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Metformin Research

Reduction In The Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes With Lifestyle Intervention Or Metformin

Reduction In The Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes With Lifestyle Intervention Or Metformin

Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes. We randomly assigned 3234 nondiabetic persons with elevated fasting and post-load plasma glucose concentrations to placebo, metformin (850 mg twice daily), or a lifestyle-modification program with the goals of at least a 7 percent weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The mean age of the participants was 51 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34.0; 68 percent were women, and 45 percent were members of minority groups. The average follow-up was 2.8 years. The incidence of diabetes was 11.0, 7.8, and 4.8 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence by 58 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 48 to 66 percent) and metformin by 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent), as compared with placebo; the lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than metformin. To prevent one case of diabetes during a period of three years, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle-intervention program, and 13.9 would have to receive metformin. Lifestyle changes and treatment with metformin both reduced Continue reading >>

Forget The Blood Of Teens. This Pill Promises To Extend Life For A Nickel A Pop

Forget The Blood Of Teens. This Pill Promises To Extend Life For A Nickel A Pop

Nir Barzilai has a plan. It’s a really big plan that might one day change medicine and health care as we know it. Its promise: extending our years of healthy, disease-free living by decades. And Barzilai knows about the science of aging. He is, after all, the director of the Institute for Aging Research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx. And, as such, he usually talks about his plan with the caution of a seasoned researcher. Usually. Truth is, Barzilai is known among his colleagues for his excitability—one author says he could pass as the older brother of Austin Powers—and sometimes he can’t help himself. Like the time he referred to his plan—which, among other things, would demonstrate that human aging can be slowed with a cheap pill—as “history-making.” In 2015, he stood outside of the offices of the Food and Drug Administration, flanked by a number of distinguished researchers on aging, and likened the plan to a journey to “the promised land.” Last spring, Barzilai traveled to the Vatican to discuss the plan at a conference on cellular therapies. It was the second time he’d been invited to the conference, which is a pretty big deal in the medical world. At the last one, in 2013, he appeared alongside a dwarf from Ecuador, a member of a community of dwarfs whose near immunity to diabetes and cancer has attracted the keen interest of researchers. The 2016 conference featured a number of the world’s top cancer scientists and included addresses from Pope Francis and Joe Biden. That Barzilai was invited was a sign not only of his prominence in his field but also of how far aging research, once relegated to the periphery of mainstream science, has come in recent years. That progress has been spurred by huge investments from Sil Continue reading >>

Metformin For Protection Against Alzheimer's, Cancer And Heart Disease?

Metformin For Protection Against Alzheimer's, Cancer And Heart Disease?

With commentary by Nir Barzilai, MD, director of the Institute for Aging Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Brian Kennedy, PhD, president and CEO of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging. Metformin may influence fundamental aging factors that underlie many age-related conditions, including cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer's, says Nir Barzilai, MD, director of the Institute for Aging Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, the Bronx. "Metformin is generic, and it's cheap," Dr. Barzilai says. And accumulating data suggests that ''it interferes with the biology of aging." Aging, he says, is a primary risk factor for not only diabetes but also most of our big killers, such as Alzheimer's, heart disease and cancer. In animal and human studies, metformin has shown promise in slowing the aging process and halting diseases. To study the potential of metformin further, Dr. Barzilai plans to launch a large-scale study, Targeting Aging with METformin (TAME), to look at the effects of metformin compared to placebo. His team has already completed the MILES study, Metformin in Longevity, and are analyzing the results. In that study, they gave some participants metformin, at 1,700 milligrams a day, and others placebo. The aim was to see if the metformin could restore the gene expression profile of an older person with blood sugar problems known as impaired glucose tolerance (but not yet diabetic), to that of a younger person. Dr. Barzilai knows he has critics of his approach. He brushed them off, saying the people who don't see the value of the research ''don't understand the biology of aging and that it can be changed." He doesn't see the research as testing an anti-aging drug. "Aging is not a disease and we don't want it to be a disease," he says. Howe Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,[4][5] particularly in people who are overweight.[6] It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.[4] Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer complications of diabetes.[7][8] It is not associated with weight gain.[8] It is taken by mouth.[4] Metformin is generally well tolerated.[9] Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain.[4] It has a low risk of causing low blood sugar.[4] High blood lactic acid level is a concern if the medication is prescribed inappropriately and in overly large doses.[10] It should not be used in those with significant liver disease or kidney problems.[4] While no clear harm comes from use during pregnancy, insulin is generally preferred for gestational diabetes.[4][11] Metformin is in the biguanide class.[4] It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver and increasing the insulin sensitivity of body tissues.[4] Metformin was discovered in 1922.[12] French physician Jean Sterne began study in humans in the 1950s.[12] It was introduced as a medication in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995.[4][13] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[14] Metformin is believed to be the most widely used medication for diabetes which is taken by mouth.[12] It is available as a generic medication.[4] The wholesale price in the developed world is between 0.21 and 5.55 USD per month as of 2014.[15] In the United States, it costs 5 to 25 USD per month.[4] Medical uses[edit] Metformin is primarily used for type 2 diabetes, but is increasingly be Continue reading >>

Metformin May Promote Anti-aging

Metformin May Promote Anti-aging

Metformin, a drug that has been widely used to treat diabetes, is being tested on humans for it's anti-aging properties. Researchers believe that Metformin, a drug that already has been widely used to treat diabetes for about 60 years, may have a large number of additional health benefits. It is now being tested on humans for its anti-aging properties. Nir Barzilai, MD, director of the Institute for Aging Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, is currently engaged in a clinical study and assessment of metformin for endurance, to analyze how it may impact metabolic and cellular processes correlated with the development of age-related conditions. These conditions include inflammation, oxidative, diminished autophagy, cell senescence and apoptosis. Experts are reviewing whether metrformin use can possibly improve gene expression profile in older adults with damaged glucose tolerance to that of younger individuals. "We want to change the habit of treating very accumulating diseases with accumulating therapy for the elderly." Barzilia told Medical Economics. "We would rather prevent aging and by that prevent the onset of multiple diseases," she added. According to lead researcher, Craig Currey of Cardiff University, metformin has already been demonstrated to offer benefits against cancer and cardiovascular disease . A 2014 research study has already divulged that patients cured with metroformin, rather than sulphonylureas, had longer lifespans, and recommended that metroformin may also be an aid to patients without diabetes. Metformin increases the number of oxygen molecules released into a cell, which appears to boost robustness and longevity. It works by suppressing glucose production in the liver and increasing insulin sensitivity, therefore benefitting patients Continue reading >>

Metformin: Can A Diabetes Drug Help Prevent Cancer?

Metformin: Can A Diabetes Drug Help Prevent Cancer?

In 1957, the first results from a clinical trial of the diabetes drug metformin in patients were published. Yet, it would take nearly 40 years for the drug to be approved in the United States as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Now researchers want to know whether this decades-old drug may have additional uses in another disease—cancer. Based on findings from a number of large epidemiologic studies and extensive laboratory research, metformin is being tested in clinical trials not only as a treatment for cancer, but as a way to prevent it in people at increased risk, including cancer survivors who have a higher risk of a second primary cancer. Numerous early-stage clinical trials are currently under way to investigate metformin’s potential to prevent an array of cancers, including colorectal, prostate, endometrial, and breast cancer. Several of these trials are being funded by NCI’s Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials. And NCI is collaborating with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) to study participants from the landmark clinical trial, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), to investigate metformin’s impact on cancer incidence. Some of the early-phase prevention trials of metformin are enrolling participants who are at increased risk for cancer and who are obese, have elevated glucose or insulin levels, or have other conditions that put them at risk for diabetes. “With the obesity epidemic, these studies are applicable to a substantial portion of the U.S. population and, increasingly, of the world population,” said Brandy Heckman-Stoddard, PhD, MPH, of NCI’s Division of Cancer Prevention. Expanding the Data Pool Much of the human data on metformin and cancer has come from epidemiologic studies of people w Continue reading >>

Metformin Linked To Dementia, Parkinson's In Patients With T2dm

Metformin Linked To Dementia, Parkinson's In Patients With T2dm

Metformin Use Linked to Increased Dementia, Parkinson's Risk in Patients With Diabetes VIENNA, Austria — Long-term use of the diabetes medication metformin may increase the risk for neurodegenerative disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), new research suggests. In a cohort study that followed about 9300 patients with T2DM in Taiwan for up to 12 years, the risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) or Alzheimer's dementia was more than double during a 12-year period for those who took metformin vs those who did not — even after adjusting for multiple confounders. In addition, outcome risks increased progressively with higher dosage and longer duration of treatment. The results were presented here at AD/PD 2017: The 13th International Conference on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases by Yi-Chun Kuan, MD, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Interestingly, recent research has suggested that use of metformin may protect against neurodegenerative diseases. When asked about that, Dr Kuan told Medscape Medical News that "some studies have actually found positive [outcomes] but some have been negative ." So the researchers wanted to look into this using their own data. "We'd heard about a possible protective effect from metformin. However, we found the reverse," she said, but stressed that large-scale, prospective studies in other countries are needed to clarify the results. The investigators note that past research has shown a link between T2DM and increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases, but there's been "some question" about the association with specific diabetes medications. They examined records for patients with T2DM from the National Health Insurance research database of Taiwan, including 4651 who had metformin pre Continue reading >>

Moreevidence For Metformin

Moreevidence For Metformin

Apopular diabetes drug could one day be used to treat malignant tumors Computer-generated imageryof an abnormal growth in the colon. A*STARscientists have now provided compelling evidence that metformin might be auseful clinical agent to treat such life-threatening malignancies. Juan Gaertner/SciencePhoto Library/Getty A*STARresearchers have provided strong evidence, using patient tumor grafts, thatmetformin, a common diabetes drug, might help fight colorectal cancer inhumans. Metforminspotential as a tumor-suppressing agent, to prevent the growth of breast, colon,lung and prostate cancers, has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies. However,the experimental models used in these studies do not accurately recreate thenatural manifestations of the disease, and require toxic levels of metformin todemonstrate beneficial effects. Min-HanTan and a group of researchers from A*STARs Institute of Bioengineering andNanotechnology (IBN), the Biological Resource Centre, and the Genome Institute of Singapore, with collaborators from hospitals across Singapore, have now tested metforminscancer-fighting abilities on a model of colorectal cancer that is more representativeof how the disease appears in humans. Theteam took samples of cancer tissue from two patients and implanted them in mice,then assessed how the tumors responded to metformin as well as 5-fluorouracil, thecurrent front-line treatment for colorectal cancer. They found that metformin inhibited tumor growth by at least 50 per cent after24 days and, when combined with 5-fluorouracil, inhibited the tumor grafts fromone patient by 85 per cent. The experiments used concentrations of metforminequivalent to that used to treat diabetes in humans. Inprevious studies, scientists typically injected cancer cells into host animals Continue reading >>

Metformin Diabetes Drug Could Extend Lifespan

Metformin Diabetes Drug Could Extend Lifespan

Metformin is approved in the US as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. A new study by Cardiff University, UK, involving over 180,000 people, reveals that the drug could also increase the lifespan of those individuals who are non-diabetics. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are around 29.1 million people in the US with diabetes, equating to 9.3% of the population. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of diabetes cases and is usually associated with older age, obesity and physical inactivity, family history of type 2 diabetes or a personal history of gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is preventable through healthful eating, regular physical activity and weight loss. It can be controlled with these same activities, but insulin or oral medication also may be necessary. Metformin (metformin hydrochloride) is an oral biguanide antidiabetic medicine to treat type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood. Metformin helps to control the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood, it decreases the amount of glucose you absorb from your food and the amount of glucose made by your liver. Metformin also increases your body's response to insulin, a natural substance that controls the amount of glucose in the blood. The objective of the study, published in leading diabetes journal Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, was to compare all-cause mortality in diabetic patients treated with either sulphonylurea or metformin with matched individuals without diabetes including age, gender, same general practice, smoking status and clinical status criteria. The data is from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), which encompasses clinically rich, pseudonymize Continue reading >>

Metformin: Current Knowledge

Metformin: Current Knowledge

Go to: Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders in which the blood glucose is higher than normal levels, due to insufficiency of insulin release or improper response of cells to insulin, resulting in high blood pressure. The resultant hyperglycemia produces sever complications. Metformin drug has been shown to prevent diabetes in people who are at high risk and decrease most of the diabetic complications. Recent reports on metformin, not only indicate some implications such as renoprotective properties have been suggested for metformin, but some reports indicate its adverse effects as well that are negligible when its benefits are brought into account. We aimed here to review the new implications of metformin and discuss about the concerns in the use of metformin, referring to the recently published papers. Keywords: Diabetes, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, glucose, metformin, new applications, polycystic ovary syndrome, renoprotection Go to: INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders in which the blood glucose is higher than normal levels, due to insufficiency of insulin release or improper response of cells to insulin, resulting in high blood pressure. The resultant hyperglycemia produces the classical symptoms of polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. It may also cause nerve problems, kidney problems, and blindness, loss of limbs, and sexual dysfunction, increase in heart attack or stroke.[1] Metformin (a biguanide derivative), by controlling blood glucose level decreases these complications. Metformin works by helping to restore the body's response to insulin. It decreases the amount of blood sugar that the liver produces and that the intestines or stomach absorb.[2] Metformin, other than hypoglycemic activity, has b Continue reading >>

Anti-aging Human Study On Metformin Wins Fda Approval

Anti-aging Human Study On Metformin Wins Fda Approval

News Reports around World Describe Multiple Benefits The media has caught up to the potential health benefits of metformin, something our long-term supporters discovered long ago. What caught the media’s attention was the FDA’s approval of the first human study to see if metformin can protect against the multiple diseases of aging. Prominent headlines around the world proclaimed: “New Anti-Aging Drug Could Extend Human Life Span to 120 Years” Metformin of course is not a new drug. It was approved in England in 1957 and made available to type II diabetics around the world shortly thereafter. It took the FDA a staggering 37 years to approve it in the United States. Here are some accurate quotes from worldwide news sources: “Although it might seem like science fiction, researchers have already proven that the diabetes drug metformin extends the life of animals, and the Food and Drug Administration in the US has now given the go-ahead for a trial to see if the same effects can be replicated in humans.” “I have been doing research into aging for 25 years and the idea that we would be talking about a clinical trial in humans for an anti-aging drug would have been thought inconceivable…20 years ago aging was a biological mystery. Now we are starting to understand what is going on.” “Scientists think the best candidate for an anti-aging drug is metformin, the world’s most widely used diabetes drug, which costs just 10p [15 cents] a day. Metformin increases the number of oxygen molecules released into a cell, which appears to boost robustness and longevity.” “If we can slow aging in humans, even by just a little bit, it would be monumental. People could be older, and feel young.” “This would be the most important medical intervention in the modern e Continue reading >>

Mechanism Of Metformin: A Tale Of Two Sites

Mechanism Of Metformin: A Tale Of Two Sites

Metformin (dimethylbiguanide) features as a current first-line pharmacological treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in almost all guidelines and recommendations worldwide. It has been known that the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin is mainly due to the inhibition of hepatic glucose output, and therefore, the liver is presumably the primary site of metformin function. However, in this issue of Diabetes Care, Fineman and colleagues (1) demonstrate surprising results from their clinical trials that suggest the primary effect of metformin resides in the human gut. Metformin is an orally administered drug used for lowering blood glucose concentrations in patients with T2D, particularly in those overweight and obese as well as those with normal renal function. Pharmacologically, metformin belongs to the biguanide class of antidiabetes drugs. The history of biguanides can be traced from the use of Galega officinalis (commonly known as galega) for treating diabetes in medieval Europe (2). Guanidine, the active component of galega, is the parent compound used to synthesize the biguanides. Among three main biguanides introduced for diabetes therapy in late 1950s, metformin (Fig. 1A) has a superior safety profile and is well tolerated. The other two biguanides, phenformin and buformin, were withdrawn in the early 1970s due to the risk of lactic acidosis and increased cardiac mortality. The incidence of lactic acidosis with metformin at therapeutic doses is rare (less than three cases per 100,000 patient-years) and is not greater than with nonmetformin therapies (3). Major clinical advantages of metformin include specific reduction of hepatic glucose output, with subsequent improvement of peripheral insulin sensitivity, and remarkable cardiovascular safety, but without increasi Continue reading >>

Metformin In Longevity Study (miles)

Metformin In Longevity Study (miles)

Metformin, an FDA approved first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, has known beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. Evidence from animal models and in vitro studies suggest that in addition to its effects on glucose metabolism, metformin may influence metabolic and cellular processes associated with the development of age-related conditions, such as inflammation, oxidative damage, diminished autophagy, cell senescence and apoptosis. As such, metformin is of particular interest in clinical translational research in aging since it may influence fundamental aging factors that underlie multiple age-related conditions. The investigators therefore propose a pilot study to examine the effect of metformin treatment on the biology of aging in humans. Namely, whether treatment with metformin will restore the gene expression profile of older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to that of young healthy subjects. Aging in humans is a well-established primary risk factor for many disabling diseases and conditions, among them diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. In fact, the risk of death from these causes is dramatically accelerated (100-1000 fold) between the ages of 35 and 85 years. For this reason, there is a need for the development of new interventions to improve and maintain health into old age - to improve "healthspan". Several mechanisms have been shown to delay the aging process, resulting in improved healthspan in animal models, including mammals. These include caloric restriction, alteration in GH/IGF1 pathways, as well as use of several drugs such as resveratrol (SIRT1 activator) and rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor). At Einstein, the investigators have been working to discover pathways associated with exceptional longevity. Continue reading >>

Will Metformin Become The First Anti-aging Drug?

Will Metformin Become The First Anti-aging Drug?

A committed group of scientists is seeking to validate metformin as the first-ever anti-aging medication.1,2 In this day of staggering drug prices, metformin is available as a low-cost generic. One mechanism by which metformin works is by activating AMPK, an enzyme inside cells that lowers blood sugar by promoting energy utilization. Activating AMPK has broad-ranging effects that extend far beyond blood sugar control. Studies show that boosting AMPK activity can prevent—and even reverse—the life-shortening effects of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and more.3 In this article, we’ll review data that persuaded the FDA to allow metformin to be studied in humans as the first anti-aging drug.1 Broad-Spectrum Effects The most commonly prescribed antidiabetic drug is metformin. It has been in use in England since 1958 and in the United States since 1995. Derived from a compound found in the French Lilac, metformin has a track record of safety and effectiveness at routine doses of up to 2,000 mg daily.4-7 So what evidence is there for the FDA to consider this drug as an anti-aging medication? The reason is simple: Metformin can block or diminish many of the fundamental factors that accelerate aging.8-12 These include protecting against DNA damage glycation, poor mitochondrial function, and chronic inflammation. Metformin has been shown to facilitate DNA repair, which is critical for cancer prevention. By attacking these fundamental degenerative processes, metformin can prevent the development of aging’s most troubling diseases. Metformin has also been shown to increase the production of known longevity-promoting signaling molecules in cells, such as mTOR and AMPK—all of which reduce fat and sugar storage and increas Continue reading >>

Study Reveals How Diabetes Drug Metformin Prevents, Suppresses Cancer Growth

Study Reveals How Diabetes Drug Metformin Prevents, Suppresses Cancer Growth

Study reveals how diabetes drug metformin prevents, suppresses cancer growth December 15, 2016, Massachusetts General Hospital Metformin 500mg tablets. Credit: public domain Considerable evidence has indicated that the drug metformin, used for more than 50 years to treat type 2 diabetes, also can prevent or slow the growth of certain cancers; but the mechanism behind its anticancer effects has been unknown. Now a team of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators has identified a pathway that appears to underlie metformin's ability both to block the growth of human cancer cells and to extend the lifespan of the C.elegans roundworm, implying that this single genetic pathway plays an important role in a wide range of organisms. "We found that metformin reduces the traffic of molecules into and out of the nucleus - the 'information center' of the cell," says Alexander Soukas, MD, PhD, of the MGH Center for Human Genetic Research, senior author of the study in the Dec. 15 issue of Cell. "Reduced nuclear traffic translates into the ability of the drug to block cancer growth and, remarkably, is also responsible for metformin's ability to extend lifespan. By shedding new light on metformin's health-promoting effects, these results offer new potential ways that we can think about treating cancer and increasing healthy aging." Metformin's ability to lower blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes appears to result from the drug's effects on the liverreducing the organ's ability to produce glucose for release into the bloodstream. Evidence has supported the belief that this is the result of metformin's ability to block the activity of mitochondria, structures that serve as the powerhouse of the cell. But while that explanation appears to be fairly straightforward, S Continue reading >>

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