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Islet Cell Transplant Type 2 Diabetes

Islet Cell Transplant For Type 2 Diabetes: Could It Work?

Islet Cell Transplant For Type 2 Diabetes: Could It Work?

Islet cell transplantation is being touted as a future option for treating type 2 diabetes, even though it’s an experimental procedure that has only been tried on type 1 diabetics. “I’m a big proponent of islet cell transplantation for type 2 diabetics,” says Dr. Gordon Weir, who is one of the world’s foremost experts on islet cell transplantation as Co-Head of the Section on Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology, the Diabetes Research and Wellness Foundation Chair at the Joslin Diabetes Center, and Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. “I tell people this and they look at me like I’m a little nuts. But, I believe there is no reason it couldn’t work effectively. I’m actually more optimistic about islet cell transplant for type 2 than for type 1.” Several significant hurdles need to be overcome, however, before either type 1 or type 2 diabetics benefit from islet cell transplantation. Chief among them is perfecting a method for producing islet cells beyond having to rely on those provided by deceased organ donors, and making the procedure cost effective enough for widespread use. Islet cell transplantation is a strictly experimental procedure in which insulin-producing islet (pronounced eye-let) cells from cadaver pancreases are transplanted into the liver of a type 1 diabetic. The procedure replaces the islet cells killed off as a result of an autoimmune response, which typically causes type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, meanwhile, is not considered an autoimmune disease that kills off islet cells. Instead, type 2 is characterized by the body’s inability to respond to insulin (insulin resistance) or by a decrease in insulin production. But, according to Weir, just because type 2 has a different root cause than type 1 doesn’t mean transpla Continue reading >>

10 Things People With Diabetes Should Know About Islet Cell Transplants

10 Things People With Diabetes Should Know About Islet Cell Transplants

Islet cell transplants are making headlines, with the announcement that a new transplant technique has allowed a Texas woman with type 1 diabetes to stop her insulin injections. Here’s what you need to know about this procedure: Islet cells are actually clusters of cells that produce insulin and other hormones that control blood sugar. Named the "Islets of Langerhans" after the German doctor who discovered them in the late 1800s, islet cells are actually clusters of cells that produce insulin and other hormones that control blood sugar. There are about 1 million islets in the pancreas, a hockey stick-shaped organ located behind the stomach. Islets sense levels of glucose in the bloodstream and release hormones in response. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys most or all of the islets. In type 2 diabetes, cells in the rest of the body stop obeying insulin’s commands. Over time, some islet cells may stop producing insulin as well. Written by Sari Harrar Welcome to the Type 2 Diabetes Center! This is your launching pad for living better with type 2 diabetes. We’ve gathered all the latest type 2 diabetes information, research updates, and advances in devices and medications. And because diabetes impacts every facet of your life, you’ll also find practical advice from leading experts and other people living with type 2 diabetes featured here. That includes mouth-watering, healthy recipes; money-saving tips; advice to help navigate social, professional, and relationship issues; and inspiring personal stories from people just like you. Explore the resources here and be sure to subscribe to our newsletter to be alerted to new additions. Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

What are pancreatic islets? Pancreatic islets, also called islets of Langerhans, are tiny clusters of cells scattered throughout the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ about the size of a hand located behind the lower part of the stomach. Pancreatic islets contain several types of cells, including beta cells, that produce the hormone insulin. The pancreas also makes enzymes that help the body digest and use food. When the level of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, rises after a meal, the pancreas responds by releasing insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin helps cells throughout the body absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy. Diabetes develops when the pancreas does not make enough insulin, the body's cells do not use insulin effectively, or both. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by cells in the body. In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas no longer make insulin because the body's immune system has attacked and destroyed them. The immune system protects people from infection by identifying and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other potentially harmful foreign substances. A person who has type 1 diabetes must take insulin daily to live. Type 2 diabetes usually begins with a condition called insulin resistance, in which the body has trouble using insulin effectively. Over time, insulin production declines as well, so many people with type 2 diabetes eventually need to take insulin. What is pancreatic islet transplantation? The two types of pancreatic islet transplantation are allo-transplantation auto-transplantation Pancreatic islet allo-transplantation is a procedure in which islets from the pancreas of a deceased organ donor are purified, processed, and transferred into another person. Pancreati Continue reading >>

No More Insulin Shots, Thanks To A New Type Of Islet-cell Transplant

No More Insulin Shots, Thanks To A New Type Of Islet-cell Transplant

With commentary by Camillo Ricordi, M.D., director of the Diabetes Research Institute and a Stacy Joy Goodman Professor of Surgery, Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Miami Miller School Decades after her own pancreas stopped producing insulin, a Texas woman with tough-to-control type 1 diabetes no longer needs daily insulin shots thanks to a new transplant procedure developed at the Diabetes Research Institute (DRI) at UHealth — University of Miami Health System. The process implants insulin-making islet cells onto a layer of fat in the recipient’s abdomen, along with a sticky gel that helps hold the cells in place. Wendy Peacock, 43, from San Antonio, underwent the transplant at Jackson Memorial Hospital in mid-August. In early September, a few short weeks after receiving the cells, researchers announced that the donated cells were working like a natural pancreas – sensing Peacock’s blood sugar levels and pumping out enough blood-sugar controlling insulin, at the right times, so that she no longer needed insulin injections. “The cells starting working right away,” says Camillo Ricordi, M.D., director of the DRI and a Stacy Joy Goodman Professor of Surgery, Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Miami Miller School. Dr. Ricordi also serves as director of the DRI's Cell Transplant Program. “We continued giving her insulin, in smaller and smaller doses, just to avoid stressing her new cells for several weeks. We’ve never seen this level of functioning from transplanted islet cells before. It’s very exciting.” It’s also early days for the innovative procedure, which Dr. Ricordi say Continue reading >>

Islet Β Cell Failure In Type 2 Diabetes

Islet Β Cell Failure In Type 2 Diabetes

Go to: Introduction Modern lifestyle, with abundant nutrient supply and reduced physical activity, has resulted in dramatic increases in the rates of obesity-associated disease conditions, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) (1). It was estimated that approximately 150 million people worldwide had T2D in the year 2000, with the prediction that this number could double to 300 million by 2025 (1). Numerous studies show that insulin resistance precedes the development of hyperglycemia in subjects that eventually develop T2D (2, S1). However, it is increasingly being realized that T2D only develops in insulin-resistant subjects with the onset of β cell dysfunction (3–6, S2). The normal pancreatic β cell response to a chronic fuel surfeit and obesity-associated insulin resistance is compensatory insulin hypersecretion in order to maintain normoglycemia. T2D only develops in subjects that are unable to sustain the β cell compensatory response. Longitudinal studies of subjects that develop T2D show a rise in insulin levels in the normoglycemic and prediabetes phases that keep glycemia near normal despite the insulin resistance (β cell compensation), followed by a decline when fasting glycemia surpasses the upper limit of normal of 5.5 mM (β cell failure) (5) (Figure 1). A longitudinal study in Pima Indians showed that β cell dysfunction was the major determinant of progression from normoglycemia to diabetes (7). Furthermore, the natural history of T2D entails progressive deterioration in β cell function (5), associated with loss of β cell mass due to apoptosis (8). Many affected persons that initially have adequate control of their disease with lifestyle changes alone eventually require insulin therapy in the later stage of the disease (Figure 1). Less certain is the tim Continue reading >>

Islet Cell Transplants

Islet Cell Transplants

Tweet Many people with diabetes already know about the importance of islet cells, and how important these pancreatic cells are in determining whether a person is diagnosed with diabetes and what type of diabetes they have. Islets are cell groups within the pancreas which are comprised of beta cells - the cells that make insulin, the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. Recent advances in medical science have allowed islet transplantation – replacement of destroyed beta cells using cells harvested from donors. Islet cells and diabetes Amongst people with type 1 diabetes, pancreatic beta cells are destroyed. This means that regular insulin delivery (via injections or an insulin pump) is the only way to stay healthy. For some people with type 1 diabetes, it is very difficult to achieve and maintain stable blood sugar levels. Islet cell transplants vs pancreas transplants Islet transplants are a safer option than pancreas transplants. Islet transplantation is safer because if the body rejects the transplant, it is better for the body to reject a part of the organ, the islet cells, than the entire organ, the pancreas, as the pancreas performs more functions than just insulin production. A further reason for why islet cell transplantation is safer is that it is a less critical operation to insert islet cells than it is transplant a complete pancreas. Islet cells that the pancreas has destroyed are replaced using cells from donor pancreases. How do islet cell transplants work? Usually, transplant patients are given islet cells from as many as three donor pancreases. Just like healthy pancreatic beta cells, the donor cells produce insulin in a normal way. This can help to achieve blood glucose stability and lower the amount of insulin required. Furthermore, in some ca Continue reading >>

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