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Kidney Function Test For Diabetes

What Do Urine Tests Say About Diabetes?

What Do Urine Tests Say About Diabetes?

When you have diabetes, you’re no stranger to tests that keep track of your disease. Most look at your blood, but there are others. Two simple ones that check your urine can help you and your doctor watch for kidney disease and severe high blood sugar. About one-third of people with diabetes have problems with their kidneys. But early and tight control of your blood sugar and blood pressure, plus help from certain medications, can keep these organs working like they should To check for problems, your doctor can do a test that measures the amount of protein in your urine, called microalbuminuria. It shows up when small amounts of albumin (the main protein in your blood) seep into your pee. Without treatment to slow the leak, your kidneys could be damaged and eventually fail. You should get this test every year starting as soon as you’re diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. That’s because high blood sugar is usually present many years before you find out you have the disease. If you have type 1 diabetes, you probably won’t get the test until you’ve been diagnosed for 5 years. If the test is positive, it means your kidneys can no longer filter the blood as well as they should. It also shows you have blood vessel disease that could lead to heart problems. Your doctor will probably suggest medications or lifestyle changes to help prevent these conditions: Kidney damage. You may start specific medicines to prevent further harm. If your microalbumin level is high, your doctor may suggest another type of test that requires you to collect samples for 24 hours. This can better tell the extent of damage to the organs and see how well they’re working. High blood sugar. Studies show tight control of your blood sugar can lower kidney damage, so your doctor may put you on more Continue reading >>

Diabetic Kidney Problems

Diabetic Kidney Problems

If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste and fluids build up in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It begins long before you have symptoms. People with diabetes should get regular screenings for kidney disease. Tests include a urine test to detect protein in your urine and a blood test to show how well your kidneys are working. If the damage continues, your kidneys could fail. In fact, diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure in the United States. People with kidney failure need either dialysis or a kidney transplant. You can slow down kidney damage or keep it from getting worse. Controlling your blood sugar and blood pressure, taking your medicines and not eating too much protein can help. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Kidney Failure

Diabetes And Kidney Failure

One of the causes of kidney failure is diabetes mellitus, a condition characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Over time, the high levels of sugar in the blood damage the millions of tiny filtering units within each kidney. There is no cure, and treatment must become ever more aggressive as the kidneys deteriorate towards failure. Treatment options include medications, dialysis and kidney transplant. On this page: The main job of the kidneys is to remove waste from the blood and return the cleaned blood back to the body. Kidney failure means the kidneys are no longer able to remove waste and maintain the level of fluid and salts that the body needs. One cause of kidney failure is diabetes mellitus, a condition characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Over time, the high levels of sugar in the blood damage the millions of tiny filtering units within each kidney. This eventually leads to kidney failure. Around 20 to 30 per cent of people with diabetes develop kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy), although not all of these will progress to kidney failure. A person with diabetes is susceptible to nephropathy whether they use insulin or not. The risk is related to the length of time the person has diabetes. There is no cure for diabetic nephropathy, and treatment is lifelong. Another name for the condition is diabetic glomerulosclerosis. People with diabetes are also at risk of other kidney problems, including narrowing of the arteries to the kidneys, called renal artery stenosis or renovascular disease. Symptoms of kidney failure For people with diabetes, kidney problems are usually picked up during a check-up by their doctor. Occasionally, a person can have type 2 diabetes without knowing it. This means their unchecked high blood sugar levels may be Continue reading >>

Screening For Kidney Disease - Diabetic Nephropathy

Screening For Kidney Disease - Diabetic Nephropathy

Screening for Kidney Disease - Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetic nephropathy can be spotted by 2 seperate tests Two tests are performed to screen for kidney disease (or nephropathy). For the first test for signs of kidney disease, you will be asked to provide a sample of your urine. The sample will be tested to see whether there is protein in the urine (proteinuria). For the second check, you will need to provide a sample of blood. The test checks the glomerular filtration rate of your kidneys to see how well they are performing. Why do I need to be screened for diabetic nephropathy? Kidney disease is one of the more common complications of diabetes, so it is important to be screened at least once a year. As with other diabetic complications, the sooner it is spotted the more easily it can be treated. If you have been supplied with a urine collection bottle previously, you will usually be expected to bring a urine sample within the bottle. The bottle neednt be filled, an inch or two of liquid should be sufficient to carry out the test. If a collection bottle has not been provided previously, the clinic should have these on hand. In this case, you will need to be able to provide a sample at the clinic. For the blood test, this will usually be taken when other tests are performed, such as cholesterol and HbA1c . The blood test will usually be done at least a couple of weeks in advance of a clinic or diabetic care review. If you have been given a phlebotomy form with a sealed plastic envelope at your last clinic/review, take this with you. How will I get the blood and urine test results? The urine test can often be carried out quickly and results provided there and then, but some tests may be sent off to the lab. If protein is found to be present, you will be informed. You ca Continue reading >>

Being Kind To Your Kidneys: Kidney Function Tests

Being Kind To Your Kidneys: Kidney Function Tests

Being Kind to Your Kidneys: Kidney Function Tests A big part of being kind to your kidneys is taking charge early on. In discussing diabetes, we often talk about knowing your numbers, such as your A1C and blood pressure . These are important numbers, of course, but whats often overlooked is your kidney numbers. These numbers may or may not be something that your doctor talks to you about if you dont know about your kidney test results, ask! In the meantime, heres a rundown of some common tests, often called kidney function tests, that you should be familiar with. The microalbumin test is a urine test that checks for very small (micro) amounts of protein called albumin in your urine. The microalbumin test may also be called a: You may be asked to give a random urine sample or a timed urine sample (such as overnight), or you may be asked to collect your urine over a 24-hour period. (A microalbumin test is not the same as a routine urine dipstick test, by the way). Its recommended that everyone with diabetes have a microalbumin test done at least once a year. Have you had yours yet? Protein in the urine can signify several things, including kidney damage from uncontrolled diabetes, high blood pressure, liver disease, heart failure, and lupus. It can also occur due to strenuous exercise, blood in the urine, urinary tract infections, and certain medications, like aspirin and some antibiotics. The goal is a microalbumin level of less than 30 milligrams (mg). If the result is 30 or higher, you will need to have the test repeated 23 more times over the next 36 months. A reading of 30 to 299 mg (called microalbuminuria) may indicate early kidney disease. A reading of 300 mg or more (called proteinuria) signifies more advanced kidney disease. The presence of protein in the urine Continue reading >>

Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetic Kidney Disease

What is diabetic kidney disease? Diabetic kidney disease is a type of kidney disease caused by diabetes. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease. About 1 out of 4 adults with diabetes has kidney disease.1 The main job of the kidneys is to filter wastes and extra water out of your blood to make urine. Your kidneys also help control blood pressure and make hormones that your body needs to stay healthy. When your kidneys are damaged, they can’t filter blood like they should, which can cause wastes to build up in your body. Kidney damage can also cause other health problems. Kidney damage caused by diabetes usually occurs slowly, over many years. You can take steps to protect your kidneys and to prevent or delay kidney damage. What are other names for diabetic kidney disease? Diabetic kidney disease is also called DKD, chronic kidney disease, CKD, kidney disease of diabetes, or diabetic nephropathy. How does diabetes cause kidney disease? High blood glucose, also called blood sugar, can damage the blood vessels in your kidneys. When the blood vessels are damaged, they don’t work as well. Many people with diabetes also develop high blood pressure, which can also damage your kidneys. Learn more about high blood pressure and kidney disease. What increases my chances of developing diabetic kidney disease? Having diabetes for a longer time increases the chances that you will have kidney damage. If you have diabetes, you are more likely to develop kidney disease if your blood glucose is too high blood pressure is too high African Americans, American Indians, and Hispanics/Latinos develop diabetes, kidney disease, and kidney failure at a higher rate than Caucasians. You are also more likely to develop kidney disease if you have diabetes and smoke don’t follow your di Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Nephropathy?

What Is Diabetic Nephropathy?

Diabetic nephropathy -- kidney disease that results from diabetes -- is the number one cause of kidney failure. Almost a third of people with diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy. People with diabetes and kidney disease do worse overall than people with kidney disease alone. This is because people with diabetes tend to have other long-standing medical conditions, like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and blood vessel disease (atherosclerosis). People with diabetes also are more likely to have other kidney-related problems, such as bladder infections and nerve damage to the bladder. Kidney disease in type 1 diabetes is slightly different than in type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, kidney disease rarely begins in the first 10 years after diagnosis of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, some patients already have kidney disease by the time they are diagnosed with diabetes. There are often no symptoms with early diabetic nephropathy. As the kidney function worsens, symptoms may include: Swelling of the hands, feet, and face Trouble sleeping or concentrating Poor appetite Itching (end-stage kidney disease) and extremely dry skin Drowsiness (end-stage kidney disease) Abnormalities in the hearts' regular rhythm, because of increased potassium in the blood Muscle twitching As kidney damage progresses, your kidneys cannot remove the waste from your blood. The waste then builds up in your body and can reach poisonous levels, a condition known as uremia. People with uremia are often confused and occasionally become comatose. Certain blood tests that look for specific blood chemistry can be used to diagnose kidney damage. It also can be detected early by finding protein in the urine. Treatments are available that can help slow progression to kidney failure. That's why you should Continue reading >>

The A1c Test And Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

The A1c Test And Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for medical advice or diagnosis from a physician. In the United States, about 1 in 10 people have diabetes, a disease that affects the way the body produces or uses insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate glucose (sugar) in the blood. When blood sugar levels get too high, health problems can develop, including kidney problems. In fact, about half of all people diagnosed with diabetes will develop kidney disease. Persistently high sugar levels can damage the small blood vessels in the body. In the kidneys, diabetes can also cause damage to the tiny filters called glomeruli that filter the blood. The result is that your kidneys may begin to leak protein into the urine, and can become unable to properly eliminate the water, salt and waste products from your body. Another complication of diabetes is nerve damage, often causing burning and numbness in the feet. However, it can sometimes also lead to trouble emptying the bladder. Pressure from a full bladder that doesn’t empty properly can further damage the kidneys. What is the A1C test? The A1C, or hemoglobin A1C test, is used to measure long-term blood glucose levels. It is typically given every three to six months to people with diabetes. This laboratory test shows the person’s average blood glucose control for the previous two to three months. It differs from the finger stick blood test that is used daily to monitor current blood sugar levels. For someone with diabetes, the goal is to have an A1C reading of less than 7.0 percent. For someone who is not diabetic, a normal A1C level is 4.0 percent to 5.9 percent. Research has shown that when A1C levels are close to normal, the risk for complications of diabetes Continue reading >>

Kidney Tests For People With Diabetes

Kidney Tests For People With Diabetes

I recently received an e-mail from a friend who was concerned about interpreting kidney function tests (KFTs), which led me to think its time for a review of these tests to help you interpret your lab results. There are lots of discussions of these tests on-line, ranging from detailed and frankly verbose (e.g., look up the name of the test at Wikipedia) to straightforward and very simple (e.g., see Lab Tests Online ). I wont go into how often these tests should be obtained, nor what the treatment might be if abnormalities are identified; the ADA has published some recommendations in its Position Statement on Diabetic Nephropathy . Kidney tests that should be considered for people with diabetes fall into two major categories, blood tests and urine tests. Its rare that people with diabetes will need more sophisticated testing such as kidney sonograms or X-rays or kidney biopsy, but on rare occasions, these might be recommended. And sometimes tests that involve urine are sometimes ordered on people with diabetes, such as measurement of urine glucose or urine ketones, but these tests may not divulge any information about the status of the kidneys themselves. The commonly-ordered KFTs for people with diabetes include: microalbumin: A urine test to see if the kidneys are leaking small amounts of protein. Ordinarily there should be no protein in the urine, but in diabetes, one of the first indicators that somethings happening to the kidneys is the presence of small amounts of protein. The microalbumin level can be measured on a spot urine (that is, a sample taken any time of day), or can be measured in a 24-hour urine sample. (often abbreviated UA): A urine test that may measure lots of different things. Depending on where its done, a UA will probably include urine glucose le Continue reading >>

Kidney Disease Of Diabetes

Kidney Disease Of Diabetes

Kidney Disease of Diabetes Facts* *Kidney Disease of Diabetes Facts Medically Edited by: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication Medical Author: Melissa Conrad Stoppler, MD Medical Editor: Ruchi Mathur, MD, FRCP(C) Proper nutrition is essential for anyone living with diabetes. Control of blood glucose levels is only one goal of a healthy eating plan for people with diabetes. A diet for those with diabetes should also help achieve and maintain a normal body weight as well as prevent heart and vascular disease, which are frequent complications of diabetes. There is no prescribed diet plan for those with diabetes. Rather, eating plans are tailored to fit an individual's needs, schedules, and eating habits. A diabetes diet plan must also be balanced with the intake of insulin and oral diabetes medications. In general, the principles of a healthy diabetes diet are the same for everyone. Consumption of a variety of foods including whole grains, fruits, non-fat dairy products, beans, and lean meats or vegetarian substitutes, poultry and fish is recommended to achieve a healthy diet. Each year in the United States, more than 100,000 people are diagnosed with kidney failure, a serious condition in which the kidneys fail to rid the body of wastes. Kidney failure is the final stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure, accounting for nearly 44 percent of new cases. Even when diabetes is controlled, the disease can lead to chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. Most people with diabetes do not develop chronic kidney disease that is severe enough to progress to kidney failure. Nearly 24 million people in the United States have diabetes, and nearly 200,000 people are living with kidney failure a Continue reading >>

Kidney Function Tests

Kidney Function Tests

You have two kidneys on either side of your spine that are each approximately the size of a human fist. Theyre located posterior to your abdomen and below your rib cage. Your kidneys play several vital roles in maintaining your health. One of their most important jobs is to filter waste materials from the blood and expel them from the body as urine. The kidneys also help control the levels of water and various essential minerals in the body. In addition, theyre critical to the production of: If your doctor thinks your kidneys may not be working properly, you may need kidney function tests. These are simple blood and urine tests that can identify problems with your kidneys. You may also need kidney function testing done if you have other conditions that can harm the kidneys, such as diabetes or high blood pressure . They can help doctors monitor these conditions. swelling of the hands and feet due to a buildup of fluids in the body A single symptom may not mean something serious. However, when occurring simultaneously, these symptoms suggest that your kidneys arent working properly. Kidney function tests can help determine the reason. To test your kidney function, your doctor will order a set of tests that can estimate your glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Your GFR tells your doctor how quickly your kidneys are clearing waste from your body. A urinalysis screens for the presence of protein and blood in the urine. There are many possible reasons for protein in your urine, not all of which are related to disease. Infection increases urine protein, but so does a heavy physical workout. Your doctor may want to repeat this test after a few weeks to see if the results are similar. Your doctor may also ask you to provide a 24-hour urine collection sample. This can help doctor Continue reading >>

When Diagnosed Early, Stopping Diabetic Kidney Disease May Be Possible

When Diagnosed Early, Stopping Diabetic Kidney Disease May Be Possible

When Diagnosed Early, Stopping Diabetic Kidney Disease May Be Possible July 12, 2013 Dear Mayo Clinic: My father was recently diagnosed with diabetic kidney disease. Is there a chance this can be reversed, or will he have it for life? What changes, if any, should he be making to his diet? Answer: It is not uncommon for people who have diabetes to develop kidney problems. When diagnosed early, it may be possible to stop diabetic kidney disease and fix the damage. If the disease continues, however, the damage may not be reversible. Diabetic kidney disease, also called diabetic nephropathy, happens when diabetes damages blood vessels and other cells in the kidneys. This makes it hard for them to work as they should. In the early stages, diabetic kidney disease has no symptoms. That's why it is so important for people with diabetes to regularly have tests that check kidney function. In later stages of the disease, as kidney damage gets worse, signs and symptoms do appear. They may include ankle swelling, test findings that show protein in the urine, and high blood pressure. Over time, diabetic kidney disease can lead to end-stage kidney disease. If your father is in the early stages of diabetic kidney disease, there are several steps he can take to help protect his kidneys. First, it is critical to keep blood sugar as well controlled as possible. This not only helps the kidneys, but decreases the risk of other serious problems that can come from diabetes, such as blindness, heart attack and damage to the blood vessels and nerves. Keeping blood pressure under control also is important. High blood pressure can speed up the process of diabetic kidney disease and make kidney damage worse. In general, blood pressure of 140/90 in the doctor's office and 135/85 at home is a good g Continue reading >>

Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetic kidney disease is a complication that occurs in some people with diabetes. It can progress to kidney failure in some cases. Treatment aims to prevent or delay the progression of the disease. Also, it aims to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke which are much more common than average in people with this disease. To find out more about the kidneys and urine see also separate leaflet called The Kidneys and Urinary Tract. What is diabetic kidney disease? Diabetic kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy) is a complication that occurs in some people with diabetes. In this condition the filters of the kidneys, the glomeruli, become damaged. Because of this the kidneys 'leak' abnormal amounts of protein from the blood into the urine. The main protein that leaks out from the damaged kidneys is called albumin. In normal healthy kidneys only a tiny amount of albumin is found in the urine. A raised level of albumin in the urine is the typical first sign that the kidneys have become damaged by diabetes. Diabetic kidney disease is divided into two main categories, depending on how much albumin is lost through the kidneys: Microalbuminuria: in this condition, the amount of albumin that leaks into the urine is between 30 and 300 mg per day. It is sometimes called incipient nephropathy. Proteinuria: in this condition the amount of albumin that leaks into the urine is more than 300 mg per day. It is sometimes called macroalbuminuria or overt nephropathy. How does diabetic kidney disease develop and progress? A raised blood sugar (glucose) level that occurs in people with diabetes can cause a rise in the level of some chemicals within the kidney. These chemicals tend to make the glomeruli more 'leaky' which then allows albumin to lea Continue reading >>

Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor For Kidney Disease

Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor For Kidney Disease

Diabetes mellitus, usually called diabetes, is a disease in which your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use normal amounts of insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in your blood. A high blood sugar level can cause problems in many parts of your body. The most common ones are Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children. It is also called juvenile onset diabetes mellitus or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this type, your pancreas does not make enough insulin and you have to take insulin injections for the rest of your life. Type 2 diabetes, which is more common, usually occurs in people over 40 and is called adult onset diabetes mellitus. It is also called non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In Type 2, your pancreas makes insulin, but your body does not use it properly. The high blood sugar level often can be controlled by following a diet and/or taking medication, although some patients must take insulin. Type 2 diabetes is particularly prevalent among African Americans, American Indians, Latin Americans and Asian Americans. With diabetes, the small blood vessels in the body are injured. When the blood vessels in the kidneys are injured, your kidneys cannot clean your blood properly. Your body will retain more water and salt than it should, which can result in weight gain and ankle swelling. You may have protein in your urine. Also, waste materials will build up in your blood. Diabetes also may cause damage to nerves in your body. This can cause difficulty in emptying your bladder. The pressure resulting from your full bladder can back up and injure the kidneys. Also, if urine remains in your bladder for a long time, you can develop an infection from the rapid growth of bacteria in urine that h Continue reading >>

Blood & Urine Tests

Blood & Urine Tests

You can have a good life with kidney disease—even if your kidneys fail. Testing your blood and urine can let you and your healthcare team see how your body is working. Tracking your test results over time can show you how your kidneys are doing. Here are some common tests that are done when you have CKD: Kidney Function Measures of Kidney Function Normal Levels Serum Creatinine Creatinine (cree-A-ti-neen) is a waste you make each time you move a muscle. Those with more muscle make more creatinine. Healthy kidneys remove creatinine from your blood. This means that a high serum (blood) level may be due to kidney damage. If your level is high, your doctor should recheck it. If two or more levels are high, you may have kidney disease. The normal serum creatinine range is 0.6–1.1 mg/dL in women and 0.7–1.3 mg/dL in men. Creatinine Clearance This test compares creatinine in your blood and urine. The difference shows how well your kidneys work. You may need to collect your urine for 24 hours in a jug. Normal creatinine clearance is 88–128 mL/min for healthy women and 97–137 mL/min for healthy men. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) GFR is a formula that uses your creatinine, age, race, and sex. The result is about the same as your percent kidney function. So, a GFR of 60 means you may have function that is 60% of normal. GFR is used to divide chronic kidney disease into five stages. Healthy adults have a GFR of about 140*; normal is greater than 90. Children and seniors tend to have lower GFRs. A GFR less than 15 is kidney failure. *GFR is reported in mL/min/1.73 m2. Urine Albumin Healthy kidneys have filters (nephrons). These remove wastes but keep in large cells, like red blood cells and proteins. Albumin is one type of protein. When the filters are damaged, they may Continue reading >>

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