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Kidney Stones And Sugar Levels

Glucose Metabolism In Renal Stone Patients.

Glucose Metabolism In Renal Stone Patients.

Glucose metabolism in renal stone patients. Department of Urology, Kaizuka Municipal Hospital, Osaka, Japan. The calciuric response and the changes of plasma glucose and insulin produced by a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test were determined in 27 male patients with idiopathic calcium renal stones (6 with dietary hypercalciuria, 5 with nondietary hypercalciuria and 16 with normocalciuria) and 22 healthy male subjects. The subjects were classified as obese (> or = 120% ideal weight) and nonobese. The incidence of an abnormal response to glucose loading was similar in the stone patients and the healthy subjects. In addition, the plasma glucose and insulin levels after oral glucose load did not differ between the stone patients and control subjects and were affected by the individual degree of obesity. Urinary calcium excretion increased significantly after glucose ingestion in both the stone patients and the control subjects. Urinary calcium excretion was greater in the stone patients than in the control subjects due to the presence of patients with nondietary hypercalciuria, and the increment in urinary calcium excretion in the dietary hypercalciuric and normocalciuric stone patients was indistinguishable from that in the control subjects. The degree of obesity did not affect the increment in urinary calcium excretion. These results suggest that overconsumption of refined carbohydrates such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks, soda and cakes may be a risk factor for stone formation, especially in the patients with nondietary hypercalciuria. Continue reading >>

9 Signs Of Kidney Stones You Shouldn't Ignore

9 Signs Of Kidney Stones You Shouldn't Ignore

9 Signs of Kidney Stones You Shouldn't Ignore This health condition can land you in a world of pain. Let's discuss signs of kidney stones with the hope that you'll never have to put this knowledge into practice for yourself. Kidney stones have a deservedly terrible reputation. These small, hard deposits can form on the insides of your kidneys when high levels of different minerals and salts are in your urine, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Kidney stones can be smooth or jagged, as tiny as a grain of sand or, more rarely, as large as a golf ball. Your body will typically try to pass them through your urethra with your urine , meaning that on their way out, kidney stones can also be unbelievably painful . Here's what you need to know about what causes kidney stones, signs you've got one, and how to prevent this painful health condition . There are four types of kidney stones, and they're generally a sign that something's up with your pee. Kidney stones are small, hard deposits of mineral and acid salts that form on the inner surface of the kidneys, Roger Sur , M.D., director of the Comprehensive Kidney Stone Center at UC San Diego Health, tells SELF. They can happen when your urine becomes too concentrated, allowing these minerals and salts to accumulate, according to the Mayo Clinic . These are the four types of kidney stones, per the NIDDK : These are the most common kinds of kidney stones, and they include calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate varieties. When concentrations of calcium and oxalate (produced by your liver and also often found in nuts and nut products, peanuts, spinach, rhubarb, and wheat bran) and phosphorus ( found in foods like beans, meat, and milk and compounds like disodium phosphate) buil Continue reading >>

Kidney Stones And Diabetes

Kidney Stones And Diabetes

Kidney stone formation seems to be more prevalent during the summer season due to the weather being hot and dry. Many people suffer from dehydration during the summer months and dehydration can increase the risk of minerals to crystallize in the kidneys of certain individuals. According to a report in the Journal of European Urology, “kidney stones affect about 9% of the US population which has doubled in the last 15 years”. Although the reason is not completely clear, there seems to be a connection to the increased obesity rates along with the typical American diet. Asians and Caucasians are at higher risk than African Americans and Native Americans. People that live in the South or Southwest (hot and dry) produce more kidney stones. Those with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance which causes higher amounts of acid in the urine and may be a reason for uric acid stones. People that have gout also produce high levels of uric acid which can lead to more kidney stones. Those who suffer from hypertension, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), hyperparathyroidism, or excess blood calcium all have higher incidences of kidney stones. Men tend to suffer from more kidney stones but the gap is recently narrowing with women. Stone formation is most prevalent in men between 20-70 and peaks in women in their 50’s. Immobilization or lack of movement is a risk factor for stones. Calcium oxalate makes up the majority of stones, along with calcium phosphate, uric acid and struvite (magnesium, ammonia and phosphate). A family history or personal past history of kidney stones make you more susceptible. The more animal protein and sodium in the diet, the higher the risk of kidney stone production. Even certain medications can increase the possibility of stones including diuretics, anta Continue reading >>

Sugar: The End Of Our Love Affair

Sugar: The End Of Our Love Affair

We love it. As a people Americans eat 66 pounds of added sugar a year per person . Each one of us eat that much added sugar. Yes, that much table sugar, sucrose, the bad stuff. It may be bad but I love it, passionately, and with the fondness only time can add to a relationship. Frankly, only the writing of this site put me on to the dangers of excess added sugar. A physician all of my adult years yet blithe enough about added sugar I knew its main drawback as mere obesity. Now I know better and plan to leave it be and live my life without its company. The pretty graph at the right comes from the US governments five year report on the diet of the American people. Men and women eat far more sugar than ideal, especially during childhood and early midlife. Although you might think otherwise, women are no better or worse than men in this one special behavior. Still life with sweetmeats by Georg Flegel, German, Olomouc (Olmtz) 15661638 hangs in the Stdelsches Kunstinstitut und Stdtische Galerie . The image is available for public educational use. Need I say why it fits this article? Added has a special meaning. It means not natural to the food. Manufacturers have to add it into the food. You will know they did it when you see sugar on the ingredient list. They name sugar so many ways you may miss it altogether. Lets start with the proper common names. Glucose and dextrose are two names for one sugar. It is the main sugar in our blood and the main sugar in starch. Fructose comes in fruits and is altogether different in chemistry and in the way our bodies metabolize it. Sugar, what we buy in sacks, is the two molecules, glucose and fructose, linked together to make one bigger molecule containing both. So when you eat table sugar you are eating glucose and fructose. The proper Continue reading >>

6 Easy Ways To Prevent Kidney Stones

6 Easy Ways To Prevent Kidney Stones

Did you know that one in ten people will have a kidney stone over the course of a lifetime? Recent studies have shown that kidney stone rates are on the rise across the country. Those in the know believe that some major misconceptions may be the culprit. The National Kidney Foundation has teamed up with Dr. Allan Jhagroo, a kidney stone specialist at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, to help you stay stone-free by debunking some of the major kidney stone myths and misconceptions. Here are the top 6 kidney stone prevention tips: Don't Underestimate Your Sweat. Saunas, hot yoga and heavy exercise may be good for your health, but they also may lead to kidney stones. Why? Loss of water through sweating - whether due to these activities or just the heat of summer—leads to less urine production. The more you sweat, the less you urinate, which allows for stone-causing minerals to settle and bond in the kidneys and urinary tract. Instead: Hydrate with H2O. One of the best measures you can take to avoid kidney stones is to drink plenty of water, leading you to urinate a lot. So, be sure to keep well hydrated, especially when engaging in exercise or activities that cause a lot of sweating. It's Not Just the Oxalate. Oxa-what? Oxalate is naturally found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, grains, legumes, and even chocolate and tea. Some examples of foods that contain high levels of oxalate include: peanuts, rhubarb, spinach, beets, chocolate and sweet potatoes. Moderating intake of these foods may be beneficial for people who form calcium oxalate stones, the leading type of kidney stones. A common misconception is that cutting the oxalate-rich foods in your diet alone will reduce the likelihood of forming calcium oxala Continue reading >>

Diabetic Severity And Risk Of Kidney Stone Disease

Diabetic Severity And Risk Of Kidney Stone Disease

Go to: Abstract Background The prevalence of kidney stone disease is rising along with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabolic syndrome. Objective To investigate the associations among the presence and severity of T2DM, glycemic control and insulin resistance with kidney stone disease. Design, Setting, and Participants We performed a cross-sectional analysis of all adult participants in the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A history of kidney stone disease was obtained by self-report. T2DM was defined by: self-reported history, T2DM-related medication usage, and reported diabetic comorbidity. Insulin resistance was estimated using fasting plasma insulin (FPI) levels and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) definition. We classified glycemic control using HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels (FPG). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Odds ratios (OR) for kidney stone disease were calculated for each individual measure of T2DM severity. Logistic regression models were fitted adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking history, and Quételet’s (body mass) index (BMI) (model A) as well as laboratory values and components of metabolic syndrome (model B). Results and Limitations Correlates of kidney stone disease included a self-reported history of T2DM (OR 2.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84–3.25) and history of insulin use (OR 3.31, CI 2.02-5.45). Persons with FPG 100–126 and >126 mg/dL had increased odds of kidney stone disease, OR 1.28 (CI 0.95–1.72) and OR 2.29 (CI 1.68-3.12), respectively. Corresponding results for persons with HgbA1c 5.7-6.4% and ≥6.5% were ORs 1.68 (CI 1.17–2.42) and OR 2.82 (CI 1.98–4.02), respectively. When adjusti Continue reading >>

How Common Are Kidney Stones?

How Common Are Kidney Stones?

Each year, more than half a million people go to emergency rooms for kidney stone problems. It is estimated that one in ten people will have a kidney stone at some time in their lives. The prevalence of kidney stones in the United States increased from 3.8% in the late 1970s to 8.8% in the late 2000s. This increase was seen in both men and women, and both whites and blacks. The lifetime risk of kidney stones is about 19% in men and 9% in women. In men, the first episode is most likely to occur after age 30, but it can occur earlier. Other diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity may increase the risk for kidney stones. What is a kidney stone? A kidney stone is a hard object that is made from chemicals in the urine. Urine has various wastes dissolved in it. When there is too much waste in too little liquid, crystals begin to form. The crystals attract other elements and join together to form a solid that will get larger unless it is passed out of the body with the urine. Usually, these chemicals are eliminated in the urine by the body's master chemist: the kidney. In most people, having enough liquid washes them out or other chemicals in urine stop a stone from forming. The stone-forming chemicals are calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, and phosphate. After it is formed, the stone may stay in the kidney or travel down the urinary tract into the ureter. Sometimes, tiny stones move out of the body in the urine without causing too much pain. But stones that don't move may cause a back-up of urine in the kidney, ureter, the bladder, or the urethra. This is what causes the pain. Possible causes include drinking too little water, exercise (too much or too little), obesity, weight loss surgery, or eating food with too much salt or sugar. Infections an Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Kidney Stones

Diabetes And Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are bits of grit formed from minerals in the urine. They can be terribly painful, block urine flow, and damage kidneys. Diabetes is a major risk factor for kidney stones. Stones start out small, like grains of sand. They may hurt, but they will pass by themselves. When they get larger than about 4 millimeters (about 0.2 inches) in diameter, they can get stuck in the ureters, the urine passageways. Then they can become agonizing, cause infection, and block urine in the kidney. This is a very serious complication. Intense kidney stone pain is usually felt in the flank, the side of the mid- to lower back where the stone is. When pain is severe, it can cause vomiting leading to dehydration. These are serious problems for anyone, but especially for people with diabetes. Kidney stones can form from several different minerals. The two main categories are calcium stones and uric acid stones. People with diabetes have higher rates of both, and much higher rates for the uric acid kind, because their urine tends to be more acidic. One study at the Mayo Clinic followed 3,500 patients for 20 years and concluded that those with diabetes developed 40% more uric acid kidney stones than those without diabetes Scientists don’t know why diabetic urine is more acid. The American Society of Nephrology says insulin resistance has something to do with it. High levels of insulin in the blood are associated with acid urine. Bodies make buffers such as ammonium to neutralize the acid, and insulin resistance seems to lower the production of ammonium. Other risk factors for stones include fatness, urinary tract infections, not drinking enough water, gastric bypass surgery, and high salt intake. Preventing stones Most kidney stone prevention focuses on diet. The best supported resul Continue reading >>

Greater Diabetes Severity Raises Kidney Stone Risk

Greater Diabetes Severity Raises Kidney Stone Risk

Greater Diabetes Severity Raises Kidney Stone Risk Greater Diabetes Severity Raises Kidney Stone Risk Among patients with type 2 diabetes , more severe disease, as measured by glycemic control and insulin resistance, is associated with an elevated risk of kidney stones , researchers reported online ahead of print in European Urology. Aviva E. Weinberg, MD, of Stanford University School of Medicine in Palo Alto, Calif., and colleagues analyzed data from adult participants in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A self-reported history of type 2 diabetes and history of insulin use were associated with a 2.4 times and 3.3 times increased risk of kidney stones disease, respectively. In a fully adjusted model, individuals with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels greater than 126 mg/dL (diabetes) had a 28% increased risk compared with those who had a FPG below 100 mg/dL in a fully adjusted model. Subjects with HbA1c values of 5.7%-6.4% and higher than 6.5% had a 34% and 92% increased risk. Insulin resistance, as estimated using fasting plasma insulin (FPI) levels and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) definition, was associated with an increased risk of kidney stone disease. Compared with patients in the lowest FPI tertile and lowest HOMA-IR tertile, those in the highest tertiles had a 28% and 51% increased risk, respectively. A history of type 2 diabetes, insulin use, FPI, and HbA1c remained significantly associated with kidney stone disease after adjusting for patient factors. The researchers said their analysis suggests that glycemic control is associated with the pathogenesis of stone disease. Hyperglycemia and its resultant glycosuria have been implicated in altered renal handling of calcium, phosphorus, Continue reading >>

8 Sneaky Things That Raise Your Blood Sugar Levels

8 Sneaky Things That Raise Your Blood Sugar Levels

Skipping breakfast iStock/Thinkstock Overweight women who didn’t eat breakfast had higher insulin and blood sugar levels after they ate lunch a few hours later than they did on another day when they ate breakfast, a 2013 study found. Another study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that men who regularly skipped breakfast had a 21 percent higher chance of developing diabetes than those who didn’t. A morning meal—especially one that is rich in protein and healthy fat—seems to stabilize blood sugar levels throughout the day. Your breakfast is not one of the many foods that raise blood sugar. Here are some other things that happen to your body when you skip breakfast. Artificial sweeteners iStock/Thinkstock They have to be better for your blood sugar than, well, sugar, right? An interesting new Israeli study suggests that artificial sweeteners can still take a negative toll and are one of the foods that raise blood sugar. When researchers gave mice artificial sweeteners, they had higher blood sugar levels than mice who drank plain water—or even water with sugar! The researchers were able to bring the animals’ blood sugar levels down by treating them with antibiotics, which indicates that these fake sweeteners may alter gut bacteria, which in turn seems to affect how the body processes glucose. In a follow-up study of 400 people, the research team found that long-term users of artificial sweeteners were more likely to have higher fasting blood sugar levels, reported HealthDay. While study authors are by no means saying that sugary beverages are healthier, these findings do suggest that people who drink artificially sweetened beverages should do so in moderation as part of a healthy diet. Here's what else happens when you cut artificial sweetener Continue reading >>

Kidney Stones 101: What Causes Kidney Stones - Unitypoint Health

Kidney Stones 101: What Causes Kidney Stones - Unitypoint Health

Kidney stones impact between 10 and 15 percent of the United States population. Their formation is a complex process, but Urologist, Eric Askeland, MD , UnityPoint Health explains exactly what you need to know. They begin when urine becomes supersaturated, resulting in the formation of salts, which develop into crystals. Once a crystal is formed, it spurs more crystal formation, resulting in growth and eventually formation of a kidney stone. There are many different types of kidney stones. In general, about 75 percent of kidney stones are calcium-based. Regardless of the type, most stones are treated the same. However, the type does help us tailor dietary alterations or medications to help prevent recurrence of stones. Diet and genetics are the two biggest risk factors, but there are several others: Gender. Historically, men are two to three times more likely to get stones than women. Race. Caucasians are more likely to develop kidney stones. Age. Stone occurrence peaks in people aged 35-45 years. Geography and climate. Areas with hot and dry climates tend to have a higher incidence of stone disease. Chronic dehydration. Chronic lack of appropriate fluid intake. Presence of metabolic syndrome. A condition characterized by a cluster of disease processes including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat and abnormal cholesterol levels. We recommend dietary modifications in all patients with a history of kidney stones to prevent recurrence. In certain instances, patients can undergo metabolic testing to aid in identifying a cause for recurrent kidney stone formation. This testing involves blood tests and a urine collection test to identify abnormalities we can target with dietary modifications or medications to prevent or delay the formation of new kidney s Continue reading >>

Kidney Stones Tied To Higher Diabetes Risk

Kidney Stones Tied To Higher Diabetes Risk

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - People who've suffered bouts of kidney stones may have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on, new research suggests. A number of studies have observed that people with diabetes are more likely to form kidney stones than diabetes-free people are. But it hasn't been clear whether the reverse is true. In the new study, researchers found that among more than 94,000 Taiwanese adults, those with a history of kidney stones were about 30 percent more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes over five years than people without stones. Of over 23,000 people who'd been treated for kidney stones, 12.4 percent developed diabetes, based on medical records. That compared with 9.6 percent of the 70,700 stone-free adults studied for comparison. Diabetes and kidney stones do share some of the same risk factors -- including obesity and older age. But even when the researchers accounted for age, obesity and certain other health factors, kidney stones were linked to a one-third higher risk of developing diabetes. The exact reason is uncertain, according to the researchers, led by Dr. Herng-Ching Lin of Taipei Medical University. But they suspect that certain processes in the body may contribute to both kidney stones and diabetes. Kidney stones develop when the urine contains more crystal-forming substances -- including calcium, uric acid and a compound called oxalate -- than can be diluted by the available fluid. The stones usually cause no lingering damage, but can be painful to pass. There's some evidence to suggest that the blood-sugar-regulating hormone insulin may contribute to kidney stones, according to Lin's team. Research in animals and humans has hinted that high insulin levels can change the composition of the urine in a way that makes k Continue reading >>

Kidney Stone Prevention: 'fact Versus Fiction'

Kidney Stone Prevention: 'fact Versus Fiction'

Kidney Stone Prevention: 'Fact versus Fiction' Kidney Stone Prevention: 'Fact versus Fiction' Kidney Stone Prevention: 'Fact versus Fiction' According to current estimates, kidney stones will develop in one in 10 people during their lifetime. This translates into nearly 30 million people in the United States. The prevalence is highest among those aged 30-45 years. High urinary calcium can be the cause of kidney stones in upwards of 80% of cases. The most prevalent stone composition is calcium oxalate. Once kidney stones develop, patients have a 50%-75% likelihood of developing another stone. The yearly cost of kidney stones in the United States was $2 billion (treatments, hospitalizations, lost work, etc.) in 1994 and is now estimated at $5 billion.1 Clearly, prevention is paramount when dealing with kidney stones. General guidelines for prevention include moderate protein intake, minimal salt ingestion, and drinking enough clear liquids to generate two liters of urine per day. A low oxalate diet has proved beneficial for preventing calcium oxalate stones. Reducing elevated urinary calcium levels helps to improve urinary saturation kinetics. Uric acid stones require dietary manipulation, adequate fluid intake to optimize volumes, and manipulation of urinary pH. Cystine stones, while relatively rare, require their own preventive measures. Which fluid to drink is controversial. While water is the mainstay, a number of articles tout the benefit of different juices. For example, lemon juice increases urinary citrate and may prevent calcium stones. Whether one uses the recommended half cup of lemon juice per day straight up or diluted, is a personal choice. Lemonade is another frequently recommended choice. There are various opinions when it comes to the benefits of orange Continue reading >>

Kidney Stones | Smart Nutrition

Kidney Stones | Smart Nutrition

Most people have two kidneys, which clean the blood. They filter out water and waste products, making urine. Kidney stones are fairly common, occurring in about 12 in every 100 men and 4 in every 100 women in the UK at some point in their life. Kidney stones are small, solid masses that form when salts or minerals normally found in urine become solid crystals (crystallise) inside the kidney. In most cases, the crystals are too tiny to be noticed, and pass harmlessly out of your body. However, they can build up inside your kidney and form much larger stones. Kidney stones are usually painless when in the kidney but can cause severe pain as they travel from the kidneys to the bladder. An attack of this pain is called renal or uteric colic. If a stone gets stuck in the ureter, this can cause an infection which can lead to permanent kidney damage. Many kidney stones dont move and are too small to cause any symptoms. However, if a kidney stone causes a blockage, or moves into the ureter, it may cause some of the following symptoms Severe pain or aching in the back on one or both sides Sudden spasms of excruciating pain, usually starting in the back below the ribs and radiating around the abdomen, sometimes to the groin and genitalia A frequent urge to urinate, or a burning sensation during urination These can also be symptoms of a urinary tract infection, or cystitis, which is much more common than kidney stones in young women. If you have one or more of these symptoms you should seek medical advice. Dehydration Not consuming enough water leads to more concentrated urine. The more concentrated the urine the greater the chance of forming kidney stones. Gradually increasing your water consumption can help to dilute the urine and reduce the prevalence of stone formation Poor d Continue reading >>

Diabetes From Kidney Stone Blaster?

Diabetes From Kidney Stone Blaster?

In the early 1980s, getting a kidney stonekidney stone often meant painful open surgery. Then came shock wave lithotripsyshock wave lithotripsy. This revolutionary technology uses sonic waves to blast kidney stones into tiny grains of sand. No surgery is needed. It's always seemed to be safe. But now there's disturbing new data from a Mayo Clinic study. The study appears in the May issue of the Journal of Urology. The study compared kidney stone patients treated in 1985 with shock wave lithotripsy to patients given other nonsurgical kidney stone treatments that same year. Nineteen years later, the shock wave patients were nearly four times more likely to get diabetes. And, if both kidneys were treated, they were 47% more likely to have high blood pressure. It's not yet clear how shock wave treatment might cause these problems, says researcher Amy E. Krambeck, MD. What seems to be happening is collateral damage from the shock waves. "The theory is that the shear forces related to shock wave lithotripsy can cause tissue damage," Krambeck tells WebMD. "Damage to the pancreas could put patients at risk for diabetes." Patients who got the most shock wave treatments -- at the highest intensity - had the highest risk of diabetes. The shock wave machine used in 1985 is an older model. It's still in use at the Mayo Clinic, Krambeck says. Newer shock wave machines give a more focused shock -- but also provide stronger shock waves. Because the Mayo study is the first to link diabetes to shock wave treatment, it's not at all clear whether newer machines provide less risk, the same risk, or more risk. Krambeck says much more study is needed. In the meantime, she says, there's no reason to stop using the machines for patients with large kidney stones. There's no immediate danger for Continue reading >>

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