Type 2 Diabetes
Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>
Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?
Just in case you need another reason to cut back on junk food, it now turns out that Alzheimer’s could well be a form of diet-induced diabetes. That’s the bad news. The good news is that laying off soda, doughnuts, processed meats and fries could allow you to keep your mind intact until your body fails you. We used to think there were two types of diabetes: the type you’re born with (Type 1) and the type you “get.” That’s called Type 2, and was called “adult onset” until it started ravaging kids. Type 2 is brought about by a combination of factors, including overeating, American-style. The idea that Alzheimer’s might be Type 3 diabetes has been around since 2005, but the connection between poor diet and Alzheimer’s is becoming more convincing, as summarized in a cover story in New Scientist entitled “Food for Thought: What You Eat May Be Killing Your Brain.” (The graphic — a chocolate brain with a huge piece missing — is creepy. But for the record: chocolate is not the enemy.) The studies  are increasingly persuasive, and unsurprising when you understand the role of insulin in the body. So, a brief lesson. We all need insulin: in non-diabetics, it’s released to help cells take in the blood sugar (glucose) they need for energy. But the cells can hold only so much; excess sugar is first stored as glycogen, and — when there’s enough of that — as fat. (Blood sugar doesn’t come only from sugar, but from carbohydrates of all kinds; easily digested carbohydrates flood the bloodstream with sugar.) Insulin not only keeps the blood vessels that supply the brain healthy, it also encourages the brain’s neurons to absorb glucose, and allows those neurons to change and become stronger. Low insulin levels in the brain mean reduced brain funct Continue reading >>
Faq On Type 4 Diabetes
What is type 4 diabetes? Salk scientists use this to describe age-related insulin resistance that occurs in lean, elderly people. While type 1 diabetes is a result of the immune system destroying insulin-producing cells and type 2 diabetes is caused by diet and obesity, type 4 diabetes is associated with older age, rather than weight gain. Type 3 diabetes is suggested for a type of insulin resistance that results in symptoms mimicking Alzheimer’s disease. What do we know about type 4 diabetes? The Salk Institute labs of Ronald Evans and Ye Zheng discovered that diabetes in aged, lean mice has a different cellular cause than Type 2 diabetes, which results from weight gain. The mice with type 4 diabetes had abnormally high levels of immune cells called T regulatory cells (Tregs) inside their fat tissue. Mice with type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, had abnormally low levels of Tregs within the tissue, despite having more fat tissue. Therapeutic intervention that blocks Treg cells from accumulating in the fat reverses age-associated type 4 diabetes. However, this kind of therapy does not prevent type 2 diabetes insulin resistance. The researchers now want to see if the same process will help humans with this type of diabetes. How can I sign up for a clinical trial on this work? The Salk Institute does not conduct human trials, but we do partner with a variety of research institutes and hospitals to test research. To find information on the current trial related to this work, visit: www.clinicaltrials.gov How can I donate to this work? To donate to the Salk Institute, please visit: To learn more about this research, please visit: Continue reading >>
Is Alzheimer's A Fourth Type Of Diabetes?
THURSDAY, Sept. 27, 2012 — People with diabetes have a higher risk of dementia. But could dementia actually be a type of diabetes? Some researchers say yes. The disease that affects millions of Americans — Alzheimer's — is actually "type 3" diabetes, not a separate condition, some say. In clinical practice today, there are three types of diabetes: type 1, which has no known cause or cure and is typically diagnosed in childhood; type 2, called the "lifestyle" diabetes, though it is also caused by ethnicity and family history; and gestational, which strikes pregnant women and in 90 percent of cases goes away after women give birth. But as food writer and health advocate Mark Bittman writes in a recent New York Times op-ed, the idea that Alzheimer's is actually just another form of diet-induced diabetes was introduced in 2005 by neuropathologist and professor at Brown Medical School, Suzanne de la Monte, MD, MPH. In her research, de la Monte demonstrated that levels of insulin and its receptors diminish significantly in the brain during early Alzheimer's — and this trend continues as the disease progresses. "And many of the unexplained features of Alzheimer's, such as cell death and tangles in the brain, appear to be linked to abnormalities in insulin signaling. This demonstrates that the disease is most likely a neuroendocrine disorder, or another type of diabetes," she wrote in a press release when the study was published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. The "why" makes sense once you know how insulin works. Insulin is how your body regulates blood sugar — it prompts cells to pick up sugar from your blood and use that sugar as energy. When you eat a high-fat, high-sugar diet (as many Americans do), the cells are overwhelmed by all the sugar and stop react Continue reading >>
New Type Of Diabetes Caused By Old Age May Be Treatable
I’m going to tell you a secret: I love sugar. I love it so much that as a little kid my mom used to tell me scary stories about how my teeth would fall out and that I might get diabetes one day if I ate too many sweets. Thankfully, none of these things happened. I have a full set of teeth (and they’re real), my blood sugar level is normal, and I’ve become one with the term “everything in moderation”. I am not out of the woods, however: a newly discovered type of diabetes could strike in a few decades. A research team has found the cause of a type of diabetes that occurs because of old age, and a potential cure, at least in mice. Diabetes comes in different flavors People who suffer from diabetes (which is almost 30 million Americans) lack the ability to regulate the amount of sugar in their blood. The pancreas is the organ that regulates blood sugar by producing a hormone called insulin. If blood has a high sugar level, the pancreas releases insulin, which helps muscle, liver, and fat cells to absorb the excess sugar until the levels in the blood are back to normal. There are two main forms of diabetes, type 1 and 2, both of which cause hyperglycemia or high blood sugar. Type 1 is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system attacks and kills the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. As a result, these type 1 diabetics aren’t able to produce insulin and endure a lifetime of daily insulin shots to manage their condition. Type 2 diabetes is the more common form of the disease and occurs when the body’s cells become unresponsive, or resistant, to insulin and stop absorbing sugar from the bloodstream. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known although genetic factors are sure to be involved. Type 2 diabetes can be caused by a combination of factors includ Continue reading >>
How Many Types Of Diabetes Are There?
This is a question that we get asked regularly. If we asked this question to the general population twenty years ago, a majority probably wouldn’t have any idea. But today, unfortunately, so many people have diabetes that everyone seems to at least have heard of type 1 and type 2. And—due to the rising rate of obesity in pregnant women—the public is becoming much more familiar with gestational diabetes. However, when you get to the details of this complex disease, things get less and less clear cut—not only how many types of diabetes there are, but also how they’re characterized. For example, type 1 is an autoimmune disease, and people require insulin at diagnosis. Usually the diagnosis is in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood, but not always (people can be diagnosed with type 1 at any age). Type 2 isn’t autoimmune, and it may take years before a person requires insulin, if at all—and patients are usually older and often overweight, but again this is a generality, particularly as the number of people who are obese grows and gets younger. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy, and blood glucose returns to normal after delivery, but often it doesn’t. In addition, researchers have discovered another category of diabetes called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Think of LADA as a slowly progressing version of type 1 with some of the characteristics of type 2. In fact, some people call it type 1.5. People with LADA have antibodies to the disease like those with type 1 but they don’t need insulin right away. Their blood glucose can be controlled on lifestyle or oral agents for months or sometimes years. There’s more. Type 1, 2, gestational diabetes and LADA are polygenic—this means that it takes the involvement of many genes to c Continue reading >>
Diabetes: Types And Treatment
Diabetes is a health condition in which normal fasting blood sugar levels are too high because the food a person eats is not being broken down and used in a normal manner in the body. As you may know, the foods you eat are broken down into a simple sugar called glucose in your body. Normally, this glucose is used for energy in your cells. In response to a meal and a rise in blood glucose, your pancreas secretes a hormone called insulin. Insulin acts to move the glucose from your blood stream into the cells where it can be utilized as an energy source. A diabetic diagnosis happens when your doctor measures your fasting blood sugar in a blood test, and finds that your blood sugar is high. This high blood sugar happens for one of two reasons: Either insulin is not being secreted, or Your body can't utilize it properly, a condition called insulin resistance. The bottom line is that the action of insulin is key to the diabetic condition. Mainstream medicine identifies the well known Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic conditions, but recent scientific research has also identified two other types of diabetic conditions: Type 3 and Type 4. All are intimately tied to insulin and its effects (or lack of) within the individual body systems. The four types of diabetic conditions are discussed below: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the cells that secrete insulin in the pancreas have been damaged or destroyed. The result is that the body is unable to make insulin, and without insulin, the body cannot move glucose from the bloodstream into the cells. As a result, the sugar levels in the blood become very high, and this high blood sugar damages the body systems. If not treated by insulin injections, type 1 diabetics can develop serious health problems such as blindness, kidne Continue reading >>
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New Type 4 Diabetes Not Linked To Obesity
Original article written by Bradley J. Fikes for The San Diego Union Tribune on November 18, 2015. Click here to read the original article. A new type of diabetes that’s not associated with insulin deficiency or obesity has been discovered — in mice. In a study published Wednesday, researchers led by Salk Institute scientists found that in a mouse model of the disease regarded as predictive of human diabetes, some develop an unusual type that affects old, lean mice. This disease is caused by overactivity of a certain kind of immune system cell. The researchers call this new form Type 4 diabetes. The study was published in the journal Nature. Go to j.mp/type4diabetes for the study. If the study is confirmed in people — a big if — the public health implications would be profound. Diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney and heart disease, and poor blood circulation that can lead to amputation. Diabetes is usually associated with obesity, and a form that is not may escape detection because doctors aren’t looking for it. The study was led by the Salk’s Ronald Evans and Ye Zheng. Evans said it’s possible that millions of Americans have this type of diabetes. “Oftentimes people think that if they’re lean, they’re protected from diabetes, and most physicians would think that,” Evans said. The researchers envision a potential treatment by developing an antibody drug to reduce levels of these overactive immune cells. That will take at least a few years, Evans said. Evans estimates that about 20 percent of diabetics over 65 have this newly identified version, and may not be getting the proper care. More than 9.4 million diabetic Americans are over 65 as of 2012, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation. And that number doesn’t count those who haven’t been Continue reading >>
A Visual Guide To Type 1 Diabetes
What Is It? When you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas can’t make insulin. This vital hormone helps your body's cells convert sugar into energy. Without it, sugar builds up in your blood and can reach dangerous levels. To avoid life-threatening complications, people with type 1 diabetes must take insulin for their entire lives. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes tend to come on suddenly and may include: Feeling more thirsty than usual Dry mouth Fruity breath Peeing a lot As blood sugar levels remain high, type 1 diabetes often leads to: Weight loss Bigger appetite Lack of energy, drowsiness Many people with type 1 diabetes get uncomfortable skin conditions, including: Bacterial infections Fungal infections Itching, dry skin, poor circulation Girls with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have genital yeast infections. Babies can get candidiasis, a severe form of diaper rash caused by yeast. It can easily spread from the diaper area to the thighs and stomach. When blood sugar isn't controlled, type 1 diabetes can cause more serious symptoms, like: Numbness or tingling in the feet Blurred vision Low blood sugar (called hypoglycemia) Passing out If your blood sugar gets too high or too low, you could go into a diabetic coma. You may not have any warning signs before this happens. You will need to get emergency treatment. Without treatment, type 1 diabetes deprives your cells of the sugar they need for energy. Your body starts burning fat instead, which causes ketones to build up in the blood. These are acids that can poison your body. This plus other changes in your blood can trigger a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. This is an emergency that must be treated quickly. You may need to go to the ER. In type 1 diabetes, your immune system destroys cell Continue reading >>
Which Is Worse: Type 1 Or Type 2 Diabetes?
Late Update: To be completely clear, the goal of this post is to point out how unproductive this question is. It comes up from time to time in the forums, but only leads to division. We all, regardless of type, have plenty to share with each other. Now, on to the original article. On our Facebook page, we discussed the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In the process, some type 1s and type 2s both suggested that they had it worse. Before we look at this question, let’s review the difference between the two types. The Difference Between Type 1 & Type 2 Imagine insulin is the key that opens your cells and lets sugar enter. If sugar can’t enter, it builds up in the blood, makes you hungry and thirsty, and causes your body to turn to fat for energy. The symptoms of diabetes. In type 1, your pancreas stops making keys. You need to put keys in your body (i.e. inject insulin) or sugar can’t get into your cells. In type 2 diabetes, the keyhole is rusty. You have keys, but they have trouble opening the cells. You either need more keys or a way to make the lock work better. You can take a little rust off the lock by exercising, losing weight, or taking medication. This is an imperfect analogy, but hopefully it highlights the basic difference. So Which Type Is Worse? This is a maddening question. Every person is unique, and neither type is a cake walk! Type 1s need insulin to live – but type 2s can require enormous amounts of insulin as their resistance to it increases and their insulin production declines. Type 2s can walk around undiagnosed for 5 years and have complications when diagnosed. People with type 1 usually get diagnosed quickly and can take immediate action. But don’t type 1s live with diabetes for a longer period of time? Not always! Some type Continue reading >>
Diabetes: What's True And False?
en espaolLa diabetes: Qu es cierto y qu es falso? There's a lot of info and advice out there about diabetes, but some of it is wrong or bad. And following advice that's wrong could make people with diabetes really sick. Ask your doctor or a member of your diabetes health care team if you ever come across information that doesn't seem quite right or sounds too good to be true. Here's some stuff you might hear about diabetes and the facts about what's true and what's not. True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's because their bodies can't make insulin anymore. The insulin-making cells in the pancreas (say: PAN-kree-us) get destroyed, and it doesn't have anything to do with eating sugar. This isn't true for type 2 diabetes either, but there is a connection between type 2 diabetes and being overweight. With type 2 diabetes, the pancreas can still make insulin (say: IN-suh-lin), but the insulin doesn't work like it should. Eating too much sugar (or foods with sugar, like candy or regular soda) can cause weight gain, and if someone becomes overweight , it can lead to type 2 diabetes. True or False: Kids With Diabetes Can Never Eat Sweets False: Kids with diabetes can eat some sweets as part of a balanced, healthy diet. Like everyone else, a person with diabetes shouldn't eat too many sweets because they are high in calories and they don't have many vitamins and minerals. True or False: Kids With Diabetes Can Exercise True:Exercise has many benefits. It can help you get to a healthy weight, it's good for your heart and lungs, it can improve your mood, and it's great for your diabetes. Your diabetes health care team can help you and your parents come up with an exercise plan that's good for you. True or False: You Can't C Continue reading >>
Diabetes Mellitus is defined as the body's inability to properly convert sugar from food into energy. Signs and symptoms include: Elevated sugar in the blood Elevated sugar in the urine Frequent urination Excessive thirst Excessive hunger Extreme weight loss Weakness and fatigue Irritability Nausea and vomiting Many of these symptoms listed are so mild, they go unnoticed. Almost half of all Americans who have diabetes may not know it. Diabetes should not be taken lightly since complications may develop with the legs and feet, kidneys, heart, eyes, nerves, and blood flow. Kidney failure, gangrene and amputation, blindness or stroke may ultimately occur if left untreated. There are 4 different types of Diabetes: Type I Sometimes referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" or "IDDM" for short. This form of diabetes is the most serious. Onset of this disease usually develops during childhood, but young adults are susceptible as well. At this level of disease, the body stops making insulin or only produces very small amounts. Insulin is what the body needs in order to use food for energy. Since the body needs insulin in order to survive and control blood levels of sugar, those afflicted must inject insulin. Type II Called "non-insulin dependent mellitus" or NIDDM. This form of diabetes usually afflicts adults past 40 years of age but can occur at any age. With Type II diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin or cannot utilize the insulin it produces. Due to this, high blood levels of sugar can cause problems. Type II diabetes can be inherited, but usually to bring on the disease, another factor such as obesity must be present. This form of the disease usually affects overweight adults and conditions may be improved by weight loss and proper evaluated meal Continue reading >>
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Alzheimer's Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes–evidence Reviewed
Go to: Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) has characteristic histopathological, molecular, and biochemical abnormalities, including cell loss; abundant neurofibrillary tangles; dystrophic neurites; amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-β (APP-Aβ) deposits; increased activation of prodeath genes and signaling pathways; impaired energy metabolism; mitochondrial dysfunction; chronic oxidative stress; and DNA damage. Gaining a better understanding of AD pathogenesis will require a framework that mechanistically interlinks all these phenomena. Currently, there is a rapid growth in the literature pointing toward insulin deficiency and insulin resistance as mediators of AD-type neurodegeneration, but this surge of new information is riddled with conflicting and unresolved concepts regarding the potential contributions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, and obesity to AD pathogenesis. Herein, we review the evidence that (1) T2DM causes brain insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment, but its aggregate effects fall far short of mimicking AD; (2) extensive disturbances in brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling mechanisms represent early and progressive abnormalities and could account for the majority of molecular, biochemical, and histopathological lesions in AD; (3) experimental brain diabetes produced by intracerebral administration of streptozotocin shares many features with AD, including cognitive impairment and disturbances in acetylcholine homeostasis; and (4) experimental brain diabetes is treatable with insulin sensitizer agents, i.e., drugs currently used to treat T2DM. We conclude that the term “type 3 diabetes” accurately reflects the fact that AD represents a form of diabetes that selectively involves t Continue reading >>
What Is Type 3 Diabetes?
At first blush, it may be hard to imagine a connection between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia. But it’s real—and it’s so strong that some experts are now referring to it as type 3 diabetes or brain diabetes. By any name, it’s the progression from type 2 diabetes to Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia marked by memory deficits and a dramatic decline in cognitive function. While all people with diabetes have a 60 percent increased risk of developing any type of dementia, including Alzheimer’s, recent research suggests that women with type 2 diabetes have a 19 percent greater risk of a certain type, known as vascular dementia (which is caused by problems with blood supply to the brain) than men do. Overall, older adults with type 2 diabetes suffer from greater declines in working memory and executive functioning (a set of mental processes that involve planning, organization, controlling attention, and flexible thinking) than their peers do. Granted, not everyone who has type 2 diabetes will develop Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, or any other form of dementia, and there are many people who have Alzheimer’s or another form of dementia who don’t have diabetes, notes Gary Small, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at the UCLA Semel Institute and author of The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program. But the reality is, “these risk factors tend to add up: If you have diabetes, that doubles the risk of developing Alzheimer’s. If you have a first-degree relative—a parent or sibling, for example—with Alzheimer’s, that doubles your risk.” And if you have poorly controlled blood pressure, abdominal (a.k.a., central) obesity, or sleep apnea, your risk of developing dementia is increased even more. Surprisin Continue reading >>
Do You Know The 5 Types Of Diabetes?
(BlackDoctor.org) — What is diabetes? Essentially, it’s a disorder where your body has problems producing or effectively using insulin, which can, in turn, cause many other mild to severe health problems. There are several different causes of insulin problems – managing your diabetes will depend on which type you have. Type 1 Diabetes: Little To No Insulin With type 1 diabetes, which used to be called juvenile diabetes, your body does not produce insulin or produces very little. Type 1 diabetes is known as an autoimmune disease because it occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children and young adults and accounts for 5 to 10 percent of diabetes cases in the United States. Symptoms may include thirst, frequent urination, increased hunger, unexplained weight loss, blurry vision, and fatigue. People who have type 1 diabetes need to take insulin injections daily to make up for what their pancreas can’t produce. Type 2 Diabetes: Insulin Resistance Type 2 diabetes, which used to be called adult-onset diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90 to 95 percent of diabetes cases. While most people who develop type 2 diabetes are older, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children is on the rise. The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is largely unknown, but the disease tends to develop in people who are obese and physically inactive. People who have a family history of diabetes or a personal history of gestational diabetes are also at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, certain groups, particularly African Americans, have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes usually develop gradually, and are similar to Continue reading >>