are treated. AFAR shares these FAQs to help explain the momentum behind TAME. Targeting Aging with Metformin (TAME) is a novel clinical trial, that will test whether the drug metformin, a widely-used treatment for type 2 diabetes, can delay the onset of age-related diseases and conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease and Alzheimers disease. Metformin is an FDA-approved first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, used successfully for over 60 years with an outstanding safety record. Studies in the biology of aging have shown that metformin can delay aging in animals. These findings point to the likelihood that metformin may influence fundamental aging factors that underlie multiple age-related conditions in humans. We MUST do the trial first which will open the door to FDA approval of aging as an indicator, as well as to the development of new drugs that will target aging. (Metformin has been approved by the FDA for over 50 years.) How can TAME impact other diseases and aging in general? By targeting fundamental aging factors, TAME researchers hope to delay or prevent the onset of all age-related diseases simultaneously, rather than treat each one individually as they arise and accumulate. Headlines have alluded that Metformin will help us live to be 120 years old? Is this true? This is false. The goal is to add health to our years. Reputable news stories on TAME can be found here and her Continue reading >>

Study Reveals How Diabetes Drug Metformin Prevents, Suppresses Cancer Growth

Study Reveals How Diabetes Drug Metformin Prevents, Suppresses Cancer Growth

Study reveals how diabetes drug metformin prevents, suppresses cancer growth December 15, 2016, Massachusetts General Hospital Metformin 500mg tablets. Credit: public domain Considerable evidence has indicated that the drug metformin, used for more than 50 years to treat type 2 diabetes, also can prevent or slow the growth of certain cancers; but the mechanism behind its anticancer effects has been unknown. Now a team of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators has identified a pathway that appears to underlie metformin's ability both to block the growth of human cancer cells and to extend the lifespan of the C.elegans roundworm, implying that this single genetic pathway plays an important role in a wide range of organisms. "We found that metformin reduces the traffic of molecules into and out of the nucleus - the 'information center' of the cell," says Alexander Soukas, MD, PhD, of the MGH Center for Human Genetic Research, senior author of the study in the Dec. 15 issue of Cell. "Reduced nuclear traffic translates into the ability of the drug to block cancer growth and, remarkably, is also responsible for metformin's ability to extend lifespan. By shedding new light on metformin's health-promoting effects, these results offer new potential ways that we can think about treating cancer and increasing healthy aging." Metformin's ability to lower blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes appears to result from the drug's effects on the liverreducing the organ's ability to produce glucose for release into the bloodstream. Evidence has supported the belief that this is the result of metformin's ability to block the activity of mitochondria, structures that serve as the powerhouse of the cell. But while that explanation appears to be fairly straightforward, S Continue reading >>

Metformin Diabetes Drug Could Extend Lifespan

Metformin Diabetes Drug Could Extend Lifespan

Metformin is approved in the US as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. A new study by Cardiff University, UK, involving over 180,000 people, reveals that the drug could also increase the lifespan of those individuals who are non-diabetics. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are around 29.1 million people in the US with diabetes, equating to 9.3% of the population. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of diabetes cases and is usually associated with older age, obesity and physical inactivity, family history of type 2 diabetes or a personal history of gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is preventable through healthful eating, regular physical activity and weight loss. It can be controlled with these same activities, but insulin or oral medication also may be necessary. Metformin (metformin hydrochloride) is an oral biguanide antidiabetic medicine to treat type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood. Metformin helps to control the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood, it decreases the amount of glucose you absorb from your food and the amount of glucose made by your liver. Metformin also increases your body's response to insulin, a natural substance that controls the amount of glucose in the blood. The objective of the study, published in leading diabetes journal Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, was to compare all-cause mortality in diabetic patients treated with either sulphonylurea or metformin with matched individuals without diabetes including age, gender, same general practice, smoking status and clinical status criteria. The data is from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), which encompasses clinically rich, pseudonymize Continue reading >>

Metformin Effects Revisited

Metformin Effects Revisited

Enter your login details below. If you do not already have an account you will need to register here . Due to migration of article submission systems, please check the status of your submitted manuscript in the relevant system below: Check the status of your submitted manuscript in EVISE Check the status of your submitted manuscript in EES: Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. CiteScore: 3.41 ℹ CiteScore measures the average citations received per document published in this title. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a given year (e.g. 2015) to documents published in three previous calendar years (e.g. 2012 – 14), divided by the number of documents in these three previous years (e.g. 2012 – 14). The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two preceding years. 2017 Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics, 2018) 5-Year Impact Factor: 3.308 ℹ Five-Year Impact Factor: To calculate the five year Impact Factor, citations are counted in 2016 to the previous five years and divided by the source items published in the previous five years. 2017 Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics, 2018) Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 1.327 ℹ Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): SNIP measures contextual citation impact by weighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field. SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 1.458 ℹ SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): SJR is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and a qualitative measure of the journal’s impac Continue reading >>

Beyond Diabetes, Metformin May Prove To Be A ‘wonder Drug’

Beyond Diabetes, Metformin May Prove To Be A ‘wonder Drug’

In the past 2 decades, metformin has become a mainstay of type 2 diabetes management and is now the recommended first-line drug for treating the disease in the United States and worldwide. Available in the United States since 1995, metformin is an attractive therapy for clinicians and patients alike. Studies have found the agent to be safe and effective, and at about $4 for a 1-month supply of the generic, that option is affordable at a time when many prescription drugs are being priced out of reach for some patients. “Metformin is the first drug of choice, by all standards,” Oluwaranti Akiyode, PharmD, RPh, BCPS, CDE, professor and clinical pharmacist at Howard University School of Pharmacy, told Endocrine Today. “It’s a rarity that all experts agree on something. It is time-tested, proven, has good efficacy, a good safety profile and it’s cheap. Metformin has been around long before it came to the United States. That’s why I find it amazing that we only have one drug in that class.” New research is suggesting that metformin may hold promise in treating or preventing a whole host of conditions in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. Studies show metformin may be cardioprotective in patients with diabetes and beneficial in the presence of stable congestive heart failure. The agent also may help to increase pregnancy rate in polycystic ovary syndrome, provide breast and prostate cancer benefits, and offer neuroprotection that may reduce dementia and stroke risk, Akiyode said. Nir Barzilai, MD, an endocrinologist and director of the Institute for Aging Research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, said he hopes to work with the FDA to conduct an NIH/American Federation for Aging Research metformin trial later this year — Targeting Aging with M Continue reading >>

Metformin: Can A Diabetes Drug Help Prevent Cancer?

Metformin: Can A Diabetes Drug Help Prevent Cancer?

In 1957, the first results from a clinical trial of the diabetes drug metformin in patients were published. Yet, it would take nearly 40 years for the drug to be approved in the United States as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Now researchers want to know whether this decades-old drug may have additional uses in another disease—cancer. Based on findings from a number of large epidemiologic studies and extensive laboratory research, metformin is being tested in clinical trials not only as a treatment for cancer, but as a way to prevent it in people at increased risk, including cancer survivors who have a higher risk of a second primary cancer. Numerous early-stage clinical trials are currently under way to investigate metformin’s potential to prevent an array of cancers, including colorectal, prostate, endometrial, and breast cancer. Several of these trials are being funded by NCI’s Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials. And NCI is collaborating with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) to study participants from the landmark clinical trial, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), to investigate metformin’s impact on cancer incidence. Some of the early-phase prevention trials of metformin are enrolling participants who are at increased risk for cancer and who are obese, have elevated glucose or insulin levels, or have other conditions that put them at risk for diabetes. “With the obesity epidemic, these studies are applicable to a substantial portion of the U.S. population and, increasingly, of the world population,” said Brandy Heckman-Stoddard, PhD, MPH, of NCI’s Division of Cancer Prevention. Expanding the Data Pool Much of the human data on metformin and cancer has come from epidemiologic studies of people w Continue reading >>

Mechanism Of Metformin: A Tale Of Two Sites

Mechanism Of Metformin: A Tale Of Two Sites

Metformin (dimethylbiguanide) features as a current first-line pharmacological treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in almost all guidelines and recommendations worldwide. It has been known that the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin is mainly due to the inhibition of hepatic glucose output, and therefore, the liver is presumably the primary site of metformin function. However, in this issue of Diabetes Care, Fineman and colleagues (1) demonstrate surprising results from their clinical trials that suggest the primary effect of metformin resides in the human gut. Metformin is an orally administered drug used for lowering blood glucose concentrations in patients with T2D, particularly in those overweight and obese as well as those with normal renal function. Pharmacologically, metformin belongs to the biguanide class of antidiabetes drugs. The history of biguanides can be traced from the use of Galega officinalis (commonly known as galega) for treating diabetes in medieval Europe (2). Guanidine, the active component of galega, is the parent compound used to synthesize the biguanides. Among three main biguanides introduced for diabetes therapy in late 1950s, metformin (Fig. 1A) has a superior safety profile and is well tolerated. The other two biguanides, phenformin and buformin, were withdrawn in the early 1970s due to the risk of lactic acidosis and increased cardiac mortality. The incidence of lactic acidosis with metformin at therapeutic doses is rare (less than three cases per 100,000 patient-years) and is not greater than with nonmetformin therapies (3). Major clinical advantages of metformin include specific reduction of hepatic glucose output, with subsequent improvement of peripheral insulin sensitivity, and remarkable cardiovascular safety, but without increasi Continue reading >>

Metformin, A Breakthrough In Life Extension Research

Metformin, A Breakthrough In Life Extension Research

As we already covered before, 2016 shows a lot of promise to be a great year for life extension research. One of the most interesting studies planned for this year is the TAME trial[1] (Targeting Aging with Metformin), a study that will test the use of aforementioned compound as a longevity drug in older adults who have cancer, heart disease, or cognitive impairment (or are at risk for these diseases). What is it, exactly? Metformin, also known as Glucophage ®, is an anti-diabetic drug that works by suppressing glucose production in the liver. Unlike the majority of diabetes drugs, however, it does not cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), even when given to non-diabetics. Metformin is a drug of the biguanide class. As such, it resembles the compounds guanidine and galegine, found in the Galega officinalis plant (aka goat’s rue). Goat’s rue was known to have anti-diabetic activity since ancient times, but it proved too toxic to use. The beginning of the history of metformin, however, has almost nothing to do with type 2 diabetes, but with an even worse disease: malaria. Malaria is a disease caused by a parasitic microorganism of the Plasmodium species. The typical treatment for malaria before the advent of synthetic drugs was quinine, an alkaloid extracted from the bark of the South American tree Cinchona officinalis. Quinine was expensive, and some parasites became resistant to it. Furthermore, the drug was imported from Java and the supply was unpredictable. In the 1930s, researchers began to discover and synthesize alternatives to quinine. A chemist named Francis H. S. Curd started investigating pyrimidine analogs at the ICI laboratories at Blackley, Manchester, after he noticed that some drugs with mild antimalarial activity had a pyrimidine ring in their struc Continue reading >>

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