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Medical Term For Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes Glossary

Diabetes Glossary

Antibodies Antibodies are specialized proteins that are part of the immune system. They are created when an antigen (such as a virus or bacteria) is detected in the body. The antibodies bond with the specific antigen that triggered their production, and that action neutralizes the antigen, which is a threat to the body. Antibodies are created to fight off whatever has invaded the body. See also autoantibodies. Antigens An antigen is a foreign substance (such as a virus or bacteria) that invades the body. When the body detects it, it produces specific antibodies to fight off the antigen. Autoantibodies Autoantibodies are a group of antibodies that “go bad” and mistakenly attack and damage the body’s tissues and organs. In the case of type 1 diabetes, autoantibodies attack the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Autoimmune disorder If you have an autoimmune disorder (also called an autoimmune disease), your body’s immune system turns against itself and starts to attack its own tissues. Basal secretion (basal insulin) We all should have a small amount of insulin that’s constantly present in the blood; that is the basal secretion. People with type 1 diabetes must take a form of insulin that replicates the basal secretion throughout the day; that’s basal insulin. Beta cells Beta cells are located in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. They are responsible for making insulin. Blood glucose level The blood glucose level is how much glucose is in your blood at a given time. This level is very important for people with diabetes, and they must monitor their blood glucose level throughout the day. If the blood glucose level is too high (hyperglycemia), that means that there isn’t enough insulin in the blood. If it’s too low (hypoglycemia), that mean Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

Glossary Of Diabetes Terms

Glossary Of Diabetes Terms

Acesulfame-k: An artificial sweetener used in place of sugar; it contains no carbohydrates or sugar; therefore, it has no effect on blood sugar levels . This sweetener is often used in conjunction with other artificial sweeteners in processed low-calorie foods. It is also used as a tabletop sweetener under the brand names Sunette, Sweet One, and Swiss Sweet. Acetone: A chemical formed in the blood when the body breaks down fat instead of sugar for energy; if acetone forms, it usually means the cells are starved. Commonly, the body's production of acetone is known as "ketosis." It occurs when there is an absolute or relative deficiency in insulin so sugars cannot get into cells for energy. The body then tries to use other energy sources like proteins from muscle and fat from fat cells. Acetone passes through the body into the urine. Acidosis: Too much acid in the body, usually from the production of ketones like acetone, when cells are starved; for a person with diabetes, the most common type of acidosis is called "ketoacidosis." Acute: Abrupt onset that is usually severe; happens for a limited period of time. Adrenal glands: Two endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys and make and release stress hormones, such as epinephrine (adrenaline), which stimulates carbohydrate metabolism; norepinephrine, which raises heart rate and blood pressure; and corticosteroid hormones, which control how the body utilizes fat, protein, carbohydrates, and minerals, and helps reduce inflammation. They also produce sex hormones like testosterone and can produce DHEA and progesterone. Adult-onset diabetes: A term for type 2 diabetes that is no longer used, because this type of diabetes is now commonly seen in children; "non-insulin dependent diabetes" is also considered an incorrect p Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Overview (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Overview (beyond The Basics)

TYPE 1 DIABETES OVERVIEW Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic medical condition that occurs when the pancreas, an organ in the abdomen, produces very little or no insulin (figure 1). Insulin is a hormone that helps the body to absorb and use glucose and other nutrients from food, store fat, and build up protein. Without insulin, blood glucose (sugar) levels become higher than normal. Type 1 diabetes requires regular blood sugar monitoring and treatment with insulin. Treatment, lifestyle adjustments, and self-care can control blood sugar levels and minimize the risk of disease-related complications. Type 1 diabetes usually begins in childhood or young adulthood but can develop at any age. In the United States, Canada, and Europe, type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all cases of diabetes. Other topics that discuss type 1 diabetes are available: (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 1: Insulin treatment (Beyond the Basics)".) (See "Patient education: Care during pregnancy for women with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) THE IMPACT OF TYPE 1 DIABETES Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes can be a frightening and overwhelming experience, and it is common to have questions about why it developed, what it means for long-term health, and how it will affect everyday life. For most patients, the first few months after being diagnosed are filled with emotional highs and lows. You and your family can use this time to learn as much as possible so that diabetes-related care (eg, self-blood sugar testing, medical appointments, daily insulin) becomes a "normal" part of your routine. (See "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) In addition, you should talk with your doctor or nurse about re Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. Related to type 1 diabetes mellitus: Type 2 diabetes mellitus Type 1 di·a·be·tes a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by a total lack of insulin. Occurs when the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can appear in adults. type 1 diabetes mellitus an autoimmune disease characterized by inability to metabolize fuels, carbohydrates, protein, and fat because of absolute insulin deficiency. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but its incidence is more common in children, where it is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes is characterized by excessive thirst, increased urination, increased desire to eat, loss of weight, keta acidosis, diminished strength, and marked irritability. The clinical onset is usually rapid, but approximately one third of patients have a remission within 3 months (honeymoon phase). This stage may continue for days or months, but type 1 diabetes then progresses quickly to a state of total dependence on insulin. Persons with type I diabetes can manage their condition with a carbohydrate-controlled meal plan, exercise, and insulin. Evidence suggests that type 1 diabetes may be triggered by environmental factors, such as a viral infection in genetically susceptible individuals. Formerly called brittle diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, juvenile diabetes, juvenile onset diabetes, juvenile onset-type diabetes, ketosis-prone diabetes. Compare type 2 diabetes mellitus. See also diabetes mellitus. type 1 diabetes mellitus Brittle DM, insulin-dependent DM, juvenile-onset D Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Read the Latest from M-W Recent Examples of type 1 diabetes from the Web These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'type 1 diabetes.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback. Continue reading >>

Diabetes (mellitus, Type 1 And Type 2) Glossary Of Terms With Medical Definitions

Diabetes (mellitus, Type 1 And Type 2) Glossary Of Terms With Medical Definitions

See the entire definition of Appendicitis Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm. Artery: A vessel that carries blood high in oxygen content away from the heart to the far... Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a... Atherosclerosis: A process of progressive thickening and hardening of the walls of medium-... See the entire definition of Atherosclerosis Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the... Autoimmune disease: An illness that occurs when the body tissues are attacked by its own i... Carbohydrates: Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principa... See the entire definition of Carbohydrates Cardiovascular: Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood ve... See the entire definition of Cardiovascular Cardiovascular disease: Disease affecting the heart or blood vessels. Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c... Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t... Chest pain: Pain in the chest that can be a result of many things, including angina, heart... Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ... Circulation: In medicine, the movement of fluid through the body in a regular or circuitou... Coma: A state of deep, unarousable unconsciousness. A coma may occur as a result of head t... Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result... See the entire definition of Complication Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airwa... Cuts: Severed skin. Washing a cut or scr Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Related to Type 1 diabetes: type 2 diabetes Type 1 di·a·be·tes a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by a total lack of insulin. Occurs when the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can appear in adults. type 1 diabetes or type 1 diabetes mellitus n. A chronic autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed, leading to high glucose levels in the blood and resulting in impaired metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The disease, which is characterized by excessive thirst, frequent urination, metabolic acidosis, and wasting, typically appears in childhood or adolescence and requires lifelong administration of insulin. Also called insulin-dependent diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Type 1 di·a·be·tes (tīp dī'ă-bē'tēz) A condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by a total lack of insulin. Occurs when the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can appear in adults. Synonym(s): growth-onset diabetes, juvenile-onset diabetes. Type 1 di·a·be·tes (tīp dī'ă-bē'tēz) Condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by a total lack of insulin. Occurs when body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. Disorder develops most often in young people but can ap Continue reading >>

Medical Terminology-diabetes

Medical Terminology-diabetes

the simple form of sugar that body absorb, a source of body energy hormone produced by beta cells of pancreas to promote the uptake of glucose into the cells a type of hemoglobin that is measured to identify the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged period of time.\ - blood glucose level following fasting, i.e. > 14 hours without food - two consecutive FBG recordings of > 6.7 mmol/L is diagnostic of diabetes mellitus - amount of glucose dissolved in circulating blood - two consecutive RBG recordings >10 mmol/L are strongly indicative of diabetes mellitus a complication associated with diabetes in which the chemical balance of the body becomes acidic. a condition in which the blood vessels in retina are damaged, leading to vision disorders such as blurred vision and or sudden blindness nerve disorders (caused by diabetes) mainly in legs, foots and head, leading to muscular weakness, loss of feeling or sensation, and impaired autonomic functions such as breathing and digestion - a group of risk factors of diabetes and heart diseases - risk factors: HTN, hyperglycemia, abnormal obesity, and low level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) A state of potential diabetes mellitus, with normal glucose tolerance but with an increased risk of developing diabetes (e.g., family history). index that measures the ability of a given blood to elevate blood sugar an excessive amount of serum protein in urine a test for evaluating the body's ability to metabolize glucose based on the ability of liver to absorb or store excessive glucose in form of glycogen. A sulfonylurea drug used to treat non-insulin-dependent diabetes. A sulfonylurea drug, used to treat non-insulin-dependent diabetes. An oral antidiabetic agent that decreases glucose production by the liver and lowers plasm Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes- Abbreviations And Medical Terms Defined

Type 1 Diabetes- Abbreviations And Medical Terms Defined

Type 1 Diabetes- Abbreviations and medical terms defined While in nursing school I had a classmate who had a rather anxious way about herself. During our hospital training we would have a short debrief, err – drilling from our clinical instructors and then head off for our researched clinical experience. As we sat down this classmate sheepishly told our instructor, “I have looked everywhere and I cannot seem to figure out what my patient is allergic to.” (15 years ago we didn’t have the convenience of Google, can you imagine?) The Instructor replied, “What is the abbreviation?” My classmate blurted out, “She’s allergic to NKA!” My Instructors head looked like it was about to pop off as she said: “That means she has No Known Allergies!” Case in point being… what do all these abbreviations and medical terms mean to the rest of us? Newly diagnosed we see and hear many acronyms. With Type 1 Diabetes- Abbreviations and medical terms defined you will begin to understand this new language. ADA- American Diabetes Association Autoimmune- An overactive immune response of the body to itself. The Immune system creates antibodies that attack and destroy healthy cells and tissues. BMI- Body Mass Index, uses height and weight to determine body fat BS- Blood Sugar is the amount of glucose in your blood. CDE- Certified Diabetes Educator CGM- Continuous glucose monitor, used for “real time” blood sugars. DKA – Diabetic Ketoacidosis is a life threatening condition that develops in response to insufficient insulin. The body begins to break down fat and muscle to use for energy forming ketones and metabolic acidosis. Endocrinologist- (Endo Doc) A physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating problems in the endocrine system. You should have one of these Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes mellitus type 1 (also known as type 1 diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.[4] This results in high blood sugar levels in the body.[1] The classical symptoms are frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, and weight loss.[4] Additional symptoms may include blurry vision, feeling tired, and poor healing.[2] Symptoms typically develop over a short period of time.[1] The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown.[4] However, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[1] Risk factors include having a family member with the condition.[5] The underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[2] Diabetes is diagnosed by testing the level of sugar or A1C in the blood.[5][7] Type 1 diabetes can be distinguished from type 2 by testing for the presence of autoantibodies.[5] There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes.[4] Treatment with insulin is required for survival.[1] Insulin therapy is usually given by injection just under the skin but can also be delivered by an insulin pump.[9] A diabetic diet and exercise are an important part of management.[2] Untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[4] Complications of relatively rapid onset include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma.[5] Long-term complications include heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes.[4] Furthermore, complications may arise from low blood sugar caused by excessive dosing of insulin.[5] Type 1 diabetes makes up an estimated 5–10% of all diabetes cases.[8] The number of people affected globally is unknown, although it is estimated that about 80,000 children develop the disease each year.[5] With Continue reading >>

A Glossary Of Key Diabetes Terms

A Glossary Of Key Diabetes Terms

Learning that you have diabetes can be overwhelming — with lifestyle changes, new medications, and the variety of tests needed to stay healthy. One stumbling block for anybody managing a chronic condition can be the vocabulary of medical terms. Here's a glossary of some of the most common diabetes terms you need to know. A1C: a test that reveals exactly how well your blood sugar (glucose) has been controlled over the previous three months. Beta cells: cells found in the pancreas that make insulin. Blood glucose: also known as blood sugar, glucose comes from food and is then carried through the blood to deliver energy to cells. Blood glucose meter: a small medical device used to check blood glucose levels. Blood glucose monitoring: the simple blood test used to check the amount of glucose in the blood; a tiny drop of blood, taken by pricking a finger, is placed on a test strip and inserted in the meter for reading. Diabetes: the shortened name for diabetes mellitus, the condition in which the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin or your body is unable to use insulin to move glucose into cells of the body. Diabetic retinopathy: the eye disease that occurs in someone with diabetes when the small blood vessels of the retina become swollen and leak liquid into the retina, blurring vision; it can sometimes lead to blindness. Gestational diabetes: the diabetes some women develop during pregnancy; it typically subsides after the baby is delivered, but many women who have had gestational diabetes may develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Glucagon: the hormone that is injected into a person with diabetes to raise their blood glucose level when it's very low (hypoglycemia). Glucose: blood sugar that gives energy to cells. Hyperglycemia: also known as high blood glucose, th Continue reading >>

Medical Definition Of Diabetes, Type 1

Medical Definition Of Diabetes, Type 1

Diabetes, type 1: An autoimmune disease that occurs when T cells attack and destroy most of the beta cells in the pancreas that are needed to produce insulin, so that the pancreas makes too little insulin (or no insulin). Without the capacity to make adequate amounts of insulin, the body is not able to metabolize blood glucose (sugar), to use it efficiently for energy, and toxic acids (called ketoacids) build up in the body. There is a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes. The disease tends to occur in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood (before age 30) but it may have its clinical onset at any age. The symptoms and signs of type 1 diabetes characteristically appear abruptly, although the damage to the beta cells may begin much earlier and progress slowly and silently. The symptoms and signs include a great thirst, hunger, a need to urinate often, and loss of weight. Among the risks of the disease are serious complications, among them blindness, kidney failure, extensive nerve damage, and accelerated atherosclerosis. The long-term aim with treatment is to avoid these complications or, at the least, to slow their progression. There is no known cure. To treat the disease, the person must inject insulin, follow a diet plan, exercise adequately (ideally, daily), and test their blood glucose several times a day. This type of diabetes used to be known as "juvenile diabetes," "juvenile-onset diabetes," and "ketosis-prone diabetes." It is now called type 1 diabetes mellitus or insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms? Last Editorial Review: 1/25/2017 Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. This buildup of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely, it is an autoimmune disorder. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Continue reading >>

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