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L-glutamine For Diabetic Neuropathy

L-glutamine Supplementation Prevents Myenteric Neuron Loss And Has Gliatrophic Effects In The Ileum Of Diabetic Rats.

L-glutamine Supplementation Prevents Myenteric Neuron Loss And Has Gliatrophic Effects In The Ileum Of Diabetic Rats.

Generate a file for use with external citation management software. Dig Dis Sci. 2011 Dec;56(12):3507-16. doi: 10.1007/s10620-011-1806-8. Epub 2011 Jun 28. L-glutamine supplementation prevents myenteric neuron loss and has gliatrophic effects in the ileum of diabetic rats. Department of Morphological Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Maring, Avenida Colombo, n 5790 Bloco H-79, Maring, PR, CEP 87020-900, Brazil. [email protected] Peripheral neuropathy caused chronically by diabetes mellitus is related to exacerbation of oxidative stress and a significant reduction in important endogenous antioxidants. L: -Glutamine is an amino acid involved in defense mechanisms and is a substrate for the formation of glutathione, the major endogenous cellular antioxidant. This study investigated the effects of 2% L: -glutamine supplementation on peripheral diabetic neuropathy and enteric glia in the ileum in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: normoglycemics (N), normoglycemics supplemented with L: -glutamine (NG), diabetics (D), and diabetics supplemented with L: -glutamine (DG). After 120days, the ileums were processed for HuC/D and S100 immunohistochemistry. Quantitative and morphometric analysis was performed. Diabetes significantly reduced the number of HuC/D-immunoreactive myenteric neurons per unit area and per ganglion in group D compared with normoglycemic animals (group N). L: -Glutamine (2%) prevented neuronal death induced by diabetes (group DG) compared with group D. The glial density per unit area did not change with diabetes (group D) but was significantly reduced after L: -glutamine supplementation (groups NG and DG). Ganglionic glial density was similar among the four groups. The neuronal area was not altered in groups D and DG. Glial size wa Continue reading >>

Tips For Managing Neuropathy

Tips For Managing Neuropathy

How can cancer patients cope with the symptoms of neuropathy? Clare Sullivan, MPH, BSN, CRRN, hosted a live chat on chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Sullivan, who is the clinical program manager for Patient Education at Dana-Farber, answered questions about prevention, safety, and managing side effects. A transcript of the chat follows: Q: What are the most common symptoms of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN)? Are the symptoms the same for every patient? A: CIPN symptoms vary from patient to patient, but in general, side effects include: feeling of numbness or "pins and needles" in your hands and feet; difficulty picking up an object or buttoning clothing; ringing in your ears or loss of hearing; changes in vision; sudden, stabbing pains in your hands or feet; constipation/difficulty urinating; muscle weakness or cramps; loss of balance or having difficulty walking; and feeling heat and cold, more or less than usual. Q: Does CIPN affect every cancer patient? Do certain cancer diagnoses increase risk for neuropathy? A: Neuropathy does not affect every patient and symptoms can differ depending on the chemotherapy type, dosage, frequency, or other pre-existing health issues. The risk for neuropathy depends not on the diagnosis, but the type of treatment used to treat the cancer. Q: What are other risk factors for developing CIPN? A: Specific types of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery can cause damage to nerves that can lead to neuropathy Patients with pre-existing conditions, such as diabetes or peripheral vascular disease, may already have neuropathy as a result of these diseases. If you already have neuropathy and are starting cancer treatment, speak to your team about your specific symptoms. Prior to treatment, it is important that Continue reading >>

Glutamine: Can It Help Peripheral Neuropathy? | The Diet Channel

Glutamine: Can It Help Peripheral Neuropathy? | The Diet Channel

Glutamine: Can It Help Peripheral Neuropathy? Can glutamine help with neuropathy due to chemotherapy? An often painful side effect of chemotherapy, peripheral neuropathy affects the nerve endings in the extremities. Research has shown that supplementation with glutamine may be effective in reducing peripheral neuropathy associated with chemotherapy. Cancer is doubly harmful, being both traumatic and stressful for the body. Glutamine is a common non-essential amino acid found throughout the body. It becomes conditionally essential in times of bodily trauma or stress due to an increased nitrogen metabolism. Studies show supplementing with glutamine after chemotherapy may reduce: There is conflicting data where 2 studies have shown that glutamine fuels tumor growth, whereas other studies show that glutamine protects the immune system and increases Natural Killer cell formation, which may halt tumor cell growth. Glutamine, a tasteless and odorless powder, is commonly found in health food stores, and is often marketed for weightlifters. It can be added to water, juice, milk, or foods and will not affect the flavor or color of the food. Chemotherapy patients who experience neuropathy should take glutamine orally for 4 days after chemotherapy infusion starting 24 hours after the first treatment. A therapeutic dose of glutamine is 10 grams, 3 times a day. Glutamine is not the only product available to lessen the side effects of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Neurotin and Amofostine are drugs specifically designed to lessen neuropathy. If you are experiencing neuropathy, speak to your oncologist to discuss whether a supplement like glutamine would be beneficial. Continue reading >>

Glutamine And Neuropathy Caused By Chemotherapy

Glutamine And Neuropathy Caused By Chemotherapy

Some chemotherapy drugs used for breast cancer and other cancers can cause peripheral neuropathy, a symptom that is a bane for many cancer survivors both during treatment andafterward. Can glutamine reduce or prevent neuropathy from chemotherapy?.Credit: Istockphoto.com/Stock Photonensuria Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy causes symptoms ranging from numbness, tingling, and burning in your hands and feet, to severe chronic pain. The chemotherapy drug used for breast cancer which most commonly causes neuropathy is paclitaxel (Taxol.) It's important to note that you may experience 2 types of pain with Taxol. Many people experience pain beginning a few days after an infusion which lets up before your next infusion. In contrast, peripheral neuropathy may linger, and worse with consecutive infusions. This side effect of chemotherapy occurs because some medications damage the nerves in your arms, hands, and fingers, as well as legs, feet, and toes. If nerves in your digestive tract are damaged, you may experience constipation, diarrhea or bladder problems. If your neuropathy becomes bad enough, it can not only affect your quality of life, but it can interfere with your treatment if you need to use a lower dose of chemotherapy. At the current time there are no FDA approved treatments for the prevention or treatment of neuropathy related to chemotherapy. L-Glutamine has been shown to have a protective effect on nerves. It may form a cover on nerves in your hands, feet, and digestive tract, reducing or deflecting damage that could be caused by chemotherapy. A 2016 systematic review found that the use of L-glutamine for the prevention of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy appears promising. Glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that has been found to be defici Continue reading >>

Complementary Therapies For Chemotherapy Neuropathy

Complementary Therapies For Chemotherapy Neuropathy

Home > Featured Posts > Complementary Therapies For Chemotherapy Neuropathy Complementary Therapies For Chemotherapy Neuropathy Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) effects the lives of up to 40% of cancer patients who receive chemotherapy. CIPN symptoms can be so bothersome that we have to lower our treatment doses or stop treatment all together. Integrative oncology focuses on helping our patients get through their prescribed treatments with as minimal side effects as possible by using a combination of conventional and complementary approaches. In this article you will briefly learn about CIPN and how it is treated with an integrative oncology approach. Most commonly, these drugs cause symptoms (i.e. pain, burning, stabbing, numbness, tingling, temperature sensitivity) in the hands and feet. In more severe cases these symptoms move up the arms and legs. It can make it difficult to perform normal day-to-day tasks like buttoning a shirt, sorting coins in a purse, or walking. In some instances patients can develop weakness of legs and leg cramps, numbness around your mouth area, constipation, pain during bowel movements, balance problems, hearing loss, jaw pain, trouble swallowing and trouble passing urine. The risk and severity of CIPN varies based on the individual drug(s), combinations of drugs, having received prior chemotherapy, your nutritional status, the duration and dose of your chemotherapy and genetic factors that predispose some individuals to more severe neuropathic symptoms. Cancer-Fighting Drugs That Can Cause CIPN: Platinum drugs, such as cisplatin (Platinol), oxaliplatin (Eloxatin), carboplatin (Paraplatin) Taxanes, such as paclitaxel (Taxol, Abraxane), docetaxel (Taxotere) Vinca alkaloids, such as vincristine (Oncovin, Vincasar), vinorelbi Continue reading >>

L-glutamine & Peripheral Neuropathy

L-glutamine & Peripheral Neuropathy

Scientific Benefits of Olive Leaf Extract for Disease Peripheral neuropathy is a condition in which peripheral nerves are damaged. Peripheral nerves are those nerves that are not part of the brain and the spinal cord. Peripheral nerves send information about other parts of the body to the brain and spinal cord and receive messages from the brain and spinal cord. Peripheral neuropathy often occurs as a result of diabetes or treatment of cancer with chemotherapy. Studies show that the amino acid, or protein building block, L-glutamine can minimize damage to the nerves during chemotherapy. There are three kinds of peripheral nerves: motor nerves, sensory nerves and autonomic nerves. Motor nerves control skeletal muscles, sensory nerves transmit information from the senses and autonomic nerves control autonomic processes, such as breathing, digestion and heart and gland function. Peripheral neuropathy can affect nerves in all three groups. Symptoms are very different depending on which types of nerves are affected. Sensory neuropathy often leads to numbness and tingling in arms and legs. Motor neuropathy can lead to cramps, muscle weakness and an inability to control major muscle groups. Autonomic neuropathy can cause a disturbance in the autonomic processes, for example, an irregular heartbeat. All three types of neuropathy can be associated with severe pain. Chemicals, such bortezomib, cisplatin and paclitaxel, are used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and head and neck cancer. They interfere with different aspects of cell division in cancer cells. Thirty to 40 percent of cancer patients who are treated with these chemicals experience some degree of neuropathy, usually motor neuropathy or sensory neuropathy. Neuropathy can be so debilitating that patie Continue reading >>

L-glutamine

L-glutamine

D.D. Family T2, trying to live a healthy life You all are probably getting tired of seeing things about Glutamine, but had to post this. L-Glutamine has been found to increase GLP-1, the gut hormone responsible for signaling the pancreas to release insulin and the liver to stop secreating glucoe. It also tells your brain you are full, stop eating. Diabetologia. 2004 Sep;47(9):1592-601. Epub 2004 Sep 9. Glutamine potently stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from GLUTag cells. Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 2XY, UK. AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are secreted from enteroendocrine L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. As glutamine is an important metabolic fuel for the gut, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of glutamine on the GLP-1-secreting cell line, GLUTag. METHODS: GLP-1 release was measured following incubation of GLUTag cells under a range of conditions. Single cells were studied by electrophysiology, calcium imaging and cytosolic ATP measurement using recombinant luciferase. RESULTS: Glutamine was a more potent GLP-1 secretagogue than glucose or other amino acids, increasing GLP-1 release 7.1+/-0.7-fold ( n=19) at 10 mmol/l, with an estimated median effective concentration of between 0.1 and 1 mmol/l. Glutamine (10 mmol/l) induced a sodium-dependent inward current of 3.2+/-1.2 pA per cell ( n=9), which triggered membrane depolarisation and an increase in intracellular calcium. Asparagine and alanine produced electrophysiological and calcium changes that were at least as large as those caused by glutamine, but they were less effective GLP-1 secretagogues, suggesting that glutamine also potentiates secretio Continue reading >>

Glutamine For Diabetes

Glutamine For Diabetes

Is glutamine good for diabetes? It can be with regards to the positive effect it has on certain medical conditions caused by diabetes . Glutamine is an amino acid which is present mainly in muscle tissues. More than 61 per cent tissues of skeletal muscles are made up of glutamine. It is released from the muscle cells after extended exercise, and result in discharge of water, dehydration and eventual breakdown of muscles. Glutamine has a role to play in brain function, immune system and gastro-intestinal health. Taking supplements of glutamine for diabetes depends on the overall condition of your health. You need to take it after consultation with your healthcare provider. According to a study conducted in Australia, glutamine prevents excessive blood sugar rise after meals. It was found to aid in secretion of a compound that regulates the level of insulin in the body. The participants in the study were given glutamine before they had a low-fat meal. The result was that insulin levels improved a little after the meal and also after 3 hours. This lead the researchers to conclude that glutamine can be useful in managing blood glucose level, particularly after meals. The relation between glutamine and your blood sugar needs to be monitored if you intend to take the supplements. According to some experts, glutamine can have an adverse impact on the development of certain autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes . They base their assertion on the fact that immune cells use high levels of glutamine, and if glutamine is blocked, so does the progression of diabetes. Thus, it stands to reason, say the experts, that the ability of glutamine to promote white blood cell activity (immunity function) can aid in development of type 1 diabetes. This is opposite to the positive effec Continue reading >>

Use Glutamine To Reduce The Severity Of Mucositis And Neuropathy (during Chemotherapy Or Radiation Therapy)

Use Glutamine To Reduce The Severity Of Mucositis And Neuropathy (during Chemotherapy Or Radiation Therapy)

Home > Articles > Manage Side Effects Without Drugs > Use Glutamine To Reduce The Severity Of Mucositis And Neuropathy (During Chemotherapy Or Radiation Therapy) Use Glutamine To Reduce The Severity Of Mucositis And Neuropathy (During Chemotherapy Or Radiation Therapy) Cherry flavored L-glutamine powder and water. Mix, swish, gargle and swallow for mucositis prevention. Mix and swallow for neuropathy prevention. If you are about to start a course of chemotherapy that can cause mucositis (i.e. of the mouth, throat or esophagus) or peripheral neuropathy (i.e. hands and feet), ask your oncologist if you can use glutamine tohelp reduce the severity of these common symptoms. If you are going to receive radiation therapy to the head, neck or chest (specifically, anywhere near the esophagus), Glutamine can be helpful to reduce the development of severe mucositis in these tissues. **Did you know that honey is also a proven therapy for mucositis? Read my previous blog entry on honey and mucositis .** Here are three commonly used regimens in the prevention of mucositis (oral, throat or esophageal) and peripheral neuropathy: You can buy glutamine(usually in the form of L-glutamine), in powder, capsule, tablet, or liquid form. However, Irecommend using the powder form of L-glutamine, and mixing it in with cold or room temperature liquids (water or juice.) It should not be added to hot beverages because heat destroys glutamine. Glutamine therapy works best if started at the time of beginning radiation therapy or chemotherapy. It will be less effective if you start this after already showing signs or symptoms of mucositis or peripheral neuropathy. For The Prevention Of Oral mucositis (OM) DOSE: Mix10 gramsof powdered glutamine in a small glass (6-8 ounces) of water or juice. Swish a Continue reading >>

Is L-glutamine Good For Diabetes?

Is L-glutamine Good For Diabetes?

L-glutamine supplementation could affect your blood glucose level if you are diabetic. Stephen Christensen started writing health-related articles in 1976 and his work has appeared in diverse publications including professional journals, “Birds and Blooms” magazine, poetry anthologies and children's books. He received his medical degree from the University of Utah School of Medicine and completed a three-year residency in family medicine at McKay-Dee Hospital Center in Ogden, Utah. Diabetes is becoming more common globally, with some experts predicting a doubling of worldwide diabetes cases in the three decades between 2000 and 2030. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention projects a similar trend for the United States, where the number of people with diabetes could triple by 2050. Many people at risk for diabetes are adopting healthier lifestyles, while those already diagnosed with diabetes search for ways to avoid the complications of their disease. L-glutamine supplementation could prove useful for some diabetics, but ask your doctor if it is appropriate for you. L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in your body. Aside from its role in helping to build proteins, L-glutamine is an important source of fuel for your cells, particularly those of your intestine and immune system. L-glutamine also helps regulate the release of hormones that control glucose metabolism, an important consideration for diabetics. Under normal circumstances, your body can synthesize enough L-glutamine to meet your needs, but illness, injury and prolonged stress can lower your L-glutamine levels and increase your requirements. Insulin is a pancreatic hormone that is released into your bloodstream in response to rising blood glucose levels. Insulin stimulates the cells in your Continue reading >>

A Guide To Integrative Oncology For Clinicians

A Guide To Integrative Oncology For Clinicians

Cancer Treatment Side Effects & Supportive and Palliative Care L-Glutamine for prevention and treatment of neuropathy Glutamine has been shown to up-regulate nerve growth factor in animal models and it is thought to have similar effects in humans. A recent study involving 86 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer has shown that oral l-glutamine (15 g twice a day for seven consecutive days every 2 weeks starting on the day of oxaliplatin infusion) was effective in the prevention of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. A trial of 12 women with advanced breast cancer on a high dose regime of paclitaxel, using glutamine 10 g daily for four days starting 24 hours after completion of paclitaxel indicated that participants who received glutamine had fewer symptoms, with only 8% of women reporting dysesthesias in the fingers and toes, as compared to 40% of the women who did not receive glutamine. Another trial examined the neuroprotective effect of glutamine on 46 patients scheduled to receive high-dose paclitaxel prior to stem cell transplantation. Seventeen patients received 10 g of glutamine three times daily for a total of four days beginning 24 hours after completion of paclitaxel. The remaining 29 patients made up the control group. Results of neurologic symptom questions and electrodiagnostic testing indicated that those who received glutamine developed less weakness, loss of vibratory sensation, and toe numbness as compared to the control group. Larger, randomized, placebo controlled trials are necessary to assess the efficacy of glutamine for the prevention and treatment of neuropathy. L-glutamine has been shown to be safe at oral doses of 10 g daily in oncology patients. Although no specific dosing studies have been reported, most clinical research has used between 25 Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy Dietary Considerations | Life Extension

Diabetic Neuropathy Dietary Considerations | Life Extension

Dietary and lifestyle modifications are essential for people with diabetic neuropathy because they can help prevent the disease from progressing further. One of the most important ways that diabetics can slow the progression of their neuropathy is to achieve better control of their blood glucose levels (Skyler 1996; Callaghan 2012a). It is in this goal that dietary and lifestyle changes can be most effective. In addition to the strategies outlined in this protocol, readers are encouraged to review the Diabetes and Weight Loss protocols. Diet is one of the main ways that people with diabetes can control their blood glucose levels without taking additional medication. Eating well-balanced meals, with a mixture of fruits, vegetables, proteins, and fats will help prevent major swings in blood glucose levels. Eating meals on a regular schedule and coordinating meals with diabetes medications will also minimize blood glucose fluctuations (Mayo Clinic 2011). In addition, specific dietary patterns, such as high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets (Gannon 2004) or diets rich in foods with a low glycemic index (Rizkalla 2004) have been shown to improve blood glucose control. A healthy diet will also help diabetics lose weight, which has been shown to help keep blood glucose levels low (Wing 1987). Notably, a study found that making dietary changes to help keep blood glucose levels under control reduced diabetic neuropathy symptoms in patients with impaired glucose tolerance, which is considered to be a pre-diabetic condition (Smith 2006). Ideally, most people should target a fasting blood glucose level between 70 and 85 mg/dL, although this may be difficult for diabetics to achieve. Regular exercise is also important for people with diabetes. Exercise causes muscle tissue to burn en Continue reading >>

Supplementation With L-glutamine And L-alanyl-l-glutamine Changes Biochemical Parameters And Jejunum Morphophysiology In Type 1 Diabetic Wistar Rats

Supplementation With L-glutamine And L-alanyl-l-glutamine Changes Biochemical Parameters And Jejunum Morphophysiology In Type 1 Diabetic Wistar Rats

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Supplementation with L-Glutamine and L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine Changes Biochemical Parameters and Jejunum Morphophysiology in Type 1 Diabetic Wistar Rats Affiliation Department of Morphological Sciences, State University of Maring, Maring, Paran, Brazil Affiliation Department of Physiological Sciences, State University of Maring, Maring, Paran, Brazil Affiliation Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, State University of Maring, Maring, Paran, Brazil Affiliation Department of Biochemistry, State University of Maring, Maring, Paran, Brazil Affiliation Department of Morphological Sciences, State University of Maring, Maring, Paran, Brazil Affiliation Department of Physiological Sciences, State University of Maring, Maring, Paran, Brazil Affiliation Department of Physiological Sciences, State University of Maring, Maring, Paran, Brazil Affiliation Department of Morphological Sciences, State University of Maring, Maring, Paran, Brazil Supplementation with L-Glutamine and L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine Changes Biochemical Parameters and Jejunum Morphophysiology in Type 1 Diabetic Wistar Rats We evaluated the effects of the supplementation with L-glutamine and glutamine dipeptide (GDP) on biochemical and morphophysiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. For this purpose, thirty animals were distributed into six groups treated orally (gavage) during thirty days: non diabetic rats (Control) + saline, diabetic + saline; Control + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Diabetic + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Control + GDP (400 mg/kg), Diabetic + GDP (400 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and confirmed by fasting glucos Continue reading >>

L-glutamine Supplementation To Alleviate Symptoms Of Taxane-induced Neuropathy In Patients With Breast Cancer

L-glutamine Supplementation To Alleviate Symptoms Of Taxane-induced Neuropathy In Patients With Breast Cancer

You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. L-glutamine Supplementation to Alleviate Symptoms of Taxane-Induced Neuropathy in Patients With Breast Cancer The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02215083 Recruitment Status : Withdrawn (Insufficient Patient Population) Information provided by (Responsible Party): Top of Page Study Description Study Design Arms and Interventions Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information The purpose of the study is to determine whether daily, high-dose administration of l-glutamine can reduce numbness and tingling caused by a taxane chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. L-glutamine has previously been shown to help reduce the incidence of numbness and tingling in patients with breast cancer who are receiving taxane chemotherapies. However, no study to date looks at the effect of l-glutamine given after this numbness and tingling (called 'perihperhal neuropathy') has already occurred. We hypothesize that administration of this amino acid in l-glutamine nave patients will result in a measureable reduction of their taxane-induced neuropathy. L-glutamine Supplementation to Alleviate Symptoms of Taxane-Induced Neuropathy in Patients With Breast Cancer All patients will receive 20-30 grams of l-glutamine daily for 9 weeks (+/- 1 week) 10,000mg by mouth, twice daily for nine weeks ( 7 days) with one permitted dose escalation to a maximum of 10,000mg by mouth three times daily. Top of Page Study Description Study Desig Continue reading >>

Glutamine | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

Glutamine | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

Graphic showing a magnifying glass, indicating the ability to search. Icon showing a plus/minus toggle, indicating that the surrounding element can be opened and closed. An arrowing pointing forward, usually indicating forward movement, or the ability the share something via social media. An icon showing an uppercase letter "X", indicating that this will close the current element. An arrowing pointing forward, usually indicating forward movement, or the ability the share something via social media. An icon showing an uppercase letter "X", indicating that this will close the current element. Icon showing a plus/minus toggle, indicating that the surrounding element can be opened and closed. Glutamine may be helpful for preventing some symptoms related to cancer treatments, such as oral inflammation. Combined with other nutrients, it can prevent muscle wasting and weight loss in patients with advanced cancer and HIV, but more research is needed. Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body. It is made by most body tissues and is also found in foods such as wheat, corn, barley, peanuts, soybeans, and milk. Glutamine is important for several bodily functions, like acting as building blocks for protein. When the body is malnourished or breaks down its own muscle protein, known as cachexia, taking extra glutamine can help restore body levels and prevent adverse health effects. For example, glutamine is the major fuel source of cells that line the intestinal tract, and is therefore important in maintaining GI function. It is also the major fuel source for certain cells used in the bodys immune defense. It removes excess toxic ammonia from the body and synthesizes glutathione to help detoxify foreign substances in the liver. Glutamine may help treat muscle wastin Continue reading >>

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