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Juvenile Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes Type 1

Diabetes Type 1

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults but can appear at any age. Symptoms may include Being very thirsty Urinating often Feeling very hungry or tired Losing weight without trying Having sores that heal slowly Having dry, itchy skin Losing the feeling in your feet or having tingling in your feet Having blurry eyesight A blood test can show if you have diabetes. If you do, you will need to take insulin for the rest of your life. A blood test called the A1C can check to see how well you are managing your diabetes. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Type 1 Diabetes - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Southern Cross Medical Library Southern Cross Medical Library information is necessarily of a general nature. Always seek specific medical advice for treatment appropriate to you. For more articles go to the Medical Library index page. Diabetes is diagnosed when a person has too much glucose (sugar) in the blood, as a result of the body having insufficient insulin or resisting the effects of insulin. Type 1 diabetes is a life-long variation of the disease that typically takes hold in childhood or adolescence, and is the result of the body’s immune system destroying the pancreas where insulin is made. Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes can appear suddenly. The condition can cause serious health complications over time but can be managed with insulin replacement therapy and lifestyle changes. General information Diabetes mellitus (commonly referred to as diabetes) is a group of diseases characterised by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period of time. This page deals with type 1 diabetes. Other diabetes variations include: Type 2 diabetes – associated with a person being overweight Gestational diabetes – where a mother cannot produce enough insulin during pregnancy Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5-8% of people with diabetes, while type 2 diabetes is much more common, accounting for 85–90% of diabetes cases. Type 1 diabetes used to be known as juvenile diabetes and most often occurs in childhood, but it can also develop in adults. The condition may affect around one in every 5000 New Zealanders under the age of 15. Type 1 diabetes is more common in New Zealand Europeans than other ethnic groups. Causes Although the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, it is generally considered to be an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Print Diagnosis There are several blood tests for type 1 diabetes in children: Random blood sugar test. This is the primary screening test for type 1 diabetes. A blood sample is taken at a random time. Regardless of when your child last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L), or higher suggests diabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This test indicates your child's average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample is taken after your child fasts overnight. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 1 diabetes. Additional tests Your doctor will likely recommend additional tests to confirm the type of diabetes that your child has. It's important to distinguish between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes because treatment strategies differ. These additional tests include: Blood tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes Urine tests to check for the presence of ketones, which also suggests type 1 diabetes rather than type 2 After the diagnosis Your child will need regular follow-up appointments to ensure good diabetes management and to check his or her A1C levels. The American Diabetes Association recommends an A1C of 7.5 or lower for all children. Your doctor also will periodically use blood and urine tests to check your child's: Cholesterol levels Thyroid function Kidney function In addition, your doctor will regularly: Assess your child's blood pressure and growth Check the sites Continue reading >>

Diabetes Treatment With Blood Pressure Drug

Diabetes Treatment With Blood Pressure Drug

Blood Pressure Drug May Help with Diabetes Treatment Researchers say verapamil may help prevent the loss of beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. This could lead to earlier treatment for the disease. A drug used primarily to treat high blood pressure appears to prevent the loss of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells among people with diabetes. The research, published in the journal Nature Medicine , could lead to a novel treatment for an illness that affects more than 30 million Americans . Broadly speaking, any approach to preserving beta cells is much needed, Dr. Joshua D. Miller, medical director of diabetes care for Stony Brook Medicine in New York and an assistant professor of endocrinology and metabolism in the schools Department of Medicine, told Healthline. Pancreatic beta cells play a role in both type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease often called juvenile diabetes, and type 2 diabetes, which is an acquired illness caused by obesity, lack of exercise, and other factors. In type 1 diabetes, the bodys immune system progressively destroys the insulin-producing beta cells, limiting or ending the ability to metabolize sugars. People with type 2 diabetes still make insulin, but their body loses the ability to use it effectively. Eventually, the pancreas cant make enough insulin to keep up with metabolic need. Over the course of more than a decade and a half of research, Dr. Anath Shalev and colleagues at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine discovered that a beta-cell gene called TXNIP played an important role in the bodys response to high glucose levels. These roles included inhibiting production of the protein thioredoxin, which other research found prevented the death of beta cells. Later, animal studies conducted by Shalev d Continue reading >>

How To Manage Your Kid's Type 1 Diabetes

How To Manage Your Kid's Type 1 Diabetes

If your child has recently been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, your family will have a learning curve as you get the hang of proper care and a new routine. Your lives will change, but in time you'll get more comfortable with this "new normal." As you make adjustments, you can take comfort in knowing this autoimmune disease doesn’t have to limit your child. "Kids with diabetes can do everything other kids can do," says Andrea Petersen Hulke of the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. Hospitals offer educational courses that can give your family and caregivers the insight needed to help manage this new situation. The main change is learning to frequently check and adjust blood glucose levels (also called "blood sugar"). It may need checking 10 to 12 times a day. How much insulin your child needs will depend on the timing of meals, the types of food eaten, and her activity levels. It can take a bit of math skill to keep blood sugar levels within a healthy range. But it will get easier with practice. Even if you make a mistake, once you learn the symptoms of how your child reacts when her levels are too low or high, you’ll know how to fix it. "The math was freaky at first, but there are so many tools to help," says Lisa Sterling, who found out her daughter (now 17) had type 1 when she was 11. Logs, meters, and online trackers will help you stay on top of things. Insulin can be given by shots (syringe or pen) or by pump. Doctors often start with shots while families learn the basics. A pump is a small computer that gives a steady dose of insulin. You still need to track blood sugar levels to help the pump work right. You, your doctor, and child will decide together which device your child should use. "The goal is to manage diabetes around your child's life,” not the Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent diabetes, juvenile) is a condition in which the body stops making insulin. This causes the person's blood sugar to increase. There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is attacked by the immune system and then it cannot produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes the pancreas can produce insulin, but the body can't use it. Causes of type 1 diabetes are auto-immune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. This can be caused by viruses and infections as well as other risk factors. In many cases, the cause is not known. Scientists are looking for cures for type 1 diabetes such as replacing the pancreas or some of its cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are family history, introducing certain foods too soon (fruit) or too late (oats/rice) to babies, and exposure to toxins. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are skin infections, bladder or vaginal infections, and Sometimes, there are no significant symptoms. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed by blood tests. The level of blood sugar is measured, and then levels of insulin and antibodies can be measured to confirm type 1 vs. type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin and lifestyle changes. Specifically, meal planning to ensure carbohydrate intake matches insulin dosing. Complications of type 1 diabetes are kidney disease, eye problems, heart disease, and nerve problems (diabetic neuropathy) such as loss of feeling in the feet. Poor wound healing can also be a complication of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented, however, keeping blood sugar at healthy levels may delay or prevent symptoms or complications. There is currently no cure, and most cases of type 1 diabetes have no known cause. The prognosis or life-expectancy for a person with Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Introduction Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. The hormone insulin – produced by the pancreas – is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin Type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body’s cells don't react to insulin This topic is about type 1 diabetes. Read more about type 2 diabetes Another type of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some pregnant women and tends to disappear following birth. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible, because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. You should therefore visit your GP if you have symptoms, which include feeling thirsty, passing urine more often than usual and feeling tired all the time (see the list below for more diabetes symptoms). Type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but usually appears before the age of 40, particularly in childhood. Around 10% of all diabetes is type 1, but it's the most common type of childhood diabetes. This is why it's sometimes called juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas (a small gland behind the stomach) doesn't produce any insulin – the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. This is why it's also sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes. If the amount of glucose in the blood is too high, it can, over time, seriously damage the body's organs. In type 2 diabetes, the body either doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body's cells don't react to insulin. Around 90% of adults with diabetes have type 2, and it tends to develop l Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis Diagnostic tests include: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as pregnancy or an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use these tests: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time and may be confirmed by repeat testing. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. If you're diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may also run blood tests to check for autoantibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes. These tests help your doctor distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when the diagnosis is uncertain. The presence of ketones — byproducts from the breakdown of fat — in your urine also suggests type 1 diab Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can live long, happy lives with proper care and disease management. Advancements in medication types and delivery methods give people the freedom to choose which treatment options work best with their particular circumstance. T1D prognoses can be greatly improved with a combination of treatments and lifestyle choices. Type 1 diabetes is managed through use of a variety of insulins. People with T1D must work closely with their medical team to find the right insulin treatment for their condition. Further information about the types of insulin and their effects are available on our insulin page. Insulin can be delivered via syringes or pens, pumps or new artificial pancreas systems. Though the administration method, frequency and type of insulin dosage vary on a case-by-case basis, injections may be needed multiple times per day. Combined with insulin, diet and exercise, type 2 diabetes (T2D) drug metformin is sometimes prescribed to people with T1D to help treat their diabetes. Metformin helps control the bodys blood-sugar levels and how the liver processes sugar. Used in conjunction withinsulin, pramlintide is often prescribed after other medications prove not as effective as needed. It acts as a hormone to help the body better control blood sugar. Blood pressure drugs, cholesterol medications and aspirin: Medications for high blood pressure and high cholesterol as well as aspirin can be prescribed with insulin to help the overall health and treatment of diabetes. Since people with diabetes have an increased chance of cardiovascular disease, these drugs are used in combination with other diabetes medications. The benefits of T1D medications far outweigh their associated side effects. The most common side effects of insulin are injection Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (insulin Dependent, Juvenile Onset)

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (insulin Dependent, Juvenile Onset)

What is Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (insulin dependent, juvenile onset)? Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic syndrome defined by an inability to produce insulin, a hormone which lowers blood sugar. This leads to inappropriate hyperglycaemia (increased blood sugar levels) and deranged metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Insulin is normally produced in the pancreas, a glandular organ involved in the production of digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin and glucagon. These functions are carried out in the exocrine and endocrine (Islets of Langerhans) pancreas respectively. Statistics Type 1 diabetes mellitus is predominantly a disease of the young, usually developing before 20 years of age. Overall, type I DM makes up approximately 15% of all cases of diabetes. It develops in approximately 1 in 600 children and is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. The incidence is relatively low for children under the age of 5, increases between 5 and 15, and then tapers off. The incidence of diabetes (including type 1) appears to be rapidly rising in many parts of the world, including Australia. In addition, it may be occurring at an even younger age. Males and females tend to be equally affected. In Australia there is estimated to be approximately one million diabetic patients, of which approximately 150,000 fit into the type 1 category. Australia has a very high rate of type 1 diabetes compared to the rest of the world. The incidence of diabetes in Australian Aboriginal people is even higher. Risk Factors Type I diabetes mellitus is a disease of disordered immune function involving destruction of the cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin (beta cells). The exact cause of the disease is unknown. It has been proposed that it arises from a Continue reading >>

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitustreatment & Management

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitustreatment & Management

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes MellitusTreatment & Management Author: William H Lamb, MD, MBBS, FRCP(Edin), FRCP, FRCPCH; Chief Editor: Sasigarn A Bowden, MD more... All children with type 1 diabetes mellitus require insulin therapy. The following are also required in treatment: Strategies to help patients and their parents achieve the best possible glycemic management are crucial. A 2-year randomized clinical trial found that a practical, low-intensity behavioral intervention delivered during routine care improved glycemic outcomes. [ 45 ] A well-organized diabetes care team can provide all necessary instruction and support in an outpatient setting. The only immediate requirement is to train the child or family to check blood glucose levels, to administer insulin injections, and to recognize and treat hypoglycemia. The patient and/or family should have 24-hour access to advice and know how to contact the team. Children should wear some form of medical identification, such as a medic alert bracelet or necklace. [ 5 , 46 ] Awareness of hypoglycemia becomes impaired over time, and severe hypoglycemia can occur without warning. Hypoglycemia is more likely to affect people who maintain low blood sugar levels and who already suffer frequent hypoglycemic attacks. Overzealous or inadequate treatment of hypoglycemia can lead to serious consequences. Failure to regularly examine for diabetic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, especially renal and ophthalmic ones, can be detrimental. Where a diabetes care team is available, admission is usually required only for children with DKA. In addition, children with significant dehydration, persistent vomiting, metabolic derangement, or serious intercurrent illness require inpatient management and intravenous rehydration Continue reading >>

Treating Type 1 Diabetes

Treating Type 1 Diabetes

en espaolEl tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 1 If your child or teen has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes , the next step is to create a diabetes management plan to help him or her manage the condition and stay healthy and active. Treatment plans for type 1 diabetes are based on each child's needs and the suggestions of the diabetes health care team . Treatment approaches differ in, among other things, the types of insulin given and the schedules for giving insulin given each day. The advantages and disadvantages of a plan should be considered for each child. The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. The hormone insulin allows the glucose to get into the cells. In type 1 diabetes, the body can no longer make insulin, so the glucose can't get into the body's cells. This makes the blood glucose level rise. Treatment goals for kids with diabetes are to control the condition in a way that minimizes symptoms; prevents short- and long-term health problems; and helps them to have normal physical, mental, emotional, and social growth and development. To do this, parents and kids should aim for the goal of keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. In general, kids with type 1 diabetes need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet, paying special attention to the amount of carbohydrates in each meal and the diabetes meal plan check blood sugar levels several times a day Following the treatment plan helps kids stay healthy, but treating diabetes isn't the same as curing it. Right now, there's no cure for diabetes, so kids with type 1 diabetes will need treatment for the rest of their lives. But with proper care, they should look and feel h Continue reading >>

Muscle Glycogen In Juvenile Diabetes Before And During Treatment With Insulin

Muscle Glycogen In Juvenile Diabetes Before And During Treatment With Insulin

Muscle Glycogen in Juvenile Diabetes before and during Treatment with Insulin Nature volume 198, pages 9798 (06 April 1963) | Download Citation IT is well known that insulin stimulates the synthesis of glycogen in isolated muscle tissue from different animals. Insulin is considered to increase the permeability of the cell membrane to glucose. Direct action on the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of glycogen has also been observed. Low muscle glycogen has been found in animals with experimental diabetes. There are, however, few reports on the muscle glycogen content in normal and diabetic man. The glycogen content in muscle biopsy specimens from normal subjects was investigated by Hildes et al.13 and by Nichols4. Hildes et al.2,3 also determined the glycogen content in muscle tissue from patients with diabetes. No significant decrease was found in the muscle glycogen compared with the normal subjects. Their patients were adults who, in most cases, had been treated with insulin up to a few days before the examination. Continue reading >>

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation: Mission, Strategy, And Priorities

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation: Mission, Strategy, And Priorities

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation: Mission, Strategy, and Priorities Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, New York, New York Corresponding author: Richard A. Insel, [email protected] . Received 2011 Oct 4; Accepted 2011 Oct 24. Copyright 2012 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. JDRF MISSION AND OVERARCHING RESEARCH STRATEGY Since its founding more than 40 years ago by parents of children affected by type 1 diabetes, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) has been committed to finding a cure for all those individuals living with the disease ( 1 ). Today, JDRF acknowledges that this commitment will not likely be fulfilled in the near term. Although our ultimate goalcuring type 1 diabetesremains unchanged, we are equally committed to better treating and preventing the disease. These goals aim to ensure that both children and adults living with type 1 diabetes remain healthy so that they can fully benefit from a cure when it becomes available. JDRF focuses on supporting the development and delivery of new therapies and devices that will ease the daily burden and challenges of managing type 1 diabetes and on the prevention of diabetes complications. Additionally, to protect future generations from developing type 1 diabetes, JDRF is supporting approaches to prevent the disease. Thus, JDRF is striving to cure, treat, and prevent type 1 diabetes. To this end, JDRF-led research is addressing and will continue to address type 1 diabetes at every life stage. Our goals now encompass stopping or slowing the progression of type 1 diabetes in individuals who a Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

happens when your immune system destroys cells in your pancreas called beta cells. They’re the ones that make insulin. Some people get a condition called secondary diabetes. It’s similar to type 1, except the immune system doesn’t destroy your beta cells. They’re wiped out by something else, like a disease or an injury to your pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that helps move sugar, or glucose, into your body's tissues. Cells use it as fuel. Damage to beta cells from type 1 diabetes throws the process off. Glucose doesn’t move into your cells because insulin isn’t there to do it. Instead it builds up in your blood and your cells starve. This causes high blood sugar, which can lead to: Dehydration. When there’s extra sugar in your blood, you pee more. That’s your body’s way of getting rid of it. A large amount of water goes out with that urine, causing your body to dry out. Weight loss. The glucose that goes out when you pee takes calories with it. That’s why many people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration also plays a part. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If your body can't get enough glucose for fuel, it breaks down fat cells instead. This creates chemicals called ketones. Your liver releases the sugar it stores to help out. But your body can’t use it without insulin, so it builds up in your blood, along with the acidic ketones. This combination of extra glucose, dehydration, and acid buildup is known as "ketoacidosis" and can be life-threatening if not treated right away. Damage to your body. Over time, high glucose levels in your blood can harm the nerves and small blood vessels in your eyes, kidneys, and heart. They can also make you more likely to get hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attacks and strok Continue reading >>

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