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Latest Research On Diabetes Type 2

Type 2 Diabetes Research

Type 2 Diabetes Research

From 1980 to 2011, the number of Americans with diagnosed diabetes more than tripled from 5.6 million to 20.9 million according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sedentary lifestyles coupled with increasedcaloric intake have been major determinants to the increase in the prevalence of the disease. In adults, type 2 diabetes accounts for 95 percent of all diagnosed cases. This is a manageable disease. Its also preventable. At the UF Diabetes Institutewere workingto unlock the mysteriesof type 2 diabetesand its complications, and identifying risk factors and innovating new ways to treat, educate, and ultimately prevent the disease. Particularly among adults, diagnosis of type 1 versus type 2 diabetes can be challenging. Around 515 percent of adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes might actually have type 1 disease with islet autoantibodies present; if this is the case, perhaps as many as 50 percent of actual type 1 diabetes cases are misdiagnosed as type 2. In addition, rare genetic forms of diabetes, alternative to type 1 and type 2, have been identified. UF researchers are improving screening standards for diabetes to ensure accurate diagnoses of disease manifestation and offer an array of available safe, available treatment options which may help to predict future risk. Currently, two out of three adult Americans are overweight or obese a precursor to type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle interventions can be effective in helping individuals loseweight, but participants commonly regain much of the weight afterprogram completion.UF researchers are exploring ways to address the issue for all populations.In-person, extended care programs can help in maintainingweight loss, but individuals who live in rural areaswho are more likely to be obesemay find it difficult to Continue reading >>

9 Diabetes Breakthroughs You Need To Know About

9 Diabetes Breakthroughs You Need To Know About

Diabetes is not just one condition - but whether your body is struggling with blood sugar levels due to type 1, or type 2, or even only during pregnancy, it's a serious condition that requires daily care and still doesn't have a cure. But scientists have been working hard to find cures, new treatments, and better management techniques for the millions of people worldwide dealing with diabetes. Here are some of the latest developments you need to know about. 1. Brand new beta cells. Type 1 diabetes develops when a person's immune system wipes out insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. But it turns out that another type of immature beta cell has been hiding in our pancreases all along, and scientists think it might be possible to use these 'virgin beta cells' to restore the functionality of the pancreas. 2. A preventative vaccine. Finnish researchers are about to embark on the first-ever clinical trial for a type 1 diabetes prevention vaccine. While it's not a cure for those who already have the condition, a successful vaccine could potentially prevent thousands of cases each year, as the vaccine targets a virus linked with the development of an autoimmune reaction in the pancreas. 3. A unique transplant. One woman with severe type 1 diabetes has spent a year without insulin injections thanks to an experimental transplant. Doctors implanted insulin-producing cells into a fatty membrane in the stomach cavity, and the success of the operation is paving the way towards more people receiving artificial pancreases. 4. New pancreas tissue. Earlier this year scientists announced that they reversed type 1 diabetes in mice by giving them a transplant of pancreatic tissue. The tissue was grown using stem cells from non-diabetic mice, and the success of this method suggests i Continue reading >>

Could Type 2 Diabetes Be Cured Without The Use Of Medication? New Research Shows It Is Possible

Could Type 2 Diabetes Be Cured Without The Use Of Medication? New Research Shows It Is Possible

Could Type 2 Diabetes be cured without the use of medication? New research shows it is possible Weight loss and a strict diet could be the key factors for a 'cure' Could not subscribe, try again laterInvalid Email Poor diet, excess weight and inactivity - as well as genetics - are known to be factors in the development of the most common form of diabetes. But a new study on around 300 people has shown that diet and exercise alone can help reverse the condition in around half of patients. A trial carried out on around 300 people has found around half of those with Type 2 went into remission after a year using an intensive low calorie diet and no medication. Half received standard care from their GP, while the other half received a structured weight management programme. Findings from the first year of the research, funded by charity Diabetes UK, showed that around 46% of those who took part in the diet programme were in remission after 12 months. Participant Isobel Murray, 65, from North Ayrshire, lost more than 22kg and no longer needs diabetes medication. She said: "I was on various medications which were constantly increasing and I was becoming more and more ill every day. "When the doctors told me that my pancreas was working again, it felt fantastic, absolutely amazing. "I don't think of myself as a diabetic any more. I get all my diabetes checks done, but I don't feel like a diabetic." The trial found that around 86% of those who lost 15kg or more went into remission, compared with 4% of the control group. The findings, which will be published in The Lancet medical journal, also stated that 57% who lost 10 to 15kg and 34% of those who lost five to 10kg also went into remission. Remission was defined as having blood glucose levels (HbA1c) of less than 6.5% (48mmol/ Continue reading >>

Research Opens Door To Development Of New Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes

Research Opens Door To Development Of New Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes

Research opens door to development of new treatment for type 2 diabetes The team lead by Slvia Vilares Conde, from CEDOC-NOVA Medical School, in collaboration with the pharmaceutical company Galvani Bioelectronics, demonstrated through findings in rats that is possible to restore insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, by modulating electrically the carotid sinus nerve, the sensitive nerve that connects the carotid body with the brain. The study is published in Diabetologia, the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]. In 2013, Silvia Vilares Conde and her research group described that the carotid body, a paired organ that is located in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and that is classically defined as an oxygen sensor, regulates peripheral insulin sensitivity and that its dysfunction is involved in the development of metabolic diseases. Wearable medical patch shows promise for early detection of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes This first study and others afterwards performed by her group in diabetic rats showed that the bilateral resection of the carotid sinus nerve, and therefore the abolishment of the connection between the carotid body and the brain, restore insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Although efficient this surgical irreversible approach has disadvantages, since the carotid body possess other physiological functions as the response to the lack of oxygen (hypoxia) or the adaptation to exercise. Silvia Conde's team also described that the carotid body is over-activated in animal models of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that decreasing the activity of the organ could be a good therapeutic strategy. From the partnership with Galvani Bioelectronics (former Glaxo Smith Kline Bioelectronics), the opportunity to Continue reading >>

Research Could Pave Way To Cure For Type 2 Diabetes

Research Could Pave Way To Cure For Type 2 Diabetes

In healthy people, exosomes - tiny structures secreted by cells to allow intercellular communication - prevent clumping of the protein that leads to type 2 diabetes. Exosomes in patients with the disease don't have the same ability. This discovery by a research collaboration between Chalmers University of Technology and Astrazeneca takes us a step closer to a cure for type 2 diabetes. Proteins are the body's workhorses, carrying out all the tasks in our cells. A protein is a long chain of amino acids that must be folded into a specific three-dimensional structure to work. Sometimes, however, they behave incorrectly and aggregate - clump together - into long fibres called amyloids, which can cause diseases. It was previously known that type 2 diabetes is caused by a protein aggregating in the pancreas. "What we've found is that exosomes secreted by the cells in the pancreas stop that process in healthy people and protect them from type 2 diabetes, while the exosomes of diabetes patients do not," says Professor Pernilla Wittung Stafshede, who headed the study whose results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, PNAS. What we know now is that "healthy" exosomes bind the protein that causes diabetes on the outside, preventing it from aggregating; however, the results do not explain why. We also don't know if type 2 diabetes is caused by "sick" exosomes or if the disease itself causes them to malfunction. "The next step is to make controlled models of the exosomes, whose membranes contain lipids and proteins, to understand exactly what component affects the diabetes protein. If we can find which lipid or protein in the exosome membrane leads to that effect, and can work out the mechanism, then we'll have a good target for development Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the most frequent subtype of diabetes, is a disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycaemia). It arises from a resistance to and relative deficiency of the pancreatic β-cell hormone insulin. Continue reading >>

Clinical Research In Type 2 Diabetes

Clinical Research In Type 2 Diabetes

Studies in humans aimed at the prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes and the mechanistic aspects of its etiology. The Clinical Research in Type 2 Diabetes program supports human studies across the lifespan aimed at understanding, preventing and treating type 2 diabetes (T2D). This program includes clinical trials that test pharmacologic, behavioral, surgical or practice-level approaches to the treatment and/or prevention of T2D, including promoting the preservation of beta cell function. Studies may also advance the development of new surrogate markers for use in clinical trials. Studies can be designed to understand the pathophysiology of T2D, including the role of gestational diabetes and metabolic imprinting on the development of T2D, as well as factors influencing the response to treatment. The program also encompasses epidemiologic studies that improve our understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of T2D, and the development of diagnostic criteria to distinguish type 1 and type 2 diabetes, especially in the pediatric population. The program also supports research to test approaches to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence and/or clinical outcomes of T2D. Andrew Bremer, M.D., Ph.D. Clinical studies in gestational diabetes and maternal outcomes, and HIV/AIDS-associated metabolic and endocrine dysfunction Christine Lee, M.D., M.S. Clinical studies on the development, diagnosis and medical treatment of type 2 diabetes in adults; clinical studies of diabetes in older adults Barbara Linder, M.D., Ph.D. Type 2 diabetes in children and youth; medical management of type 1 diabetes in children, youth and adults; human studies of metabolic imprinting Luke E Stoeckel, Ph.D. Cognitive and clinical neuroscience of the non-homeostatic (i Continue reading >>

Diabetes May Have Five Separate Types, Not Two, Study Says | Time

Diabetes May Have Five Separate Types, Not Two, Study Says | Time

For many years, diabetes cases have largely been classified as either type 1 or type 2. But a new study suggests that there may actually be five different types of the disease—some of which may be more dangerous than others. A new classification system could help doctors identify the people most at risk for complications, the study authors say, and could pave the way for more personalized and effective treatments. The research article, published in The Lancet: Diabetes & Endocrinology , calls attention to the need for an updated diabetes classification system. The current system “has not been much updated during the past 20 years,” the authors wrote in their paper, “and very few attempts have been made to explore heterogeneity of type 2 diabetes”—despite calls from expert groups over the years to do so. Meanwhile, they wrote, diabetes is the fastest-increasing disease worldwide, and existing treatments have been unable to stem the tide or prevent the development of chronic complications in many patients. One explanation, they say, is that diabetes diagnosis is based on only one measurement—how the body metabolizes glucose—when the disease is actually much more complex, and much more individual. Currently, diabetes is classified based mainly on age of diagnosis (younger people often have type 1) and on the presence or absence of antibodies that attack beta cells, which release insulin. People with type 1 diabetes have these antibodies—and therefore cannot make insulin on their own—while people with type 2 do not. Their bodies make insulin but don’t use it the right way. Based on these criteria, between 75% and 85% of people with diabetes are classified with type 2, the authors wrote in their paper. A third subgroup of diabetes, known as latent auto Continue reading >>

Scientists Discover A New Way To Treat Type 2 Diabetes

Scientists Discover A New Way To Treat Type 2 Diabetes

Medication currently being used to treat obesity is also proving to have significant health benefits for patients with type 2 diabetes. A new study published today in Molecular Metabolism explains how this therapeutic benefit for type 2 diabetes is achieved by acting in our brain. Scientists from the University of Aberdeen Rowett Institute, in collaboration with teams from the Universities of Cambridge and Michigan, have discovered that the medication Lorcaserin acts in the brain to improve type 2 diabetes by modifying the activity of neurones that help to regulate blood glucose levels. Lorcaserin is prescribed to help patients lose weight and works by regulating how hungry we feel. However, researchers have discovered that as well as doing this, the drug can also reduce glucose levels in the body and increase the body's cells sensitivity to insulin. When the body fails to produce enough insulin or the body's cells fail to react to insulin this leads to Type 2 diabetes meaning that glucose remains in the blood rather than being used as fuel for energy. Professor Lora Heisler, who is leading the Aberdeen team, explains: "Current medications for type 2 diabetes improve symptoms of this disease by acting in the body. We have discovered that this obesity drug, lorcaserin, acts in the brain to improve type 2 diabetes. "Lorcaserin targets important brain hormones called pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides, which are responsible for regulating appetite. So as well as sending messages telling us we are full and no longer need to eat, leading to weight loss, the POMC hormones also activate a different brain circuit that helps keep our blood glucose in check. "This discovery is important because type 2 diabetes is an incredibly prevalent disease in the modern world and new treat Continue reading >>

Radical Diet Can Reverse Type 2 Diabetes, New Study Shows

Radical Diet Can Reverse Type 2 Diabetes, New Study Shows

A radical low-calorie diet can reverse type 2 diabetes, even six years into the disease, a new study has found. The number of cases of type 2 diabetes is soaring, related to the obesity epidemic. Fat accumulated in the abdomen prevents the proper function of the pancreas. It can lead to serious and life-threatening complications, including blindness and foot amputations, heart and kidney disease. A new study from Newcastle and Glasgow Universities shows that the disease can be reversed by losing weight, so that sufferers no longer have to take medication and are free of the symptoms and risks. Nine out of 10 people in the trial who lost 15kg (two-and-a-half stone) or more put their type 2 diabetes into remission. Prof Roy Taylor from Newcastle University, lead researcher in the trial funded by Diabetes UK, said: “These findings are very exciting. They could revolutionise the way type 2 diabetes is treated. This builds on the work into the underlying cause of the condition, so that we can target management effectively. “Substantial weight loss results in reduced fat inside the liver and pancreas, allowing these organs to return to normal function. What we’re seeing … is that losing weight isn’t just linked to better management of type 2 diabetes: significant weight loss could actually result in lasting remission.” Worldwide, the number of people with type 2 diabetes has quadrupled over 35 years, rising from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. This is expected to climb to 642 million by 2040. Type 2 diabetes affects almost 1 in 10 adults in the UK and costs the NHS about £14bn a year. Type 2 diabetes is usually treated with medication and in some cases, bariatric surgery to restrict stomach capacity, which has also been shown to reverse the disease. Continue reading >>

New Drug Appears To Eliminate Type 2 Diabetes For First Time

New Drug Appears To Eliminate Type 2 Diabetes For First Time

Type 2 diabetes, although influenced by a person’s genes, is largely thought to be brought about by a poor diet and being overweight for prolonged periods of time, particularly at an old age. The pancreas is either unable to produce enough insulin, or the body’s cells simply don’t react to insulin, which leads to dangerously high blood sugar levels. This is known as insulin resistance, and at present, there is no medical way to treat this. A new drug forged by a team at the University of California, however, might prove to be a veritable game-changer. As reported by New Scientist, a daily dose of the drug, given to mice with insulin resistance, canceled out the harmful condition. This is the first time that any treatment has effectively “cured” type 2 diabetes. The team of researchers had an inkling that a particular enzyme was responsible for bringing about insulin resistance. The enzyme – cacophonously known as low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphate, or LMPTP – can be found in the liver, and it appears to interact with cells in such a way that they become resistance to the presence of insulin. Conjuring up a brand new drug that was specifically designed to hinder the progress of LMPTP, the team thought that it would allow the cells’ insulin receptors to once again be able to react to insulin as they normally would. Much to their delight, they found that they were correct. “Our findings suggest that LMPTP is a key promoter of insulin resistance and that LMPTP inhibitors would be beneficial for treating type 2 diabetes,” the team noted in their Nature study. For this study, their drug was orally administered to a few unfortunate laboratory mice. These mice had been fed an extremely high-fat diet, and they had developed obesity and type 2 dia Continue reading >>

Diabetes Research: Advancing Toward A Cure

Diabetes Research: Advancing Toward A Cure

George L. King, M.D. Research Director and Head of the Section on Vascular Cell Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center; Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School This is an incredibly exciting time in diabetes research. In the past, we only have had one promising approach to finding a cure for patients with type 1 diabetes. Now we have several possibilities related to a cure, and even prevention, both for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Previously, research toward a cure was focused on transplantation of the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, the islet cells or parts of the pancreas. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system turns on itself and destroys these islet cells. As a result, the body can’t produce the insulin required to escort glucose from the food we eat to where it is needed—into the cells of the body’s muscles and other organs. We are now focusing on ways to understand this immune attack to find safe ways to block it. There are several ongoing studies using our knowledge of immunology to try to intervene and prevent type 1 diabetes. Another important effort is directed to regenerating islet cells—to produce insulin again—either through the use of stem cells, embryonic or adult, or other ways of engineering these cells. We are now hopeful that a large number of people with type 1 diabetes still have surviving islet cells left to regrow. This optimism has been raised by the findings that many type 1 diabetes patients may still have residual islets that have retained some function to make insulin. A recent Joslin study of people who have lived more than 50 years with type 1 diabetes indicated that even some of these patients can still make insulin. Much attention is also aimed at the causes of type 2 diabetes. The main theory involves inflamm Continue reading >>

Targeting Vitamin D Receptors Could Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

Targeting Vitamin D Receptors Could Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

Targeting vitamin D receptors could prevent type 2 diabetes Research suggests that targeting vitamin D receptors could protect the insulin-producing function of beta cells. Targeting vitamin D receptors in insulin-producing cells could be an effective way to prevent type 2 diabetes, suggests a new study. Researchers found that treating mice with vitamin D , lithocholic acid (LCA) propionate, and other vitamin D receptor agonists stopped dedifferentiation in mouse-derived beta cells, which is a process that has been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes . Study co-author Fang-Xu Jiang, of the Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research in Western Australia, and colleagues recently reported their findings in the journal Diabetes & Metabolism. It is estimated that around 30.3 million people in the United States have diabetes , and around 1.5 million new cases are diagnosed every year. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes,arising when the beta cells of the pancreas are unable to produce sufficient amounts of insulin - the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels - or when the body is unable to use insulin effectively. Overweight, obesity , hypertension , and high cholesterol are some more well-known risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but previous research has suggested that low levels of vitamin D may also play a role. According to Jiang, precisely how low vitamin D might fuel the development of type 2 diabetes has been unclear. Their new study sheds light on the process, and it may have identified a way to prevent and treat one ofthe biggest health burdens in the U.S. Jiang and colleagues came to their findings by studying the insulin-producing beta cells of mice. In a high-glucose environment, the expression of vitamin D receptors in the beta cell Continue reading >>

Weight Can In Fact Reverse Type 2 Diabetes, Study Shows

Weight Can In Fact Reverse Type 2 Diabetes, Study Shows

Mario Anzuoni—Reuters A new study discovered that weight loss really can cure diabetes. In a paper published in the Lancet, researchers in the United Kingdom discovered that patients with Type 2 diabetes went into remission when they lost weight, Time reports. Half of the patients in the study went on a 6-month diet plan, while the other half did not. Those that dieted and lost an average of 30 pounds saw their diabetes start to disappear. None of the patients took any daibetes medication for the disease during the study and instead focused exclusively on the effects of weight loss on the chronic condition. The diet involved three to five months of a liquid diet averaging no more than 850 calories a day, followed by two to eight weeks of reintroducing food. Patients were also given nutritional education and cognitive behavioral therapy. Researchers hope to point out with the study that diabetes doesn’t have to be a life-long sentence, and instead is something that can be fought with hard work. However, the weight loss treatment is only effective if done during the first few years of the onset of Type 2 diabetes. Patients who have been living with the disease for 10 years or more have also suffered a loss of some cells which make the weight loss method alone ineffective. Continue reading >>

In A New Study, Researchers Claim They’ve Found A Way To Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

In A New Study, Researchers Claim They’ve Found A Way To Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

Reversing Type 2 Diabetes Researchers from Newcastle and Glasgow Universities believe they have found a way to effectively reverse type 2 diabetes, without requiring a new kind of drug or invasive surgery. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how a person’s body metabolizes sugar, either because they’ve developed resistance to the hormone insulin, or their pancreas fails to produce enough insulin. It’s long been believed that the condition is manageable, but not curable. According to findings published in the journal The Lancet, however, type 2 diabetes can be reversed through weight loss. More specifically, by reducing the amount of fat being carried in and around the abdomen, as accumulated fat in this region impedes the function of the pancreas. The study included 298 patients, aged 20 to 65, who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within the previous six years. Half of the patients were put on a low-calorie diet and lost an average of 10 to 15 kg (22 to 33 pounds). The other half of patients, who served as a control group, received the best diabetes management available — but that did not include a weight loss program. Of the patients who lost weight, more than half saw their diabetes go into remission: 86 percent of the patients who lost more than 15kg, 57 percent who lost 10 to 15 kg, and 34 percent who lost 5 to 10 kg. Of the patients in the control group who were not on a weight management protocol, only 4 percent saw their diabetes go into remission. “These findings are very exciting. They could revolutionize the way type 2 diabetes is treated. This builds on the work into the underlying cause of the condition, so that we can target management effectively,” lead researcher Roy Taylor, from the Newcastle University, told The Guardi Continue reading >>

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