Long-term Metformin Use 'has No Cognitive Impact'
Long-term Metformin Use 'Has No Cognitive Impact' The long-term use of metformin in individuals at risk of developing diabetes is not associated with worsening cognitive performance, say US investigators. The findings should reassure clinicians and patients alike that the drug is safe to use for diabetes prevention. Previous studies have suggested that metformin use may be associated with worse cognitive performance and perhaps even the development of Alzheimer's disease, while other studies have conversely indicated it may even improve memory. The current analysis of the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS), published online May 12 in Diabetes Care, shows that, in over 2000 adults, use of metformin for more than 8 years did not lead to cognitive impairment. Lead author Jos A Luchsinger, associate professor in epidemiology and medicine at Columbia University Medical Center, New York, told Medscape Medical News that "of all studies that have looked at the relationship of metformin and cognition, I think that, arguably, this is the best, because of the design, because of the exposure to metformin in a randomized trial setting, and the follow-up." He said that their finding that long-term exposure to metformin does not have a negative effect on cognition "should be incredibly reassuring to clinicians and patients who have read reports to the contrary." Dr Luchsinger added: "I think that's enormously important because metformin is the most used diabetes medication in the world, and it's the one that most people who get diagnosed with type 2 diabetes get started on." Higher HbA1c Linked to Lower Cognition, but No Link With Metformin Use The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a randomized controlled trial involving 3234 individuals with prediabetes in which Continue reading >>
Scientists Claim They Found A Drug That Significantly Reverses Memory Loss
A team at Lancaster University in the U.K. has discovered that a drug designed to treat type 2 diabetes may hold the key to fighting the memory loss that accompanies Alzheimers disease. Their study has been published in Brain Research . The medication is a triple receptor drug that combines the growth factors GLP-1, GIP, and Glucagon to protect the brain from degeneration. The researchers tested the medication using transgenic mice expressing the mutated genes that cause Alzheimers in humans. These genes run in families and are responsible for a form of Alzheimers that can be inherited. The researchers observed the mice as they made their way through a water maze. They discovered that the mice treated with the diabetes compound showed an improved memory and sense of direction. Remarkably, the drug not only seemed to protect the brain, but also to reverse some of the damage caused by the amyloid plaques that progressively kill the neurons of Alzheimers patients. The way the drug works is that it can help neurons to repair and restore their functions again. It cannot bring back dead neurons once they are gone, they are gone, lead author Christian Holscher of Lancaster University told Futurism. However, there are a lot of stressed neurons that are still alive but no longer function properly. Thats where the window of opportunity lies. The first clinical trials showed the same effect in people, so it is not just some mouse artifact, added Holscher. A recent phase II clinical trial in Parkinsons patients showed some really nice results, so we are getting close! Because diabetes is a risk factor in Alzheimers, some scientists are hopeful that diabetes drugs could be effective treatments for neurodegeneration. According to the study, the link between the two could be that ins Continue reading >>
5 Surprising Causes Of Memory Loss
You can't find your keys or you forget an appointment. For many people in middle age or older, simple acts of forgetfulness like these are scary because they raise the specter of Alzheimer's disease. But Alzheimer’s is not the only health issue that can lead to forgetfulness, which is often treatable if you know the cause, according to the National Institute on Aging. Memory loss can happen at any age and for a number of reasons. “Patients might experience memory loss and describe their symptoms similarly, but a doctor can tease apart what parts of the brain are affected,” says Seth Gale, MD, a neurologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. He points out things like polypharmacy (taking several medications), significant depression, and poor sleep that can lead to memory complaints. “When you drill down and find out what is actually happening with brain function, you can reassure someone. They have the capacity to learn and store information but because of their overloaded mental resources, they are having trouble,” says Dr. Gale. Talk with your doctor about concerns you may have about your memory, so the condition responsible for your symptoms can be addressed. Discussing your symptoms and taking various tests, possibly including an MRI, may help your doctor determine what is affecting your memory, Gale says. In some cases, one or more of the following issues could play a role. 1. Sleep Apnea This common but treatable sleep disorder causes breathing to stop briefly and frequently throughout the night. It is linked to memory loss and dementia, according to Constantine Lyketsos, MD, director of the Memory and Alzheimer's Treatment Center at Johns Hopkins Medicine and professor and chair of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Bayview. You might have sleep apnea Continue reading >>
Metformin Reverses Metabolic Memory In A Diabetes Model
Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Metformin reverses metabolic memory in a diabetes model American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) A recent paper examines how cells recovering from damage induced by a high-fat diet can be treated with a drug for type 2 diabetes called metformin to reverse the effects of metabolic memory. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, type 2 diabetes affects 29 million Americans with complications resulting in, among other things, kidney disease. Many factors, such as reduced physical activity, diet and genetics, place individuals at greater risk for diabetes. Long-term, high-fat diets can induce genetic changes or generate "metabolic memory" even after normal glycemic control is achieved. A recent Paper of the Week published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry examines how cells recovering from damage induced by a high-fat diet can be treated with a drug for type 2 diabetes called metformin to reverse the effects of metabolic memory. Patients with diabetes struggle to maintain a normal balance of glucose levels. Complications emerge when there is an excess of blood glucose or when insulin is not responsive to elevated blood glucose levels. While improved diet and increased physical activity have been proved to mitigate disease onset and symptoms in those already diagnosed with the disease, the effects of prolonged periods of mismanaged glycemic control can be more challenging to reverse at a cellular level in the kidneys and liver. "Metabolic memory" refers to the notion that glucose-sensing cells function as though glucose levels are high even when they are not. Recent evidence from the Diabetes Complications and Control Trial suggested that even after Continue reading >>
New Metformin Warning: Mandatory Supplementation With Vitamin B12
The most common medication used in women with PCOS is the insulin-sensitizer metformin. Research is strongly showing that long-term use of metformin and at high doses (1.5mg or higher daily) can deplete levels of vitamin B12. A deficiency of vitamin B12 can cause permanent neurological and nerve damage as well as mood changes and decreased energy. Here’s what you need to know to avoid a vitamin B12 deficiency if you take metformin. About Metformin Metformin is a medication that became available in the U.S. in 1995 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is the most widely used medication used to lower insulin levels in those with polycystic ovary syndrome. Other names for metformin include glucophage, glucophage XR, glumetza, and fortamet. Metformin lowers blood glucose levels in three ways: It suppresses the liver’s production of glucose. It increases the sensitivity of your liver, muscle, fat, and cells to the insulin your body makes. It slows the absorption of carbohydrates you consume Metformin use may affect the absorption of vitamin B12 possibly through alterations in intestinal mobility, increased bacterial overgrowth, or alterations of the vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex. Metformin can cause a malabsorption in B12 due to digestive changes, which leads to the binding of B12-intrinsic factor complex (intrinsic factor is needed to absorb B12 in the gut) and a reduction of B12 absorption. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Metformin Users The largest study thus far to examine the link between metformin and vitamin B12 is the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DDPOS). This study looked at B12 levels of individuals with prediabetes who took 850 mg Metformin 2x/day and compared them to those taking a placebo. At 5 years, 4.3% of the metformin users had Continue reading >>
Could A Diabetes Drug Help Beat Alzheimer's Disease?
Most of the 20 million people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in the U.S. take metformin to help control their blood glucose. The drug is ultrasafe: millions of diabetics have taken it for decades with few side effects beyond gastrointestinal discomfort. And it is ultracheap: a month's supply costs $4 at Walmart. And now new studies hint that metformin might help protect the brain from developing diseases of aging, even in nondiabetics. Diabetes is a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, but using metformin is associated with a dramatic reduction in their incidence. In the most comprehensive study yet of metformin's cognitive effects, Qian Shi and her colleagues at Tulane University followed 6,000 diabetic veterans and showed that the longer a patient used metformin, the lower the individual's chances of developing Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other types of dementia and cognitive impairment. In line with some of the previous, smaller studies of long-term metformin use, patients in the new study who used the drug longer than four years had one quarter the rate of disease as compared with patients who used only insulin or insulin plus other antidiabetic drugs—bringing diabetics' risk level to that of the general population. The findings were presented in June at the American Diabetes Association's Scientific Sessions meeting. Even in the absence of diabetes, Alzheimer's patients often have decreased insulin sensitivity in the brain, says Suzanne Craft, a neuroscientist who studies insulin resistance in neurodegenerative disease at the Wake Forest School of Medicine. The association has led some people to call Alzheimer's “type 3 diabetes.” Insulin plays many roles in the brain—it is involved in memory formation, and it helps to keep synapses Continue reading >>
Metformin And Alzheimer’s: A Potential New Therapy?
The diabetes drug may have a beneficial effect on neurodegenerative diseases. Metformin, a biguanide, is an oral diabetes medicine used to improve blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes. There have been various studies on other uses of metformin. It may be beneficial in Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and other degenerative brain cell diseases. An animal study found that metformin helps neurogenesis and enhances hippocampus, a key pathway (aPKC-CBP). Type 2 diabetes doubles the risk of having dementia; though some studies show metformin helps reduce risk, other studies show antidiabetic medications like insulin are linked to increased risk of having dementia. Animal studies show that metformin recruits endogenous neural stem cells and also promotes the genesis of new neurons. Metformin, however, needs to have been used for a longer period before a drastic reduction in neurodegenerative disease and its neuroprotective nature is seen. The purpose of this study is to find a link between antidiabetic medications, especially metformin and other neurodegenerative diseases. Also, to know how long one has to be on these antidiabetics before the neuroprotective nature kicks in. A cohort study of type 2 diabetes patients who are 55 years and above and being managed on a monotherapy antidiabetic drug of either metformin, sulfonylurea (SU), thiazolidinedione (TZD) or insulin were observed in a period of 5 years. In the course of 5 years, dementia was identified in 9.9% of the patients. Comparing those taking metformin to those taking sulfonylurea, there was a 20% reduction in dementia in those taking metformin. The hazard ratio 0.79%, a 95% confidence interval of 0.65-0.95. For TZD, metformin had a 23% reduction in having dementia as compared to TZD with hazard ratio of Continue reading >>
Metformin In The Diabetic Brain: Friend Or Foe?
Metformin in the diabetic brain: friend or foe? Metformin in the diabetic brain: friend or foe? Metformin in the diabetic brain: friend or foe? CNCCenter for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Correspondence to: Paula I. Moreira. Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal. Email: Submitted Jun 16, 2014. Accepted for publication Jun 16, 2014. Diabetes is fast becoming the epidemic of the 21st century. Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at an increased risk for developing cognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). To avoid or slow the development of T2D-associated complications anti-diabetic agents should be capable of achieving the desired glycemic and metabolic control goal, which should be as close to normal as possible. Metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide), an inexpensive, well-tolerated oral anti-diabetic agent is the most widely prescribed drug for treating T2D and is recommended, in conjunction with lifestyle modification (i.e., diet and physical activity), as a first-line oral therapy ( 1 ). Besides being highly effective in improving glycemic control, metformin has also a low risk of hypoglycemia. This anti-diabetic drug can be used at all stages of T2D progression, either as monotherapy or in combination with sulfonylureas and other secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, and insulin. The mechanism of action of metformin depends on alterations in cellular energy metabolism (i.e., increased AMP/ATP ratio). Metformin exerts its glucose-lowering effect by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis and opposing the action of glucagon. Metformin-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial complex I re Continue reading >>
Metformin A Future Therapy For Neurodegenerative Diseases
, Volume 34, Issue12 , pp 26142627 | Cite as Metformin a Future Therapy for Neurodegenerative Diseases Theme: Drug Discovery, Development and Delivery in Alzheimer's Disease Guest Editor: Davide Brambilla Drug Discovery, Development and Delivery in Alzheimer's Disease Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) is a complex, chronic and progressive metabolic disease, which is characterized by relative insulin deficiency, insulin resistance, and high glucose levels in blood. Esteemed published articles and epidemiological data exhibit an increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease(AD) in diabetic pateints. Metformin is the most frequently used oral anti-diabetic drug, which apart from hypoglycaemic activity, improves serum lipid profiles, positively influences the process of haemostasis, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, scientists have put their efforts in establishing metformins role in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD,amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Parkinsons disease. Results of several clinical studies confirm that long term use of metformin in diabetic patients contributes to better cognitive function, compared to participants using other anti-diabetic drugs. The exact mechanism of metformins advantageous activity in AD is not fully understood, but scientists claim that activation of AMPK-dependent pathways in human neural stem cells might be responsible for the neuroprotective activity of metformin. Metformin was also found to markedly decease Beta-secretase 1(BACE1) protein expression and activity in cell culture models and in vivo, thereby reducing BACE1 cleavage products and the production of A(-amyloid). Furthermore, there is also some evidence that metformin decreases the activity of acetylcholinesterase(AChE), which Continue reading >>
Metformin And Memory Loss / Fuzzy Head
Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Is anyone that's been taking Metformin suffered with memory loss or a feeling of being fuzzy headed at all ? I have been taking Metformin for about 4 weeks now and this has only just started in the last week, I even went out yesterday and forgot to lock the front door ( really not like me at all) and my head feels very fuzzy / foggy ... I'm trying to get back in at my Drs to talk about this but not having much luck but I'm back on the 5th anyway just wondered if anyone had the same at all ? I can't answer your question about Metformin, but can I ask if you also taking statins? I can't answer your question about Metformin, but can I ask if you also taking statins? No statins at all no Metformin is the only thing I'm on I'm drinking about 2l a day minimum just water I don't like squash etc I did have that with statins but you aren't on those. I would suggest that you talk to your health team about coming off the Metformin for a while to see if that clears it. Might be an idea to stick with the pills a little longer, though, to see if it settles down. Could also be due to one of the bugs going around. Edit: have you changed your diet at all? Early stages of LCHF can give you carb flu. Rachox Type 2 (in remission!) Well-Known Member What are your blood sugar levels like, high blood sugars can make you fuzzy headed. I did have that with statins but you aren't on those. I would suggest that you talk to your health team about coming off the Metformin for a while to see if that clears it. Might be an idea to stick with the pills a little longer, though, to see if it settles down. Could also be due to one of the bugs going around. Edit: have you changed your d Continue reading >>
Effects Of Metformin On Learning And Memory Behaviors And Brain Mitochondrial Functions In High Fat Diet Induced Insulin Resistant Rats.
Generate a file for use with external citation management software. Life Sci. 2012 Oct 5;91(11-12):409-414. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2012.08.017. Epub 2012 Aug 20. Effects of metformin on learning and memory behaviors and brain mitochondrial functions in high fat diet induced insulin resistant rats. Neurophysiology unit, Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand. Neurophysiology unit, Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand; Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Science, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand. Electronic address: [email protected] Metformin is a first line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our previous study reported that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only peripheral and neuronal insulin resistance, but also induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction as well as learning impairment. However, the effects of metformin on learning behavior and brain mitochondrial functions in HFD-induced insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into two groups to receive either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12weeks. Then, rats in each group were divided into two treatment groups to receive either vehicle or metformin (15mg/kg BW twice daily) for 21days. All rats were tested for cognitive behaviors using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and blood samples were collected for the determination of glucose, insulin, and malondialdehyde. At the end of the study, animals were euthanized and the brain was removed for studying brain mitochondrial function and brain oxidative stress. We found that in the HFD group, Continue reading >>
Effect Of Insulin Sensitizer Metformin On Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
Summary Previous studies and Dr. Steven Arnold's laboratory work have shown that the brain in Alzheimer's disease is resistant to the healthy growth effects of insulin and that re-sensitizing brain cells to insulin may be a useful therapeutic strategy. Dr. Steven Arnold and colleagues have identified the anti-diabetes drug, metformin, as a safe medicine that enters the brain and re-sensitizes insulin receptors. This proposal seeks to conduct an efficient clinical trial with metformin in people with mild cognitive impairment and early dementia due to Alzheimer's disease to determine its effect on cognitive functioning and physiological and biochemical biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. Details The goal of this project is to determine if treatment with a common FDA-approved insulin-sensitizing, anti-diabetes medicine—metformin—can improve cognitive abilities and modify physiological and biochemical abnormalities in people (without diabetes) who have mild cognitive impairment or early dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. These investigators have designed a brief, efficient, and sensitive clinical trial with a "crossover" design to detect beneficial effects of metformin for Alzheimer's disease. In this study, “crossover” refers to the fact that participants will be randomly assigned to two groups. One group will receive 8 weeks of metformin and then 8 weeks of placebo, while the second group will receive the reverse order. Both groups will have in-depth baseline assessments before starting on medication, then two other assessments—one after each metformin or placebo treatment. The study will measure memory and thinking abilities with a brief but very sensitive novel computerized cognitive test battery as well as several well established paper and pencil tests. To Continue reading >>
The Effect Of Diabetes Medication On Cognitive Function: Evidence From The Path Through Life Study
The Effect of Diabetes Medication on Cognitive Function: Evidence from the PATH Through Life Study Centre for Research in Ageing Health and Wellbeing, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia *Pushpani M. Herath: [email protected] Received 2016 Feb 9; Accepted 2016 Mar 14. Copyright 2016 Pushpani M. Herath et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Objective. To examine the effect of diabetes treatment on change of measures of specific cognitive domains over 4 years. Research Design and Methods. The sample was drawn from a population-based cohort study in Australia (the PATH Through Life Study) and comprised 1814 individuals aged 6569 years at first measurement, of whom 211 were diagnosed with diabetes. Cognitive function was measured using 10 neuropsychological tests. The effect of type of diabetes treatment (diet, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin) on measures of specific cognitive domains was assessed using Generalized Linear Models adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, physical activity level, BMI, and hypertension. Results. Comparison of cognitive function between diabetes treatment groups showed no significant effect of type of pharmacological treatment on cognitive function compared to diet only group or no diabetes group. Of those on oral hypoglycaemic treatment only, participants who used metformin alone had better cognitive function at baseline for the domains of verbal learning, working memory, and executive function compared to participants on other forms of diabetic treatment. Conclusion. Continue reading >>
Study: Metformin Linked To Higher Risk Of Alzheimer’s And Parkinson’s
A recent study found that the use of metformin in people with diabetes increased their risk for developing dementia and Parkinson’s Disease. This may be surprising as not too long ago, we reported on a different study which found the opposite–that using metformin might lower the risk for dementia in older men. The study from Taiwanese researchers was presented on March 29, 2017 at The 13th International Conference on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases in Vienna Austria by Dr. Yi-Chun Kuan from the Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan. The researchers found that long-term use of metformin may raise the risk of neurodegenerative disease in those with type 2 diabetes. How Harmful Might Metformin Be to the Brain? As reported by Medscape Medical News, Yi-Chun Kuan and team conducted a cohort study to follow a total 9,300 patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan for up to 12 years. They checked records for these patients from the National Health research database of Taiwan including 4,651 who had metformin prescriptions and 4651 matched controls who didn’t take any metformin. Dr. Kuan told Medscape they adjusted for age, sex, and diabetes severity and that despite this, “the cumulative incidences of Parkinson’s and dementia were significantly higher for our metformin cohort” at 12 years. In fact, the risk for Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s dementia went up over 50 percent during a 12 year period in those who took metformin when compared to those who did not. Researchers also found that “outcome risks increased progressively with higher dosage and longer duration of treatment.” Dr. Yi-Chun Kuan said, “We’d heard about a possible protective effect from metformin. However, we found the reverse,” and she added t Continue reading >>
Metformin For Protection Against Alzheimer's, Cancer And Heart Disease?
With commentary by Nir Barzilai, MD, director of the Institute for Aging Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Brian Kennedy, PhD, president and CEO of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging. Metformin may influence fundamental aging factors that underlie many age-related conditions, including cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer's, says Nir Barzilai, MD, director of the Institute for Aging Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, the Bronx. "Metformin is generic, and it's cheap," Dr. Barzilai says. And accumulating data suggests that ''it interferes with the biology of aging." Aging, he says, is a primary risk factor for not only diabetes but also most of our big killers, such as Alzheimer's, heart disease and cancer. In animal and human studies, metformin has shown promise in slowing the aging process and halting diseases. To study the potential of metformin further, Dr. Barzilai plans to launch a large-scale study, Targeting Aging with METformin (TAME), to look at the effects of metformin compared to placebo. His team has already completed the MILES study, Metformin in Longevity, and are analyzing the results. In that study, they gave some participants metformin, at 1,700 milligrams a day, and others placebo. The aim was to see if the metformin could restore the gene expression profile of an older person with blood sugar problems known as impaired glucose tolerance (but not yet diabetic), to that of a younger person. Dr. Barzilai knows he has critics of his approach. He brushed them off, saying the people who don't see the value of the research ''don't understand the biology of aging and that it can be changed." He doesn't see the research as testing an anti-aging drug. "Aging is not a disease and we don't want it to be a disease," he says. Howe Continue reading >>