The Impact Of Thiamine Treatment In The Diabetes Mellitus
The Impact of Thiamine Treatment in the Diabetes Mellitus We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. The Impact of Thiamine Treatment in the Diabetes Mellitus Khanh vinh quoc Luong and Lan Thi Hoang Nguyen Thiamine acts as a coenzyme for transketolase (Tk) and for the pyruvate dehydrogenase and -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes, enzymes which play a fundamental role for intracellular glucose metabolism. The relationship between thiamine and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported in the literature. Thiamine levels and thiamine-dependent enzyme activities have been reduced in DM. Genetic studies provide opportunity to link the relationship between thiamine and DM (such as Tk, SLC19A2 gene, transcription factor Sp1, -1-antitrypsin, and p53). Thiamine and its derivatives have been demonstrated to prevent the activation of the biochemical pathways (increased flux through the polyol pathway, formation of advanced glycation end-products, activation of protein kinase C, and increased flux through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway) induced by hyperglycemia in DM.Thiamine definitively has a role in the diabetic endothelial vascular diseases (micro and macroangiopathy), lipid profile, retinopathy, nephropathy, cardiopathy, and neuropathy. Keywords: Thiamine, Diabetes Mellitus, Vitamin B1 Diabetes mellitus (DM) has emerged as a major health problem throughout the world. The prevalence of DM is increasing rapidly in all age gro Continue reading >>
Vitamin B1 | Kidney Disease | Life Extension
Clinical trial of vitamin B1 helps reverse early kidney disease in diabetics A report published online on December 5, 2008 in the journal Diabetologia revealed the finding of researchers at the University of Warwick in England that high doses of the B vitamin thiamin can reverse one of the signs of early kidney disease in diabetic patients. Diabetes greatly increases the risk of kidney disease, which is detected in its early stage by testing for albumin in the urine. A high excretion rate of albumin (microalbuminuria) is indicative of diabetic nephropathy, which progressively worsens over the years. In earlier research conducted at the University of Warwick, it was shown that individuals with type 2 diabetes are often deficient in vitamin B1. The vitamin may be needed to prevent a range of vascular problems that occur in the disease. Naila Rabbani and Professor Paul J Thornalley of Warwick Medical School, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Punjab in Pakistan randomized 40 type 2 diabetics with microalbuminuria to receive three 100 milligram capsules of thiamine per day or a placebo for three months, followed by a two month washout period during which no treatment was administered. Urinary albumin excretion and other markers of kidney and vascular dysfunction were evaluated at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Plasma thiamin levels were also measured. Thiamin levels were found to be abnormally low among the participants at the beginning of the trial. Levels rose dramatically following treatment with the vitamin, and returned to baseline levels during the washout period. By the end of the three month treatment period, the researchers observed a 41 percent average decrease in albumin excretion among patients who received vitamin B1. Thirty Continue reading >>
Are Diabetic Complications Due To Vitamin B1 (thiamine) Deficiency?
Are Diabetic Complications Due To Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Deficiency? One of the worst things about having diabetes is the worry of the complications that it brings, including nerve damage, kidney and eye problems, and heart failure. We are told that these are the inevitable result of not keeping blood sugar levels within strict limits. But is this really true? Pharmacist Dr Stuart Lindsey is a type 2 diabetes sufferer who believes that many of the complications of diabetes are down to vitamin deficiencies caused by the disease and that their symptoms can be better helped by simple vitamin supplements than by drugs. His findings have just been published in the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. Dr Lindsey was a high street pharmacist for fifteen years, during which time he saw many people with diabetes getting onto what he calls the sugar-med treadmill. After prolonged treatment with their diabetic medications, the health of these patients did not improve. This disturbed him. Then, pain in his feet led to his being given a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes himself, which prompted him to take a hard look at conventional assumptions and treatment. High levels of sugar in the blood are damaging and diabetes drugs aim to correct them by driving more sugar into the cells. But exactly what damage does high blood sugar do? It appears that one of its effects is to stimulate the kidneys to excrete vitamin B1 (thiamine) at a much higher rate than normal, leading to an acute deficiency of this vitamin. The breakthrough research that never made the news In 2005, researcher Paul Thornalley, at the University of Essex, wrote a paper showing that many diabetic symptoms and complications may be due to a deficiency of thiamine. Interestingly, one of the symptoms of beriberi, the classic thia Continue reading >>
Is It Safe To Take Supplements If You Have Diabetes?
You will find supplements for anything and everything these days. Even when you do not suffer from an ailment, supplements are suggested to keep you healthy and ailment-free. According to CDC, use of supplements is common among US adult population – over 50% adults used supplements during 2003-2006, with multivitamins/multiminerals being the most commonly used. So when you are a diabetic, especially if you have prediabetes and type-2 diabetes, you may find yourself confronting a large number of options for supplements that claim to support, reduce and even cure your diabetes. Diabetes is quite a frustrating disorder and you may find yourself tempted to try out these supplements one after another. But is it really safe to take supplements when you are a diabetic? Let us find out. But before that you need to understand what exactly supplements are. Defining Supplements As the name suggests, a supplement is anything that adds on to something. A dietary supplement is therefore something that one takes in addition to one’s diet to get proper nutrition. US Congress in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act defines dietary supplements as having the following characteristics: It is a product that is intended to supplement the diet; It contains one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins, minerals, herbs and other botanicals, amino acids, and other substances) or their constituents; It is intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid; It is not represented for use as a conventional food or as sole item of a mean or a diet; and, It is labeled on the front panel as being a dietary supplement. Now let us look at some general benefits and risks of taking supplements. We will discuss these in context of diabetes later in the article. Benefit Continue reading >>
Thiamin (vitamin B1) Deficiency In Diabetics
What is thiamin? Thiamin (or thiamine) is one of the water-soluble B vitamins. It is also known as vitamin B1. What does thiamin do? The body needs thiamin to convert carbohydrates into glucose, the main source of energy in the body. As thiamin is an essential co-factor in carbohydrate metabolism, low levels are thought to have an impact on glucose control in the body. What foods contain thiamin? Vegetables containing thiamin include broccoli, onions, green beans, carrots, kale, and tomatoes. More nutrient-rich and ranking as very good sources of vitamin B1 are green peas, Brussels sprouts, spinach, cabbage, aubergine and romaine lettuce. Thiamin deficiency in diabetics - the research Thiamin levels are lower in diabetics in part because the elevated blood sugar causes increased thiamin excretion by the kidney at a rate twenty-five times higher than normal. This leads to an acute deficiency of thiamin - a conditional also known as beri-beri. In diabetes the small blood vessels in the body can become damaged. When the blood vessels that supply blood to the kidneys are involved, the kidneys stop working correctly and important proteins, such as albumin, are lost from the blood into the urine. In 2007 researchers from the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Essex, UK, lead by P. J. Thornalley recruited 26 Type 1 diabetics and 48 Type 2 diabetics and 20 healthy volunteers to compare against. The study found that compared to the controls, Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics had, respectively, 76% and 75% lower blood-plasma thiamin levels. Diabetics excrete thiamin much faster Furthermore, Thornalley examined how the body processes thiamin and found that compared to the controls, Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics excreted thiamin through the urine 24 times faster and 16 Continue reading >>
What Is Vitamin B1 B6 And B12 Good For?
Thiamine Essential For Diabetics | Diabetic Connect
Almost 30 million people in the United States suffer from diabetes, a chronic condition that affects the entire body and can lead to heart and nerve damage (neuropathy). One of the best ways to manage diabetes and prevent complications is to keep your blood sugar within a healthy range and eat a balanced diet full of vitamins and minerals. And research shows that getting enough of one vitamin in particular, B1, or thiamine, may help prevent diabetic neuropathy. The body uses thiamine to break down sugars that you consume, turn carbohydrates into energy, and aid in nervous system functions. In many populations, malnutrition is a primary reason for severe thiamine deficiency, which may cause serious neurological and muscular problems. For people with diabetes, the risk of thiamine deficiency increases because your body does not always absorb this vitamin properly, and it may be excreted in your urine. Without enough thiamine, you can experience pain, prickly sensations, nerve deadening, and other symptoms related to nerve damage. Studies have shown that thiamine, consumed through the diet or in supplement form, plays a role in vascular (relating to the nerves in your arms and legs) health, eye health, and kidney health. And some of the latest research has focused on using thiamine therapy as a means of preventing and treating early-stage diabetic neuropathy. In recent clinical trials, experts have found that thiamine supplements can prevent the development of early-stage nephropathy (kidney disease) in people with type 2 diabetes. As a treatment for general peripheral neuropathy, thiamine therapy helped reverse diuresis (increased urine flow) and glucosuria (excretion of glucose into the urine), and it also helped normalize cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Experts re Continue reading >>
The Potential Role Of Thiamine (vitamin B1) In Diabetic Complications.
1. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2005 Aug;1(3):287-98. The potential role of thiamine (vitamin B1) in diabetic complications. (1)Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Central Campus, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, United Kingdom. [email protected] Accumulation of triosephosphates arising from high cytosolic glucoseconcentrations in hyperglycemia is one likely or potential trigger forbiochemical dysfunction leading to the development of diabetic complications.This may be prevented by disposal of excess triosephosphates via the reductivepentosephosphate pathway. This pathway is impaired in experimental and clinicaldiabetes by mild thiamine deficiency. The expression and activity of thethiamine-dependent enzyme, transketolase--the pacemaking enzyme of the reductive pentosephosphate pathway, is consequently decreased. Correction of thiaminedeficiency in experimental diabetes by high dose therapy with thiamine and thethiamine monophosphate prodrug, Benfotiamine, restores disposal oftriosephosphates by the reductive pentosephosphate pathway in hyperglycemia. Thisprevented multiple mechanisms of biochemical dysfunction: activation of proteinkinase C, activation of the hexosamine pathway, increased glycation and oxidativestress. Consequently, the development of incipient diabetic nephropathy,neuropathy and retinopathy were prevented. Both thiamine and Benfotiamineproduced other remarkable effects in experimental diabetes: marked reversals ofincreased diuresis and glucosuria without change in glycemic status. High dosethiamine also corrected dyslipidemia in experimental diabetes--normalizingcholesterol and triglycerides. Dysfunction of beta-cells and impaired glucosetolerance in thiamine deficiency and suggestion of a link of impaired glucosetolerance with die Continue reading >>
Best Vitamins For Diabetics
Eating a varied diet rich in natural sources of vitamins is a good idea for diabetics. Nutritional support is critical for diabetics because diabetes tends to drain nutrients. When levels of glucose are high in the blood, the body tries to ‘wash’ the excess sugar out. This is why diabetics need to use the washroom frequently. Unfortunately, diabetics also lose nutrients via their urine. Research studies show that diabetics are repeatedly found to be deficient in important water-soluble vitamins and minerals. What’s more, the loss of these vitamins worsens the body’s ability to manage blood sugar, creating a vicious cycle. Combining a healthy diabetes diet plan and a daily exercise routine with the best vitamin supplements for diabetics goes a long way in achieving stable blood sugar levels. What Vitamins Are Diabetics Deficient In? The term vitamin is short for “Vital Amino Acid”. This means that these are vital for the proper functioning of hundreds of chemical processes in the body which the body cannot manage by itself. Proper blood sugar control is one such function for which vitamins are critical. There are 13 essential vitamins that the human body requires and they must be obtained from an external source — through food and/or supplements. Diabetics need two kinds of vitamins: Water Soluble – Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, Biotin, and Folate are water-soluble and cannot be stored in the body for longer periods of time. Diabetics are often deficient in these vitamins since they pass greater amounts of urine daily. As their body tries to get rid of extra sugar, diabetics lose more water-soluble vitamins than most others. That’s why diabetics need to to get these vitamins daily in doses larger than what normal people need. Luckily, you can get all Continue reading >>
Gut Bacteria Changes In Type 1 Diabetes Causes Vitamin B1 Deficiency
Researchers in a recent study found that type 1 diabetes affects the way gut bacteria act and this can result in Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiencies which can cause complications often seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Not only did researchers find that bacteria in the gut behaves differently when type 1 diabetes occurs but it’s effects of lower Vitamin B1 production may also be used as an early diagnostic tool for type 1 diabetes. The researchers in the study were surprised to find that there were no major differences in the species of bacteria found in the gut of patients with type 1 diabetes and those without type 1 diabetes. They did however, discover that the bacteria in the gut of type 1 patients did not act typically. The gut bacteria in those with type 1 diabetes created a deficiency of Vitamin B1 which can increase a type 1 diabetic’s risk of neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The Mayo Clinic states that “Severe thiamine deficiency may lead to serious complications involving the nervous system, brain, muscles, heart, and stomach and intestines.” Learning From Type 1 Diabetes Gut Bacteria A press release from the University of Luxembourg explained that researchers conducted a study called the MUST study or Diabetes multiplex family study which focused on people who had type 1 diabetes for several years and who had provided stool samples. Dr. Anna Heinz-Buschart, the study lead author said, “We studied the bacteria in the stool samples from these people, and “We also analysed stool samples from healthy close relatives of the patients with diabetes.” She says they found out that between those with and without diabetes, “there are clear differences in what the bacteria do.” When type 1 diabetes is present, gut bacteria change to adapt to Continue reading >>
Effects Of Vitamin B1 In Type 1 Diabetic Patients
You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Effects of Vitamin B1 in Type 1 Diabetic Patients The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00117026 Information provided by (Responsible Party): Kristian F. Hanssen, Oslo University Hospital Study Description Study Design Arms and Interventions Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information The purpose of this study is to determine whether benfotiamine supplementation can reduce markers of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetic patients. Despite intensive strategies designed to achieve good metabolic control, diabetic patients are still at a markedly increased risk of eye and kidney disease, nerve damage, limb amputation, stroke and myocardial infarction as a result of long-term hyperglycemia. It has recently been shown that supplementation with lipid soluble vitamin B1 (benfotiamine) in diabetic rats could effectively block three major biochemical pathways of hyperglycemic damage. It has also been shown that supplementation prevented the development of experimental diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, without changes in glycemic control. However, the applicability of the above findings to humans is unknown, and the diabetic late complications in experimental animals do not in every aspect mirror the human diabetic complications. This project will allow us to evaluate the potential of benfotiamine to reduce or prevent the further development of microvascular disease in type 1 diabetics. Continue reading >>
Influence Of Thiamine On Blood Sugar Levels In Diabetic Patients
In the past few years there has been considerable interest in the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and vitamin B1. As Williams and Spies1 pointed out in their recent monograph: "There is convincing evidence of frequent disturbances of glycogen storage and blood sugar in B1 avitaminosis. Further indications of this are found in clinical experience. A hyperglycemia and glycosuria in depancreatized dogs which does not respond to insulin but is cured by thiamin plus riboflavin has been reported. The whole matter of vitamin B1 deficiency in relation to sugar disturbances requires further study, as the evidence of some association of the two is strong but still obscure." Monauni2 claimed that thiamine is a two-sided regulator of blood sugar, raising the level when it is subnormal and lowering it when it is elevated. Several authors3 have shown that thiamine lowers the level of blood sugar and improves the sugar tolerance curve. Unfortunately, Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Thiamine: A Novel Treatment Opportunity
Diabetes and Thiamine: A Novel Treatment Opportunity Author: Chandler Marrs, PhD 8 Comments Share: Underlying all diabetic conditions is poor sugar control or hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can be due to a lack of insulin as in Type 1 diabetes or insulin resistance as in Type 2 diabetes. In either case, the corresponding diabetic complications that evolve over time in many diabetics, the cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, peripheral nerve and vascular damage, represent the effects of sustained hyperglycemia. Until recently, the mechanisms by which diabetic vascular damage developed eluded researchers. Although multiple, seemingly discrete biomarkers had been identified, no single, unifying mechanism was understood. It turns out that diabetics, both Type 1 and Type 2, are severely deficient in thiamine or vitamin B1 and that thiamine is required for glucose control at the cell level. Why is thiamine deficient in diabetics and how does thiamine manage glucose control? The answers to those questions highlight the importance of micronutrients in basic cellular functioning, particularly mitochondrial functioning , and the role of excessive sugar in disease . Thiamine (thiamin) or vitamin B1 is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. The body cannot synthesize thiamine by itself and so it must be obtained from diet. Thiamine is present in yeast, pork, fish, various nuts, peas, asparagus, squash and grains (unprocessed) and because of the severity of the illnesses that thiamine deficiency evokes, many processed foods have been fortified with thiamine. Nevertheless, thiamine deficiencies thought resolved by modern nutritional technologies, are emerging once again. Modern thiamine deficits appear to be caused by diets of highly processed, carbohydrate and fat laden food Continue reading >>
Vitamins And Minerals
Tweet Depending on the type of treatment regimen you use to control your diabetes, there are some vitamins and minerals that may be beneficial for your condition. Before adding any vitamins or adding dietary supplements to your daily diet, discuss these changes with your healthcare team and doctor to ensure they are safe alongside any prescribed medication you're on. ALA and GLA ALA (alpha-lipoic acid) is a versatile and potent antioxidant, and may function to help diabetic neuropathy and reduce pain from free-radical damage. Also, some studies link ALA to decreased insulin resistance and thus the control of blood sugar. GLA (gamma-lipoic acid) is another naturally occurring antioxidant that is present in evening primrose oil, borage oil and blackcurrant seed oil. GLA may improve the function of nerves damaged by diabetic neuropathy. Biotin Biotin works in synergy with insulin in the body, and independently increases the activity of the enzyme glucokinase. Glucokinase is responsible for the first step of glucose utilisation, and is therefore an essential component of normal bodily functioning. Glucokinase occurs only in the liver, and in sufferers from diabetes its concentration may be extremely low. Supplements of biotin may have a significant effect on glucose levels for both type 1 and type 2 diabetics. Carnitine (L-Carnitine, Acetyl L-Carnitine) Carnitine is required by the body in order to correctly use body fat in the production of energy. It is naturally occurring and derives from hydrophilic amino acids. Diabetics who try carnitine generally respond well, and high levels of fat in the bloodstream (cholesterol and triglycerides) may fall fast. Carnitine helps to break down fatty acids in the body and binds acyl residues. For these reasons, it may be useful to pre Continue reading >>
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Unique Form Of Vitamin B6 Protects Against Complications Related To Diabetes And Aging
Every second, a destructive process called glycation occurs throughout our bodies. Glycation occurs when sugars react with the body’s proteins, resulting in the formation of non-functioning glycation end products. While glycation is a normal consequence of aging, it is far from desirable. Cataracts that blur vision in the eye lens are an example of glycation reactions. More ominous, glycation is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and kidney failure. Glycation end products have been isolated from Alzheimer’s lesions in the brain. Collagen accounts for about a third of our total body proteins. Glycation causes the collagen in our skin and tissues throughout our bodies to cross-link, leading to unsightly characteristics of aging. When meat is cooked, rapid glycation (or “browning”) reactions occur as proteins combine with the sugars present. This same glycation process also happens at a slower rate to our living proteins! The alarming phenomenon of our aging body slowly being cooked to death has motivated scientists to develop ways to block pathological glycation reactions. Life Extension members gained access to the first validated anti-glycation nutrient when high-dose carnosine became available. Additional protection against glycation was shown in response to benfotiamine, a fat-soluble form of vitamin B1. For over a decade, however, governmental regulatory issues blocked access to one of the most important anti-glycation agents...a unique form of vitamin B6 called pyridoxamine. You may wonder why supplementing with more than one anti-glycating agent is desirable. The answer is that there are many chemical processes involved in the formation of advanced glycation end products in the body. By blocking multiple chemical pathways involved in glycati Continue reading >>