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Metformin Increase Progesterone

Pcos: Metformin And Progesterone

Pcos: Metformin And Progesterone

Just found out I have low progesterone and high insulin levels. My RE wants to start me on Metformin & Progesterone. Does anyone have any advice? Feedback? Have you ever taken Metformin? Does it help with fertility? Is there any hope?????? Good luck with metformin. It was so hard on my tummy. I would be at work and my tummy was rumbling and I would have to run to the bathroom. I've read about positive outcomes but I've never experienced any. My friend was on it for 6 months and got preggo naturally so there is hope Yeah, I can't take stand the side effects either. It's horrendous. All day long diarrhea and nausea. I even ended up paying extra to try the time release capsules and same effect whether I ate healthy or not. I ended up just not using it... I can't spend my life in the bathroom. I've been on metformin for years and don't have any problems. They did scale me up on it slowly increasing the dose every couple of weeks so that might help. I am on a high dose now and still don't have periods without help but I can ovulate with drugs. They say it helps so I go with that. What are you taking for ovulation? Clomid? I take metformin. I take 1000mgs a night. I started taking it when I was first trying to get pregnant. I wod take it then stop then take then stop. I wasn't on it faithfully. Fast forward 8 years later. My second ivf doctor prescribed it to me. I took faithfully and now have a beautiful 10mo old daughter. I also did other things such as acupuncture too. I was 41 at the time I started taking it faithfully. I believe it helped the quality of my eggs also. The side effects will lessen. You will learn what foods irritate you and what don't. You will also learn where all the bathrooms are when you first start taking them. Usually it is high sugar, like icing fo Continue reading >>

Pcos, Pregnancy, And Progesterone?

Pcos, Pregnancy, And Progesterone?

I just found out I am pregnant- and am freaking out a bit! See my other thread on travel to India :-). Anyway, I have PCOS and expected to have difficulties conceiving. However I came off the pill on 1 January and conceived almost right away, apparently. I have read though that I have a higher risk of early miscarriage? I have also read that progesterone and metformin can help. Does anyone have any advice or experiences with either? Seems hard to get progesterone in the UK? I have experience of progesterone. I live in a country where it's prescribed very readily, though. I had one early miscarriage, and as soon as I became pregnant again I was prescribed the cyclogest pessaries, with no blood tests for progesterone levels or anything. Currently 35 weeks pregnant. I have read of people getting it on prescription in the UK, although no idea how willing doctors are to give it. I'm not sure if it's even proven that it can help - I think it doesn't do any harm, though. It's definitely worth asking your doctor. (Mine was prescribed by an obstetrician - not sure how it would work in the UK.) Might I ask what dosage and type you are on? I may be able to order it from the USA or get my mom to send me some from Canada? I have PCO and was on lots of Meds in pregnancy after multiple miscarriages. The IVF consultant explained to me that the metformin was more important in the 3 months leading up to conception as a way of protecting egg quality in the final maturation stage. I had hyperemesis at the time and couldn't keep down any pills in the first trimester but he said it really didn't matter after conception. He did advise to stick to a low GI diet though to help keep blood sugars stable in the same way as the metformin would have helped with. In the end all I could keep down was Continue reading >>

Effects Of Metformin Treatment On Luteal Phase Progesterone Concentration Inpolycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Effects Of Metformin Treatment On Luteal Phase Progesterone Concentration Inpolycystic Ovary Syndrome.

1. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2004 Nov;37(11):1637-44. Epub 2004 Oct 26. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration inpolycystic ovary syndrome. Meenakumari KJ(1), Agarwal S, Krishna A, Pandey LK. (1)Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemiain luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined therelationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin duringthe luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesteronelevels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years) were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily) for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle andthroughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphenecitrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOSwomen) and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample) and luteal (3samples) phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r). The endocrine study showed lowprogesterone level (4.9 ng/ml) during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml). A significant negative correlation was observedbetween insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01) and between progesteroneand LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05) concentrations, and a positive correlation (r =0.83; P < 0.001) was observed between LH and insulin. The study furtherdemonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration(16.97 ng/ml) in PCOS women treat Continue reading >>

Effects Of Metformin Treatment On Luteal Phase Progesterone Concentration In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Effects Of Metformin Treatment On Luteal Phase Progesterone Concentration In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Braz J Med Biol Res, November 2004, Volume 37(11) 1637-1644 Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome K.J. Meenakumari2, S. Agarwal1, A. Krishna2 and L.K. Pandey1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Medical Sciences, and 2Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years) were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily) for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women) and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample) and luteal (3 samples) phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r). The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml) during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml). A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01) and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05) concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001) was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a sig Continue reading >>

Insulin Reduction With Metformin Increases Luteal Phase Serum Glycodelin And Insulin-like Growth Factor-binding Protein 1 Concentrations And Enhances Uterine Vascularity And Blood Flow In The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Insulin Reduction With Metformin Increases Luteal Phase Serum Glycodelin And Insulin-like Growth Factor-binding Protein 1 Concentrations And Enhances Uterine Vascularity And Blood Flow In The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

We hypothesized that hyperinsulinemia contributes to early pregnancy loss in the polycystic ovary syndrome by adversely affecting endometrial function and environment. Serum glycodelin, a putative biomarker of endometrial function, is decreased in women with early pregnancy loss. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 may also play an important role in pregnancy by facilitating adhesion processes at the feto-maternal interface. We studied 48 women with polycystic ovary syndrome before and after 4 weeks of administration of 500 mg metformin (n = 26) or placebo (n = 22) 3 times daily. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and serum glycodelin and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 were measured during the follicular and clomiphene-induced luteal phases of menses. In the metformin group, the mean (se) area under the serum insulin curve after glucose administration decreased from 62 6 to 19 2 nmol/Lmin (P < 0.001). Follicular phase serum glycodelin concentrations increased 20-fold from 150 46 to 2813 1192 pmol/L (P < 0.001), and serum insulin-like-growth factor-binding protein-1 concentrations increased from 936 152 to 2396 300 pmol/L (P < 0.001). Similarly, luteal phase serum glycodelin concentrations increased 3-fold from 3434 1299 to 10624 1803 pmol/L (P < 0.001), and serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 concentrations increased from 1220 136 to 4916 596 pmol/L (P< 0.001). Uterine vascular penetration also increased in the metformin group, as did blood flow of spiral arteries, as demonstrated by a 20% decrease in the resistance index from 0.71 0.02 to 0.57 0.03 (P < 0.001). These variables did not change in the placebo group. We conclude that insulin reduction with metformin increases follicular and luteal phase serum glycodelin and Continue reading >>

Metformin And Progesterone

Metformin And Progesterone

If this is your first visit, be sure tocheck out the FAQ by clicking thelink above. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. To start viewing messages,select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below. Does Metformin help to increase progesterone levels during pregnancy? Is it a good idea to take it through the first trimester? i was just told to stop taking metformin. i know some ladies on here take it during their pregnancy. Cycle 3: Clomid 100mg + Guaifenesin BFP on CD11!!!! under the pregnant cyster thread there is an article on this topic. If your progesterone is low the dr should give you a rx for suppositories or injects. I would definately stay on the met., I read that women with pcos have a 40% chance of misscarrage and if they are on met it is only 12%. 11/2009 ivf #3 consult - OMG I Oed on my own! 12/2009 100mg clomid, O cd 36 - 1/8/09 BFP! HCG 25 10w4d 178bpm we've got a swimmer Hidden Content I stayed on met my entired pregnancy with my DS its the only difference that was made between him and my other 7 pregnancies. Now if I can only get pregnant again I will remain on Met. DSD (11) DSS (9) DS (6) (concieved using met only after 2 years of trying) I was on Met a few years ago, conceived, stopped taking Met immediatly, and then miscarried. I conceived again, this time did not stop taking Met at my doctor's request, and I now have a 2 year old daughter. My doctor has always recommended continuing Met through at least the first trimester. It drastically reduces the chances of miscarriage, which is so common in women with PCOS. BioTexCom is a good clinic with good reputation.The clinic has also its own many surrogates but they are looking the best one for us.I have contacted BioTexCom for our surrog Continue reading >>

Hrc Fertility, Metformin Drug & Infertility Treatment - Huntington Reproductive Center - California Fertility Treatment

Hrc Fertility, Metformin Drug & Infertility Treatment - Huntington Reproductive Center - California Fertility Treatment

Metformin reduces blood sugar levels and is approved by the FDA for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In women with infertility due to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) , trials found metformin plus Clomid to be more effective than Clomid alone in ovulation induction. Continued metformin treatment may establish regular menstrual cycles in women with PCOS. Metformin may also decrease the miscarriage risk associated with PCOS. These findings are preliminary, based on two small studies. One small study found metformin might also decrease the incidence of gestational diabetes in PCOS women. The safety of metformin's use in pregnancy has not been established. For most women with PCOS trying to conceive, the first medication option to induce ovulation is still Clomid . However, metformin is arguably the first choice in women with impaired glucose tolerance and certainly in women with type 2 diabetes. Metformin has many actions, the main being suppression of endogenous glucose production by the liver. Metformin does not cause hypoglycemia, weight gain, unfavorable alteration of lipids, nor increase insulin secretion. Unlike drugs such as Avandia, metformin does not cause weight gain, fluid retention, or potential idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Instead, metformin improves the effectiveness of insulin while maintaining or even decreasing insulin levels. Metformin decreases both basal and postprandial glucose levels, without the danger of hypoglycemia. Glucophage promotes weight loss and favorable changes in the lipid profile. Metformin is a very safe medication when used properly and given to healthy women. It is contraindicated in women with renal compromise, liver disease, and at risk for lactic acidosis. Gastrointestinal side effects such as diarrhea or nausea are initially very Continue reading >>

Poems & Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Poems & Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Metformin Increases Fertility in Patients with PCOS Am Fam Physician.2005Dec15;72(12):2530-2532. Clinical Question: Is metformin (Glucophage) more effective than clomiphene (Clomid) for improving fertility in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (double-blinded) Synopsis: Metformin and clomiphene have been used to increase fertility in women with PCOS. This is the first study to evaluate the medications head-to-head. One hundred women between 20 and 34 years of age with a body mass index lower than 30 kg per m2 were randomly assigned (concealed allocation) to receive metformin 850 mg two times per day or clomiphene 150 mg three times per day. Each patient also received placebos of the opposite drug. Before starting the medications, the patients received a progesterone challenge, and medication was started on the third day of progesterone-induced menstruation. The main outcome, pregnancy rate, was assessed via intention to treat. Five patients receiving metformin and three receiving clomiphene dropped out and were not included in the analysis. At the end of six months of treatment, 31 patients (69 percent) taking metformin became pregnant compared with 16 (34 percent) taking clomiphene. If all the patients lost to follow-up in the clomiphene group became pregnant and none of those taking metformin did, the pregnancy rate would still be significantly higher with metformin. Three women would need to be treated with metformin instead of clomiphene for six months for one additional woman to become pregnant (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 6.9). The rate of side effects was similar in each group (approximately 20 percent), and one patient in each group dropped out because of side effects. Bottom Line: In nonobese wom Continue reading >>

How To Increase Progesterone - Miscarriage Research

How To Increase Progesterone - Miscarriage Research

These methods have been shown effective for increasing progesterone levels: 750 mg vitamin C per day (increased progesterone 77% and improved fertility) 600 mg vitamin E (increased progesterone in 67% of patients) 6 g L-arginine (increased progesterone in 71% of patients) Increasing beta carotene (boosts progesterone levels in dogs and goats) Supplementing with Vitex Agnus Castus (increases progesterone and fertility) 120 mg Black Cohosh on days 1 to 12 (increases progesterone and fertility) Improving insulin sensitivity (metformin increases progesterone levels 246%) Replacing saturated fat in the diet with unsaturated fat 80mg progesterone cream (shown to be as effective as 200 mg oral progesterone prescription) Eating a high protein, low carbohydrate diet Lowering TSH levels in subclinical hypothyroidism 750 mg Vitamin C increases progesterone levels by 77%, improves fertility The concentration of ascorbic acid is reported to be much higher in human follicular fluid than in blood serum. This suggests that vitamin C may play a role as an antioxidant vitamin during folliculogenesis . After one cycle of Vitamin C (750 mg/day until positive pregnancy test) treatment, serum progesterone levels were significantly elevated in the treatment group but not in the control group (From 7.51 to 13.27 ng/mL in the treatment group vs. 7.95 to 8.73 ng/mL in controls). Nineteen patients (25%) in the vitamin C supplementation group and 5 patients (11%) in the control group became clinically pregnant. All pregnancies occurred in patients in whom the luteal phase defect resolved, whether spontaneously or as a result of vitamin C supplementation. We found that vitamin C supplementation caused improvement in 53% of luteal phase defect cases, whereas 22% of patients with luteal phase defect

About Metformin

About Metformin

Metformin is a medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes and sometimes polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Type 2 diabetes is an illness where the body doesn't make enough insulin, or the insulin that it makes doesn't work properly. This can cause high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). PCOS is a condition that affects how the ovaries work. Metformin lowers your blood sugar levels by improving the way your body handles insulin. It's usually prescribed for diabetes when diet and exercise alone have not been enough to control your blood sugar levels. For women with PCOS, metformin stimulates ovulation even if they don't have diabetes. It does this by lowering insulin and blood sugar levels. Metformin is available on prescription as tablets and as a liquid that you drink. Key facts Metformin works by reducing the amount of sugar your liver releases into your blood. It also makes your body respond better to insulin. Insulin is the hormone that controls the level of sugar in your blood. It's best to take metformin with a meal to reduce the side effects. The most common side effects are feeling sick, vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach ache and going off your food. Metformin does not cause weight gain (unlike some other diabetes medicines). Metformin may also be called by the brand names Bolamyn, Diagemet, Glucient, Glucophage, and Metabet. Who can and can't take metformin Metformin can be taken by adults. It can also be taken by children from 10 years of age on the advice of a doctor. Metformin isn't suitable for some people. Tell your doctor before starting the medicine if you: have had an allergic reaction to metformin or other medicines in the past have uncontrolled diabetes have liver or kidney problems have a severe infection are being treated for heart failure or you have recentl Continue reading >>

Metformin Interferes With Glucose Cellular Uptake By Both Estrogen And Progesterone Receptor-positive (mcf-7) And Triple-negative (mda-mb-231) Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Metformin Interferes With Glucose Cellular Uptake By Both Estrogen And Progesterone Receptor-positive (mcf-7) And Triple-negative (mda-mb-231) Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Metformin interferes with glucose cellular uptake by both estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive (MCF-7) and triple-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines Aim: Transport experiments with 3H-DG, culture growth and proliferation rate assays were performed.This work aimed to investigate the possible interference of metformin with glucose uptake by MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines as a mechanism contributing to its anticarcinogenic effect. Introduction: Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women, remains one of the leading causes of mortality among women worldwide. 1 Metformin has been widely used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes for over 40 years. 2 The first report of a reduced risk of developing cancer for diabetic patients treated with metformin was published in 2005. 3 Several mechanisms of action of metformin appear to be implicated in this effect. 2,4 Methods: Transport experiments with 3H-DG, culture growth and proliferation rate assays were performed. Results: Acute (26min) exposure of MCF-7 cells to metformin significantly inhibited uptake of 3H-deoxy-D-glucose (3H-DG) (maximal inhibition found with metformin 0.5mM: 272% reduction). Chronically (24h), metformin induced a concentration-dependent increase in 3H-DG uptake (maximal increase observed with metformin 1mM: 8115% increase). Acute (26min) exposure of MDA-MB-231 cells to metformin slightly inhibited uptake of 3H-DG (maximal inhibition found with metformin 1mM: 103% reduction). Chronic (24h) exposure to metformin significantly increased 3H-DG uptake by MDA-MB-231 cells (maximal increase observed with metformin 1mM: 308% increase). Chronic (24h) exposure of both cell lines to metformin (1mM) decreased culture growth/cell mass; in contrast, it increased cell pro Continue reading >>

Effects Of Metformin On Early Pregnancy Loss In The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Effects Of Metformin On Early Pregnancy Loss In The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common form of female infertility in the United States. In addition to poor conception rates, pregnancy loss rates are high (30–50%) during the first trimester. We hypothesized that hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance contributes to early pregnancy loss in the syndrome, and that decreasing hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance with metformin during pregnancy would reduce the rate of early pregnancy loss. We conducted a retrospective study of all women with polycystic ovary syndrome who were seen in an academic endocrinology clinic within the past 4.5 yr and who became pregnant during that time. Sixty-five women received metformin during pregnancy (metformin group) and 31women did not (control group). The early pregnancy loss rate in the metformin group was 8.8% (6 of 68 pregnancies), as compared with 41.9% (13 of 31 pregnancies) in the control group (P < 0.001). In the subset of women in each group with a prior history of miscarriage, the early pregnancy loss rate was 11.1% (4 of 36 pregnancies) in the metformin group, as compared with 58.3% (7 of 12 pregnancies) in the control group (P = 0.002). Metformin administration during pregnancy reduces first-trimester pregnancy loss in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. Suppression of spermatogenesis to azoospermia is the goal of hormonal male contraception based on T combined with gestagens. The combination of the long-acting T, ester testosterone undecanoate (TU), with norethisterone (NET) enanthate (E) showed high efficacy. In the present study, we tested the validity of this approach by varying the NET dose and mode of application. The aim of the study was to achieve high rates of suppression of spermatogenesis as reflected by sperm counts, monitor gonadotropins as well as other Continue reading >>

Avoid The Metformin Bandwagon

Avoid The Metformin Bandwagon

From diabetes to cancer, berberine matches - or beats - this patent medicine every time! As many know, metformin is the number one prescription medication for type-2 diabetes. The patent for the name-brand of this patent medicine, Glucophage®, expired years ago and as a result generic-brand competition (metformin) brought this patent medicine’s price down so that it’s relatively inexpensive, especially when compared with nearly any other medication still covered by a patent. Mainstream medical research has found other uses for this un-natural molecule, including (but not limited to) lipid, blood pressure, and insulin resistance lowering effects, anti-cancer effects, improvement of polycystic ovarian syndrome, combatting Alzheimer’s disease, and extending life span in mice. Surprising guests on the metformin bandwagon Some proponents of natural therapies – including, surprisingly, two nationally and internationally circulated health magazines – have climbed on the metformin bandwagon, writing articles about the “health benefits” of metformin, and even advocating that otherwise healthy people take this patent medicine every day as a preventive. They admit that there are known side effects, but write that these are few, and that the benefits outweigh the risks. If there aren’t any natural treatment alternatives that are as effective, or more effective, than a patent medicine or other un-natural molecule – especially in serious or life-threatening situations – then the use of a patent medication of course makes sense. But when there are natural alternatives that work just as well or better, the rule is – and always should be – to “Copy Nature.” Human bodies are formed from the molecules of planet Earth, and powered by the energies of this planet Continue reading >>

Metformin And Pcos: Everything You Need To Know

Metformin And Pcos: Everything You Need To Know

Metformin is a type of medication used to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Because there is a strong link between diabetes and PCOS, metformin is now commonly proscribed to treat PCOS. But should it be? What is the real relationship between metformin and PCOS? Can Metformin used for PCOS help lessen PCOS symptoms? Metformin used for PCOS: The Science PCOS is an infertility condition that often causes acne, facial hair growth, balding, low sex drive, weight gain, difficulty with weight loss, and mental health disturbances such as depression and anxiety in approximately 15% of women. It is also associated with a myriad of health conditions, spanning from diabetes to hypothyroidism and to heart disease. PCOS is, in short, not a condition to sneeze at. PCOS is a condition of hormone imbalance. With PCOS, male sex hormones such as testosterone and DHEA-S rise relative to the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. (…Roughly speaking – it’s complicated. For a full-blown account of the science of PCOS and how it affects you, see here.) Elevated testosterone is very often the primary culprit in causing PCOS. (But not always! For one of my most thorough accounts of other things that can cause PCOS, see here.) Insulin causes testosterone levels to rise because insulin tells the ovaries to produce testosterone. Basically, elevated insulin causes elevated testosterone, which causes PCOS. This is where metformin comes into play. Metformin lowers blood sugar levels below what they would otherwise be after a meal. This is because it intervenes with the liver’s interaction with and production of glucose. Insulin is the body’s way of dealing with blood sugar. If blood sugar is lower, then insulin will be lower, and thus testosterone will be lower. Metformin decreases blood sugar, Continue reading >>

Impact Of Metformin On Reproductive Tissues: An Overview From Gametogenesis To Gestation

Impact Of Metformin On Reproductive Tissues: An Overview From Gametogenesis To Gestation

Michael J. Bertoldo*, Melanie Faure*, Joelle Dupont, Pascal Froment Unité de Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre Val de Loire, UMR85, 37380 Nouzilly, France *These authors contributed equally to this work. Correspondence to: Dr. Pascal Froment. Unité de Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 37380 Nouzilly, France. Email: [email protected] Abstract: Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic drug that acts as an insulin sensitizer in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It has also been widely used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes. This drug has been shown to activate a protein kinase called 5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK. AMPK is present in many tissues making metformin’s effect multi factorial. However as metformin crosses the placenta, its use during pregnancy raises concerns regarding potential adverse effects on the mother and fetus. The majority of reports suggest no significant adverse effects or teratogenicity. However, disconcerting reports of male mouse offspring that were exposed to metformin in utero that present with a reduction in testis size, seminiferous tubule size and in Sertoli cell number suggest that we do not understand the full suite of effects of metformin. In addition, recent molecular evidence is suggesting an epigenetic effect of metformin which could explain some of the long-term effects reported. Nevertheless, the data are still insufficient to completely confirm or disprove negative effects of metformin. The aims of this review are to provide a summary of the safety of metformin in various aspects of sexual reproduction, the use of metform Continue reading >>

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