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Ketones In Non Diabetic

Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: What You Should Know

Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: What You Should Know

Despite the similarity in name, ketosis and ketoacidosis are two different things. Ketoacidosis refers to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and is a complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus. It’s a life-threatening condition resulting from dangerously high levels of ketones and blood sugar. This combination makes your blood too acidic, which can change the normal functioning of internal organs like your liver and kidneys. It’s critical that you get prompt treatment. DKA can occur very quickly. It may develop in less than 24 hours. It mostly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes whose bodies do not produce any insulin. Several things can lead to DKA, including illness, improper diet, or not taking an adequate dose of insulin. DKA can also occur in individuals with type 2 diabetes who have little or no insulin production. Ketosis is the presence of ketones. It’s not harmful. You can be in ketosis if you’re on a low-carbohydrate diet or fasting, or if you’ve consumed too much alcohol. If you have ketosis, you have a higher than usual level of ketones in your blood or urine, but not high enough to cause acidosis. Ketones are a chemical your body produces when it burns stored fat. Some people choose a low-carb diet to help with weight loss. While there is some controversy over their safety, low-carb diets are generally fine. Talk to your doctor before beginning any extreme diet plan. DKA is the leading cause of death in people under 24 years old who have diabetes. The overall death rate for ketoacidosis is 2 to 5 percent. People under the age of 30 make up 36 percent of DKA cases. Twenty-seven percent of people with DKA are between the ages of 30 and 50, 23 percent are between the ages of 51 and 70, and 14 percent are over the age of 70. Ketosis may cause bad breath. Ket Continue reading >>

Reasons For Ketones In Urine

Reasons For Ketones In Urine

What are ketones? Everybody has ketones. The body produces ketones when there is not enough insulin that will convert sugar into energy. Ketones are chemicals produced by the liver from fatty acids. The liver then sends ketones into the bloodstream, so the tissues and muscles can utilize them as fuel. People without diabetes don't have an issue with this process. However, people with diabetes can have too much buildup of ketones in the blood, which can be life-threatening. If you have type 1 diabetes, you might need a ketone test. In type 1 diabetes, a person's immune system attacks the pancreas, which produces insulin. Without enough insulin, the levels of blood sugar rise. Individuals who have type 2 diabetes can also experience high ketone levels, but not as common as with those who have type 1 diabetes. Signs to Test for Ketones Your doctor will probably ask for a ketone test when you have the following conditions: A blood sugar of more than 250 mg/dl for two consecutive days Excessive thirst Vomiting You have an illness You have an injury You are pregnant Tests for Ketones Ketones are tested through a urine analysis. You can purchase a ketone test kit at your local drugstore and test your urine at home. A ketone test can also be done in your doctor's clinic. To test for ketones in your urine, you have to pee in a sterile container to get a urine sample. After collecting the urine sample, do the following steps: Dip the test strip into the urine sample. You can also hold the strip under your urine stream. Gently shake off excess urine from the test strip. You will notice that the test strip will change in color. the directions will tell you how long that takes. Follow the instructions and check the strip color against the provided chart in your test kit. The corresp Continue reading >>

Nondiabetic Ketosis In Children

Nondiabetic Ketosis In Children

Interest in the occurrence of ketosis is no longer confined to diabetes. The production of undue amounts of ketone substances associated with an augmented output of organic acids—ketonic acidosis—and a lowering of the alkali reserve is often encountered in childhood. Sometimes it is the accompaniment of cyclic vomiting. The phenomena may develop quite suddenly in apparently healthy children. The dietary and metabolic aspects of ketosis have been elucidated in recent years. Ketogenesis is an outcome of inadequate metabolism of carbohydrate in the body. The dictum that "fats burn in the flame of the carbohydrates" has long been accepted; and Woodyatt4 has added the appropriate interpretation that when the proportion of fats is too great for the fire it "smokes" with unburned fats and ketone substances. The present consensus has led to the adoption of a ketogenic-antiketogenic ratio as expressive of the relative proportions of the proximate principles in our nutriment Continue reading >>

Ketonuria

Ketonuria

Ketones are metabolic end products of fatty acid metabolism. In healthy individuals, ketones are formed in the liver and are completely metabolized so that only negligible amounts appear in the urine. However, when carbohydrates are unavailable or unable to be used as an energy source, fat becomes the predominant body fuel instead of carbohydrates and excessive amounts of ketones are formed as a metabolic byproduct. A finding of ketones in the urine indicates that the body is using fat as the major source of energy. Three ketone bodies that appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are acetone, acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Normally, the urine should not contain enough ketones to give a positive reading. As with tests for glucose, acetone can be tested by a dipstick or by a tablet. The results are reported as small, moderate, or large amounts of acetone. A small amount of acetone is a value under 20mg/dl; a moderate amount is a value of 30-40mg/dl, and a finding of 80mg/dl or greater is reported as a large amount. Screening for ketonuria is done frequently for acutely ill patients, presurgical patients, and pregnant women. Any diabetic patient who has elevated levels of blood and urine glucose should be tested for urinary ketones. In addition, when diabetic treatment is being switched from insulin to oral hypoglycemic agents, the patient's urine should be monitored for ketonuria. The development of ketonuria within 24 hours after insulin withdrawal usually indicates a poor response to the oral hypoglycemic agents. Diabetic patients who use oral hypoglycemic agents should have their urine tested regularly for glucose and ketones because oral hypoglycemic agents, unlike insulin, do not control diabetes when an acute infection or other illness de Continue reading >>

Ketones In Urine But Not Diabetic?

Ketones In Urine But Not Diabetic?

Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please,join our community todayto contribute and support the site. This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies. Got a quick call today from my doctor since I had a routine physical and got bloodwork and urine tests done. He said everything was normal except for really low vitamin D levels and oddly enough, ketones in my urine. He explained that typically it's a sign of uncontrolled diabetes but my blood sugar is fine. He ordered an a1c done at the time that I got all of my bloodwork done just to be thorough. I don't have the results in front of me but I could request a hard copy of them. Anyway, he assured me that I'm not diabetic. Is ketones in the urine a precursor to diabetes? I did read that fasting or starvation can lead to temporary high ketone levels. As a full-time college student, let's just say that my sleeping schedule is rather...irregular. I had to fast for the blood test that morning so my last meal was dinner that evening. I didn't sleep until 7 am that morning and my appointment was at 9 am, so...yeah... The doctor said the next step would be a 24 hr urine test since they double-checked my results to make sure I actually had ketones in my urine and I did. But he also said there's no rush at all. I can't get the test till I'm actually back home so I'm just wondering now what it could be Did you know the volume of ketones in your urine? Was it slight or high? Slight to moderate ketones can occur with exercise. Did you work out or do some strenuous physical activity before your appointment? People on low carbohydrate diets go into ketosis (usually preferably). These are things to consider if your testing does rule out Diabetes. Plus, this was a one time test. Without other symptoms or clin Continue reading >>

What Are Ketones And Their Tests?

What Are Ketones And Their Tests?

A ketone test can warn you of a serious diabetes complication called diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. An elevated level of this substance in your blood can mean you have very high blood sugar. Too many ketones can trigger DKA, which is a medical emergency. Regular tests you take at home can spot when your ketone levels run too high. Then you can take insulin to lower your blood sugar level or get other treatments to prevent complications. What Exactly Are Ketones? Everyone has them, whether you have diabetes or not. Ketones are chemicals made in your liver. You produce them when you don't have enough of the hormone insulin in your body to turn sugar (or “glucose”) into energy. You need another source, so your body uses fat instead. Your liver turns this fat into ketones, a type of acid, and sends them into your bloodstream. Your muscles and other tissues can then use them for fuel. For a person without diabetes, this process doesn’t become an issue. But when you have diabetes, things can run out of control and you build up too many ketones in your blood. If the level goes too high, it can become life-threatening. Who Needs a Ketone Test? You might need one if you have type 1 diabetes. In this type, your immune system attacks and destroys cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Without it, your blood sugar rises. People with type 2 diabetes can also get high ketones, but it isn't as common as it is with type 1. Tests can show you when your level gets high so you can treat it before you get sick. When Should You Test? Your doctor will probably tell you to test your ketones when: Your blood sugar is higher than 250 milligrams/deciliter (mg/dl) for two days in a row You're sick or you've been injured You want to exercise and your blood sugar level is over 250 mg/dl Continue reading >>

Ketones In 4 Y.o. Non-diabetic

Ketones In 4 Y.o. Non-diabetic

Although I am an RN, I am still worried about my son.I took him into the doc this past Wed. for unusually poor behavior the past couple of weeks, and a couple of episodes of unrinary incontinence.I thought he may have a UTI or earache.They did a urinalysis and the only abnormal was KETONES-15 (low).They want to repeat it in a month. Never a fever, is a persnickty eater, but does have an apple and P.B. everyday and a whole wheat english muffin with cream cheese in the am, or toast with "dippy" egg.So he is NOT even close to starving! Why are these Ketones showing up?I did check a blood sugar on him (using my neighbors BGM, just for my own piece of mind.)He had not eaten yet and it was 119.I called to doc's office with this and they told me to take him to the ER right away.....?Well I didn't because he was awake, alert, and playing.Should I be concerned?I've checked his urine with dipsticks 2 times.Once he had a tract amount of ketones, and once it was negative.His blood sugar this am before eating was 98.Again, am I missing something here, should I be concerned?Thanks! Hi Lorit!I am a volunteer, not a medical professional, and a Mom of an 18 year old girl who was diagnosed at the age of 21 months.Please verify any information given, with your son's physician.I am not telling you this because I think your child has diabetes (his fasting bg's don't seem too high to me), just thought it may make you feel more comfortable knowing my story and give you a different perspective.Practically all of the folks that I've met through The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation over the past 17 years, tell of misdiagnosis of their child's diabetes.When my daughter was drinking & peeing non-stop, my doctor diagnosed a UTI and after a couple of days with no change, ordered a stool sample Continue reading >>

Ketones In Urine - Non Diabetic

Ketones In Urine - Non Diabetic

I work at a hospital and suffer with recurrent UTIs (Ive dicussed it with a urologist i work with who thinks it could be painful bladder syndrome since an ultrasound i had a while back was normal, but no official diagnosis). I felt like i had a UTI so tested my urine at work with a dipstick and these were my results: GLU Negative **KET Trace** SG 1.025 BLD Negative pH 6.0 **PRO 1+** **NIT Positive** **LEU Trace** Ive had protein, leukocyte and nitrite in my urine lots of times before because of infections and sometimes a small amount of blood, but never had ketones. I re tested a fresh sample a few hours later and the ketones had gone up to +1, protein was still 1+, Nitrite had gone to negative and leukocyte had gone up to 2+. I understand a little bit about ketones in the urine of diabetic patients and what this could mean, but i'm not diabetic and dont really know why these ketones could be present. I've read a little bit about it being to do with starvation, but i eat lots, i'm 5ft 4in and 8st 7lbs (ive actually gained about 4lbs over the last 2-3 months) so a healthy weight and BMI for my size and age, i eat lots of carbs including bread, pasta, brown rice etc. Does anybody have any idea what could be causing this? Is it a cause for concern or coukd it be to do with the UTI? Thanks in advance Continue reading >>

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

The human body primarily runs on glucose. When your body is low on glucose, or if you have diabetes and don’t have enough insulin to help your cells absorb the glucose, your body starts breaking down fats for energy. Ketones (chemically known as ketone bodies) are byproducts of the breakdown of fatty acids. The breakdown of fat for fuel and the creation of ketones is a normal process for everyone. In a person without diabetes, insulin, glucagon, and other hormones prevent ketone levels in the blood from getting too high. However, people with diabetes are at risk for ketone buildup in their blood. If left untreated, people with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While rare, it’s possible for people with type 2 diabetes to experience DKA in certain circumstances as well. If you have diabetes, you need to be especially aware of the symptoms that having too many ketones in your body can cause. These include: If you don’t get treatment, the symptoms can progress to: a fruity breath odor stomach pain trouble breathing You should always seek immediate medical attention if your ketone levels are high. Testing your blood or urine to measure your ketone levels can all be done at home. At-home testing kits are available for both types of tests, although urine testing continues to be more common. Urine tests are available without a prescription at most drugstores, or you can buy them online. You should test your urine or blood for ketones when any of the following occurs: Your blood sugar is higher than 240 mg/dL. You feel sick or nauseated, regardless of your blood sugar reading. To perform a urine test, you urinate into a clean container and dip the test strip into the urine. For a child who isn’t potty-trained, a pa Continue reading >>

Ketonuria

Ketonuria

Ketonuria is a medical condition in which ketone bodies are present in the urine. It is seen in conditions in which the body produces excess ketones as an indication that it is using an alternative source of energy. It is seen during starvation or more commonly in type I diabetes mellitus. Production of ketone bodies is a normal response to a shortage of glucose, meant to provide an alternate source of fuel from fatty acids. Pathophysiology[edit] Ketones are metabolic end-products of fatty acid metabolism. In healthy individuals, ketones are formed in the liver and are completely metabolized so that only negligible amounts appear in the urine. However, when carbohydrates are unavailable or unable to be used as an energy source, fat becomes the predominant body fuel instead of carbohydrates and excessive amounts of ketones are formed as a metabolic byproduct. Higher levels of ketones in the urine indicate that the body is using fat as the major source of energy. Ketone bodies that commonly appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Acetone is also produced and is expired by the lungs.[1] Normally, the urine should not contain a noticeable concentration of ketones to give a positive reading. As with tests for glucose, acetoacetate can be tested by a dipstick or by a lab. The results are reported as small, moderate, or large amounts of acetoacetate. A small amount of acetoacetate is a value under 20 mg/dl; a moderate amount is a value of 30–40 mg/dl, and a finding of 80 mg/dl or greater is reported as a large amount. One 2010 study admits that though ketonuria's relation to general metabolic health is ill-understood, there is a positive relationship between the presence of ketonuria after fasting and positive metabo Continue reading >>

Is Ketosis Dangerous?

Is Ketosis Dangerous?

You may have heard from your doctor that ketosis is a life-threatening condition. If so, your doctor is confusing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with nutritional ketosis, or keto-adaptation. First, some semantics. Our body can produce, from fat and some amino acids, three ketone bodies (a “ketone” refers to the chemical structure where oxygen is double-bonded to carbon sandwiched between at least 2 other carbons). These ketone bodies we produce are: acetone, acetoacetone, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (B-OHB). [For anyone who is interested, they are the 3 most right structures on the figure, below.] Why do we make ketones? For starters, it’s a vital evolutionary advantage. Our brain can only function with glucose and ketones. Since we can’t store more than about 24 hours’ worth of glucose, we would all die of hypoglycemia if ever forced to fast for more than a day. Fortunately, our liver can take fat and select amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and turn them into ketones, first and foremost to feed our brains. Hence, our body’s ability to produce ketones is required for basic survival. What is diabetic ketoacidosis? When diabetics (usually Type I diabetics, but sometimes this occurs in very late-stage, insulin-dependent, Type II diabetics) fail to receive enough insulin, they go into an effective state of starvation. While they may have all the glucose in the world in their bloodstream, without insulin, they can’t get any into their cells. Hence, they are effectively going into starvation. The body does what it would do in anyone – it starts to make ketones out of fat and proteins. Here’s the problem: the diabetic patient in this case can’t produce any insulin, so there is no feedback loop and they continue to produce more and more ketones withou Continue reading >>

Ketones: Clearing Up The Confusion

Ketones: Clearing Up The Confusion

Ketones, ketosis, ketoacidosis, DKA…these are words that you’ve probably heard at one point or another, and you might be wondering what they mean and if you need to worry about them at all, especially if you have diabetes. This week, we’ll explore the mysterious world of ketones, including if and how they may affect you. Ketones — what are they? Ketones are a type of acid that the body can form if there’s not enough carbohydrate to be burned for energy (yes, you do need carbs for fuel). Without enough carb, the body turns to another energy source: fat. Ketones are made in the liver from fat breakdown. This is called ketogenesis. People who don’t have diabetes can form ketones. This might occur if a person does extreme exercise, has an eating disorder, is fasting (not eating), or is following a low-carbohydrate diet. This is called ketosis and it’s a normal response to starvation. In a person who has diabetes, ketones form for the same reason (not enough carb for energy), but this often occurs because there isn’t enough insulin available to help move carb (in the form of glucose) from the bloodstream to the cells to be used for energy. Again, the body scrambles to find an alternate fuel source in the form of fat. You might be thinking that it’s a good thing to burn fat for fuel. However, for someone who has diabetes, ketosis can quickly become dangerous if it occurs due to a continued lack of insulin (the presence of ketones along with “normal” blood sugar levels is not necessarily a cause for concern). In the absence of insulin (which can occur if someone doesn’t take their insulin or perhaps uses an insulin pump and the pump has a malfunction, for example), fat cells continue to release fat into the circulation; the liver then continues to churn Continue reading >>

Why Dka & Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same

Why Dka & Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same

There’s a very common misconception and general misunderstanding around ketones. Specifically, the misunderstandings lie in the areas of: ketones that are produced in low-carb diets of generally less than 50 grams of carbs per day, which is low enough to put a person in a state of “nutritional ketosis” ketones that are produced when a diabetic is in a state of “diabetic ketoacidosis” (DKA) and lastly, there are “starvation ketones” and “illness-induced ketones” The fact is they are very different. DKA is a dangerous state of ketosis that can easily land a diabetic in the hospital and is life-threatening. Meanwhile, “nutritional ketosis” is the result of a nutritional approach that both non-diabetics and diabetics can safely achieve through low-carb nutrition. Diabetic Ketoacidosis vs. Nutritional Ketosis Ryan Attar (soon to be Ryan Attar, ND) helps explain the science and actual human physiology behind these different types of ketone production. Ryan is currently studying to become a Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine in Connecticut and also pursuing a Masters Degree in Human Nutrition. He has interned under the supervision of the very well-known diabetes doc, Dr. Bernstein. Ryan explains: Diabetic Ketoacidosis: “Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), is a very dangerous state where an individual with uncontrolled diabetes is effectively starving due to lack of insulin. Insulin brings glucose into our cells and without it the body switches to ketones. Our brain can function off either glucose or fat and ketones. Ketones are a breakdown of fat and amino acids that can travel through the blood to various tissues to be utilized for fuel.” “In normal individuals, or those with well controlled diabetes, insulin acts to cancel the feedback loop and slow and sto Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis In A Non-diabetic Woman Who Was Fasting During Lactation

Ketoacidosis In A Non-diabetic Woman Who Was Fasting During Lactation

Abstract Ketoacidosis is a potential complication of type 1 diabetes. Severe ketoacidosis with a blood pH below 7.0 is only rarely seen in other diseases. Three weeks after delivery, a young woman was admitted because of tachypnoe and tachycardia. Blood gas analysis showed a severe metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap. Further workup revealed the presence of ketone bodies in the urine with normal blood glucose and no history of diabetes. The patient reported that she had not eaten for days because of abdominal pain. After initial treatment in the ICU and immediate re-feeding, the patient’s condition rapidly improved. While under normal circumstances fasting causes at most only mild acidosis, it can be dangerous during lactation. Prolonged fasting in combination with different forms of stress puts breast feeding women at risk for starvation ketoacidosis and should therefore be avoided. Background Severe acidosis is a potentially life-threatening condition. In case of metabolic acidosis, determination of the serum anion gap helps to narrow down the differential diagnosis. An increased anion gap indicates the presence of an unusual amount of an acid that is most commonly found in ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, renal insufficiency, and intoxications while other causes are rare. Ketoacidosis is a potential complication of type 1 diabetes while severe ketoacidosis with a blood pH below 7.0 is only rarely seen in other diseases. In diabetic ketoacidosis, glucose is not properly taken up into tissue due to an absolute insulin deficiency that is mainly found in type 1 diabetes. In parallel, glucagon release is not suppressed leading to hyperglucagonemia. Subsequently the body activates stress hormones, which worsen hyperglycemia by promoting gluconeogenesis (and also ketog Continue reading >>

Pediatric Non-diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Case-series Report

Pediatric Non-diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Case-series Report

Pediatric non-diabetic ketoacidosis: a case-series report We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Pediatric non-diabetic ketoacidosis: a case-series report Ke Bai, Yueqiang Fu, [...], and Min Zhu This study is to explore the clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment outcomes in pediatric patients with non-diabetic ketoacidosis. Retrospective patient chart review was performed between March 2009 to March 2015. Cases were included if they met the selection criteria for non-diabetic ketoacidosis, which were: 1) Age 18years; 2) urine ketone positive ++ or >8.0mmol/L; 3) blood ketone >3.1mmol/L; 4) acidosis (pH < 7.3) and/or HCO3 < 15mmol/L; 5) random blood glucose level < 11.1mmol/L. Patients who met the criteria 1, 4, 5, plus either 2 or 3, were defined as non-diabetic ketoacidosis and were included in the report. Five patients with 7 episodes of non-diabetic ketoacidosis were identified. They all presented with dehydration, poor appetite, and Kussmaul breathing. Patients treated with insulin plus glucose supplementation had a quicker recovery from acidosis, in comparison to those treated with bicarbonate infusion and continuous renal replacement therapy. Two patients treated with bicarbonate infusion developed transient coma and seizures during the treatment. Despite normal or low blood glucose levels, patients with non-diabetic ketoacidosis should receive insulin administration with glucose supplementa Continue reading >>

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