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Mental Health And Diabetes Link

Impact Of A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis On Mental Health, Quality Of Life, And Social Contacts: A Longitudinal Study

Impact Of A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis On Mental Health, Quality Of Life, And Social Contacts: A Longitudinal Study

Aims The aim was to examine whether a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis increases the odds of psychological distress, a worsening in overall quality of life, and a potential reduction in social contacts. Method Longitudinal data were obtained from the 45 and Up Study (baseline 2006–2008; 3.4±0.95 years follow-up time). Fixed effects logistic and negative binomial regression models were fitted on a complete case on outcome sample that did not report T2DM at baseline (N=26 344), adjusted for time-varying confounders. The key exposure was doctor-diagnosed T2DM at follow-up. Outcome variables examined included the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, self-rated quality of life, and four indicators of social contacts. Results A modest increase in the odds of psychological distress associated with T2DM diagnosis (OR=1.30) was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.75 to 2.25). A T2DM diagnosis was associated with a fivefold increase in the odds of a participant reporting that their quality of life had become significantly poorer (OR 5.49, 95% CI 1.26 to 23.88). T2DM diagnosis was also associated with a reduction in times spent with friends and family (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.95), contacts by telephone (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.02), attendance at social clubs or religious groups (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.91), and the number of people nearby but outside the home that participants felt they could rely on (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.98). Conclusions A T2DM diagnosis can have important impacts on quality of life and on social contacts, which may have negative impacts on mental health and T2DM management in the longer term. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which perm Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Impacts Your Mental Health

How Diabetes Impacts Your Mental Health

WRITTEN BY: Mark Heyman, PhD, CDE How Diabetes Impacts Your Mental Health is part of our Mental Health series. Type 1 isn’t just about counting carbs, checking BGLs and administering insulin. The disease takes an emotional and psychological toll as well. Check out other clinical information and personal stories about Mental Health. When I tell people I am a psychologist who specializes in diabetes, they usually look confused. Most people think of diabetes as a physical condition and have never really thought about the mental aspects with living with the condition. Even some people with diabetes are surprised that there are organizations like CDMH that focus on diabetes and mental health. They know that living with diabetes is hard for them, but often they are surprised to hear that their concerns are actually (and unfortunately) quite common. What is it about diabetes that is so hard? I tend to think about diabetes and mental health issues very broadly. While some people with diabetes have a mental health condition (that may or may not be related to having diabetes), there are many others who struggle with issues that are very real, but which may not meet the (sometimes arbitrary) criteria for a mental health diagnosis. Psychology is the study of how situations, emotions and relationships in our lives interact and impact our behavior. I think that this definition provides us with a framework we can use to talk about how diabetes impacts mental health. Situation Diabetes is a self-managed condition. This means that it is the person with diabetes, not their doctor, who is responsible for taking care of him or herself on a daily basis. Diabetes involves making frequent, sometimes life or death decisions under sometimes stressful and physically uncomfortable circumstances Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Psychiatric Disorders

Diabetes And Psychiatric Disorders

Patterns of co-occurrence of diabetes and psychiatric disorders Comorbidity of diabetes and psychiatric disorders can present in different patterns. First, the two can present as independent conditions with no apparent direct connection. In such a scenario both are outcome of independent and parallel pathogenic pathways. Second, the course of diabetes can be complicated by emergence of psychiatric disorders. In such cases diabetes contributes to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Various biological and psychological factors mediate the emergence of psychiatric disorders in such context. Third, certain psychiatric disorders like depression and schizophrenia act as significant independent risk factors for development of diabetes. Fourth, there could be an overlap between the clinical presentation of hypoglycemic and ketoacidosis episodes and conditions such as panic attacks. Fifth, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes could emerge as a side effect of the medications used for psychiatric disorders. Treatment of psychiatric disorders could influence diabetes care in other ways also as discussed in subsequent sections [Box 1]. Diabetes and psychiatric disorders interact in other ways as well. Certain substances of abuse such as tobacco and alcohol can alter the pharmacokinetics of the oral hypoglycemic agents. Moreover, the presence of a comorbid psychiatric disorder like depression could interfere with the management of diabetes by influencing treatment adherence. Similarly certain disorders such as phobia of needles and injections can present difficulties with investigations and treatment processes such as blood glucose testing and insulin injection. Also patients with psychiatric disorders are less likely to seek treatment. Such delays would postpone detection Continue reading >>

Mental Health Disorders Are Common And Linked To Poorly Controlled Diabetes In Teens And Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

Mental Health Disorders Are Common And Linked To Poorly Controlled Diabetes In Teens And Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

Mental Health Disorders Are Common and Linked to Poorly Controlled Diabetes in Teens and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Population and Family Health Director, of Adolescent Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center Management of type 1 diabetes is particularly challenging during adolescence, a time when teens are dealing with physical changes occurring with puberty, social pressures, and stress, among other issues. In addition, researchers from Columbia University have found that mental health issues including depression, anxiety, and disordered eating are common in teenagers and young adults with type 1 diabetes, and are linked to poorly controlled diabetes. I think it is critical for health care providers to screen all teens with chronic illnesses for anxiety and depression, said senior author Karen Soren, MD, Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Population and Family Health, and Director, of Adolescent Medicine, at Columbia University Medical Center, in New York City. Teens should be screened at least yearlyand probably also at times when their disease appears to be unexplainably out of control. The data reported in this relatively small pilot study mirror those in the literature, that youth and young adults with type 1 diabetes are at risk for mental health problems, commented Margaret Grey, DrPH, RN, Dean & Annie Goodrich Professor, Yale University School of Nursing, New Haven, CT. Several years ago, the American Diabetes Association recommended that all youth with type 1 diabetes be screened for depression once per year. [The study by Soren and colleagues] suggests that screening for anxiety and eating disorders should be considered, at least in the age group 11 years and older, Dr. Grey said. The cross-sectional study Continue reading >>

The Link Between Schizophrenia And Diabetes

The Link Between Schizophrenia And Diabetes

The link between schizophrenia and diabetes Current Psychiatry. 2012 October;11(10):28-46 Lead Physician, Mental Health and Metabolism Clinic, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Assistant Professor, Departments of Psychiatry and Nutritional Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario Vigilant metabolic monitoring informs treatment decisions 1. Kohen D. Diabetes mellitus and schizophrenia: historical perspective. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2004;47:S64-S66. 2. Dixon L, Weiden P, Delahanty J, et al. Prevalence and correlates of diabetes in national schizophrenia samples. Schizophr Bull. 2000;26(4):903-912. 3. De Hert M, van Winkel R, Van Eyck D, et al. Prevalence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia over the course of the illness: a cross-sectional study. Clin Pract Epidemol Ment Health. 2006;2:14.- 4. Juvonen H, Reunanen A, Haukka J, et al. Incidence of schizophrenia in a nationwide cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(8):894-899. 5. Hales CN, Barker DJ. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Br Med Bull. 2001;60:5-20. 6. Ryan MC, Sharifi N, Condren R, et al. Evidence of basal pituitary-adrenal overactivity in first episode, drug naive patients with schizophrenia. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004;29(8):1065-1070. 7. Odawara M, Isaka M, Tada K, et al. Diabetes mellitus associated with mitochondrial myopathy and schizophrenia: a possible link between diabetes mellitus and schizophrenia. Diabet Med. 1997;14(6):503.- 8. Siuta MA, Robertson SD, Kocalis H, et al. Dysregulation of the norepinephrine transporter sustains cortical hypodopaminergia and schizophrenia-like behaviors in neuronal rictor null mice. PLoS Biol. 2010;8(6):e1000393.- 9. Strassnig M, Brar JS, Ganguli R. Nut Continue reading >>

Study Links Diabetes To Severe Mental Health Issues

Study Links Diabetes To Severe Mental Health Issues

Study links diabetes to severe mental health issues A new report highlights the need for people with diabetes to be provided with better mental health support. New study finds people with diabetes suffer mental health issues often. (Photo: Pixabay) London: Diabetes can strike anyone, from any walk of life. It is a disease in which the body's ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired, resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevated levels of glucose in the blood. There are two types of diabetes - Type 1 and Type 2. The more severe form of diabetes is type 1, or insulin-dependent diabetes. It is sometimes called "juvenile" diabetes, because type 1 diabetes usually develops in children and teenagers; though it can develop at any age. Meanwhile, the most common form of diabetes is called type 2, or non-insulin dependent diabetes. This is also called "adult onset" diabetes, since it typically develops after the age of 35. However, a growing number of younger people are now developing type 2 diabetes. In India, there are 70 million adults with diabetes, which affects 422 million people worldwide. One in every four (25.3 percent) people, under 25 with diabetes in India, has adult-onset type-2 diabetes, which, by definition, should strike only older adults with a family history of diabetes, obesity. But now a research suggests that diabetes is not just something that affects people physically. A new report has highlighted the need for people with diabetes to be provided with better mental health support, according to Metro.co.uk. A survey, conducted by Diabetes UK, suggests that three out of five diabetics suffer from emotional and mental health difficulties, directly linked to their illness. 64 percent out of the 8,500 people of different Continue reading >>

Depression And Mental Health

Depression And Mental Health

Depression is a very real condition and is becoming increasingly common in the general population; approximately one in four people will experience depression some time in their adult life. For people who live with diabetes, this figure is even higher. Up to 50% of people with diabetes are thought to also have a mental illness such as depression or anxiety. People with depression and diabetes may find it hard to maintain daily diabetes care Diabetes Australia and SANE have developed a booklet ‘The SANE Guide to Good Mental Health for people affected by diabetes’ which explains the relationship between diabetes and mental health and what you can do to look after yourself Depression is not just low mood but a serious illness. People with depression find it hard to do normal activities and function from day to day. Depression has serious effects on physical as well as mental health. Research shows that having diabetes more than doubles the risk of developing depression. Living with a chronic condition like diabetes, coping with biological and hormonal factors plus needing to manage the condition on a daily basis may increase the risk of depression. Depression can increase the likelihood of developing diabetes complications. People with depression may find it harder to deal with everyday tasks. Over time, managing diabetes (regular blood glucose testing, taking medication, following a healthy eating plan and regular physical activity) can take its toll. This may increase a person’s risk of depression, which may in turn lead to their usual diabetes care being neglected. A person may be depressed if for more than two weeks they have: Felt sad, down or miserable most of the time OR Lost interest or pleasure in most of their usual activities and Experienced symptoms in at Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Mental Health

Diabetes And Mental Health

Jump to Section Introduction Research is increasingly demonstrating a relationship between mental health disorders and diabetes. Patients with serious mental illnesses, particularly those with depressive symptoms or syndromes, and patients with diabetes share reciprocal susceptibility and a high degree of comorbidity (Figure 1). The mechanisms behind these relationships are multifactorial. Some evidence shows that treatment for mental health disorders may actually increase the risk of diabetes, particularly when second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic agents are prescribed (1). Biochemical changes due to the mental health disorders themselves also may play a role (2). Lifestyle changes and symptoms of mental health disorders are also likely to contribute (3). Jump to Section Depression The prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms among patients with diabetes is in the range of 30% (4, 5, 6). The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is approximately 10% (7, 8), which is double the overall prevalence in people without a chronic medical illness. Individuals with depression have an approximately 60% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (9). The prognosis for comorbid depression and diabetes is worse than when each illness occurs separately (10). Depression in patients with diabetes amplifies symptom burden by a factor of about 4 (11). Episodes of MDD in individuals with diabetes are likely to last longer and have a higher chance of recurrence compared to those without diabetes (12). Studies examining differential rates for the prevalence of depression in type 1 vs. type 2 diabetes have yielded inconsistent results (4, 13). One study found that the requirement for insulin was the factor associated with the highest rate of depression, regardle Continue reading >>

The Relationship Between Diabetes And Mental Health (part Ii)

The Relationship Between Diabetes And Mental Health (part Ii)

The Relationship Between Diabetes and Mental Health (Part II) Discover why many people with mental illness, especially schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are susceptible to diabetes. Plus why many diabetics develop depression. "I see a lot of diabetes in my clients." exclaims Dr. William H. Wilson, Professor of Psychiatry and Director of Inpatient Psychiatric Services at Oregon Health & Science University. A simple statement that means so much. Considering that Dr. Wilson is a psychiatrist who works in psychiatric wards, you would not think that diabetes would be such a concern. In the past, the treatment goal was often to minimize psychiatric symptoms first and if the person was lucky and had access to more general care, the physical body second. This has all changed in the past few years. Mental health professionals and organizations now know that there can't be a separation between a brain and body when it comes to effective psychiatric treatment. This connection has been ignored for too many years and the result is a higher death rate for those with psychiatric disorders from the illnesses associated with metabolic syndrome- including diabetes. Luckily, times have changed. New research has opened the way to more awareness as to what must be done, as well as more education for those with the mental illnesses and the people who care about them. There are varying opinions in the mental health profession regarding blood sugar and its effect on mood. Most agree that blood sugar can affect depression, as improving blood glucose levels seems to make a person feel better. And yet, when it comes to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia , there is little research that blood sugar affects the mania, depression and psychosis found in the illnesses. Dr. Wilson notes, "I do see a Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Mood Swings: Effects On Relationships

Diabetes And Mood Swings: Effects On Relationships

Diabetes is a condition that impacts the way a person's body uses sugar for energy. However, diabetes affects much more than blood sugar. It can impact nearly every body system and have an effect on a person's mood. Stress associated with managing diabetes as well as concerns about potential side effects can all contribute to changes in mood. In addition, the actual highs and lows of blood sugar levels may also cause nervousness, anxiety, and confusion. It is important for people to recognize their own individual symptoms of high or low blood sugar. They must also ensure they seek support for any concerning mental health symptoms they might experience. Watching these mood swings can often be difficult for friends and family to understand. However, learning why a person may experience mood changes related to diabetes and being supportive can help to promote a stronger, healthier relationship. Contents of this article: How do diabetes and mood swings go together? Diabetes can have many effects on a person's mood. For example, managing diabetes can be stressful. A person may be constantly worried about their blood sugar and whether it is too high or too low. Adjustments to their diet and constantly checking their blood sugar can also add to a person's stress and enjoyment of life. As a result, they are more likely to experience feelings of anxiety and depression. Blood sugar swings can cause rapid changes in a person's mood, such as making them sad and irritable. This is especially true during hypoglycemic episodes, where blood sugar levels dip lower than 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Hyperglycemic episodes where levels spike higher than 250 mg/dL may cause confusion in people with type 1 diabetes, but are much less likely to in those with type 2 diabetes. When a pe Continue reading >>

Mental Health And Diabetes: Links, Risks And Other Issues

Mental Health And Diabetes: Links, Risks And Other Issues

We're sorry, an error occurred. We are unable to collect your feedback at this time. However, your feedback is important to us. Please try again later. I have been thinking about depression a lot lately. And not just because May is National Mental Health Awareness Month . When I wrote our post on Diabetes and Depression last year for our 411 series on diabetes complications , I had no idea that this particular complication was going to impact my life in such an unexpected way. Earlier this spring, I found out that my friend, Caitlin McEnery, a type 1 PWD for 25 years and a passionate diabetes advocate, had passed away unexpectedly the day before her 27th birthday. She was found dead in her apartment after she failed to return her parent's phone calls. No one on her college campus, where she was getting her degree in nursing, had seen her either. Caitlin and I have a few things in common that are fairly obvious our age, chronic condition, and passion for helping those with diabetes but we also have something in common that I have not discussed very much. Depression and diabetes don't mix well together. In fact, one could say that depression is among the deadliest of diabetes complications because it's so insidious and so easily masked. While depression itself may not physically cause any damage, depression fosters anger, frustration and apathy. From there, depression can breed carelessness, recklessness and a fatalistic attitude toward health, relationships, and life. All those things plus diabetes makes for a deadly combination. After Caitlin passed away, after her death was announced and her obituary was published, many people asked me if she died from diabetes. I spoke with a mutual friend of ours to see if the family knew for sure whether this was the case. Nothing Continue reading >>

The Link Between Diabetes And Psychiatric Disorders

The Link Between Diabetes And Psychiatric Disorders

There may be a molecular link between psychiatric disorders and type 2 diabetes, according to research published in the FASEB Journal. And this new finding may lead to better treatments for both conditions. Researchers found that a gene called “DISC1,” which is believed to play a role in mental health disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and some forms of depression, influences the function of pancreatic beta cells which produce insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels, EurekALert! reports. In tests on mice, the researchers found that those with a disrupted DISC1 gene showed increased beta cell death, less insulin secretion, and impaired glucose regulation compared to a control group. “Our hope is that the association we’ve found linking disrupted DISC1 to both diabetes and psychiatric disorders may uncover mechanisms to improve therapies, even preventative ones, to alleviate suffering caused by both illnesses which are extraordinarily costly and often quite debilitating,” Rita Bortell, PhD and study researcher, told EurekAlert!. Additional research, including a report from the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA), generally corroborates the study findings because it says that people diagnosed with serious mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, do have a higher risk of developing diabetes than the general population. It works the other way, too. People living with diabetes are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, according to research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. “Having depression raises your risk for onset diabetes, just as having diabetes raises your risk for onset depression,” Barbara J. Anderson, PhD, told Medscape Medical News. Many physicians struggle with Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Mental Health Disorders

Diabetes And Mental Health Disorders

Psychiatrists and diabetologists need to work together. Patients with diabetes are at higher risk of mental health disorders — including depression and psychotic disorders — than the general population. Likewise, patients with mental health disorders are at higher risk of developing diabetes. However, patients with such comorbidity are frequently under-recognised and undertreated, meaning that the risk of long-term complications from either type of disorder is high. It’s a problem too complex for one medical specialty to tackle on its own. This collection of papers from The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology and The Lancet Psychiatry covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical challenges of managing comorbid diabetes in patients with two common mental health disorders: depression and psychosis. Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Depression: Coping With The Two Conditions

Diabetes And Depression: Coping With The Two Conditions

What's the connection between diabetes and depression? How can I cope if I have both? Answers from M. Regina Castro, M.D. If you have diabetes — either type 1 or type 2 — you have an increased risk of developing depression. And if you're depressed, you may have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes. The good news is that diabetes and depression can be treated together. And effectively managing one can have a positive effect on the other. How they're related Though the relationship between diabetes and depression isn't fully understood: The rigors of managing diabetes can be stressful and lead to symptoms of depression. Diabetes can cause complications and health problems that may worsen symptoms of depression. Depression can lead to poor lifestyle decisions, such as unhealthy eating, less exercise, smoking and weight gain — all of which are risk factors for diabetes. Depression affects your ability to perform tasks, communicate and think clearly. This can interfere with your ability to successfully manage diabetes. Managing the two conditions together Diabetes self-management programs. Diabetes programs that focus on behavior have been successful in helping people improve their metabolic control, increase fitness levels, and manage weight loss and other cardiovascular disease risk factors. They can also help improve your sense of well-being and quality of life. Psychotherapy. Similarly, participants in psychotherapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy, have reported improvements in depression, which has resulted in better diabetes management. Medications and lifestyle changes. Medications — for both diabetes and depression — and lifestyle changes, including different types of therapy coupled with regular exercise, can improve both conditions. C Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Mental Health

Diabetes And Mental Health

Diabetes mellitus is a complex medical condition, largely self-managed by the patient and places significant medical, psychological and societal burdens on the person with diabetes as they come to terms with the diagnosis of a chronic illness associated with significant complications and treatment demands. Indeed, as any clinician will confirm, psychological and social factors play a key role in the management of diabetes, both in children and adults while psychiatric and psychological disorders may compromise the ability of the person with diabetes to perform the self-care needed to maintain optimal health and may result in poorer diabetes outcomes and premature mortality. Psychosocial issues are increasingly recognized as being of primary importance in diabetes care; psychological research in diabetes has made significant contributions in the past decades to a better understanding of inter-individual differences in patients cognitive, emotional and behavioural responses to the diagnosis of diabetes, its complications and the day-to-day management. Building on this growing body of scientific knowledge, psychological interventions have been developed to address the different psychological needs of people with diabetes and their families. This section considers the role of psychology and psychiatry in diabetes; the reader should however appreciate that the two fields overlap considerably. Ren DescartesIn 1649, in one of his last publications, The Passions of the Soul, the famous French philosopher Ren Descartes [1] proposed that humans could be divided into the body and mind or soul. While Descartes believed that the body worked like a machine and had the material properties of extension and motion following the laws of physics, he described the mind or soul as a non-ma Continue reading >>

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